Foundation Types

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Types of Foundation
The foundation is the base for the constructed building and as such is required to carry out several functions as follows:

0 The foundation should safely sustain and transmit to the ground the combined dead and imposed loads of the building without resulting in any settlement or other movement of the building or any adjoining works.

1 Foundations should be deep enough or be constructed in such a way as to avoid damage by the swelling, shrinkage or freezing of the subsoil.

2 The foundation should be capable of resisting attack by chemicals such as soluble salts or other deleterious materials present in the subsoil.
Choice of Foundation
The designer is required to choose the most appropriate type of foundation taking account of two main factors:

* The total dead and imposed loads of the building * Possibility of subsoil movement

The foundation design should take account of any subsoil movement caused by changes in the moisture content of the subsoil. These movements are normally changes in volume when the subsoil becomes either wet or dry and will normally occur near the surface of the soil . Similar volume changes can occur due to water freezing and expanding in a soil (this is called frost heave).

Note the average foundation loading for a two-storey domestic dwelling is normally between 30 and 50 kN per metre.

Foundation Types
The most common foundation types used in low-rise domestic and light industrial buildings are:

3 Traditional Strip 4 Deep Strip or Trench Fill 5 Raft 6 Pad 7 Piled
Strip Foundation
A traditional strip foundation is the most commonly used foundation for domestic low rise structures and consists of a ribbon or strip of concrete placed centrally under the walls of the building . Traditional strip foundations are normally 600 millimetres wide and a…...

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