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Financial Report

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mdmintu093
Words 5378
Pages 22
cÖ_g Aa¨vq

f‚wgKv t

mgvRweÁvb mvgvwRK weÁv‡bi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq wn‡m‡e mgv‡Ri Rxeb cÖbvjx m¤ú‡K© weÁvb wfwËK Ávb `vb K‡i| Avi mgv‡Ri mgm¨v m¤úwK©Z weÁvb wfwËK Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Z wM‡q Dbwesk kZvãx‡Z mgvRweÁv‡bi Acwinvh© welq wn‡m‡e mvgvwRK M‡elYvi D™¢e N‡U| mvgvwRK M‡elYv n‡jv mvgvwRK NUbvejx, AvPviY ev mgm¨v m¤^‡Ü cÖYvjx e× I hyw³wbô AbymÜvb Kiv| eZ©gvb mf¨Zvi AMÖMwZi mv‡_ mv‡_ Gi ¸iæZ¡I w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| c„w_exi wewfbœ DbœZ I Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki gZ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wek¦we`¨vjq ¸‡jv‡Z mvgvwRK NUbvejxi Dci M‡elYvi wkÿv †`Iqv n‡”Q| ZvB mgvRweÁvb wefv‡Mi 2q e‡l©i (m¤§vb) wkÿv_©x wn‡m‡e cvV¨m~Px AšÍf‚©³ GB M‡elbvi KvRwU m¤úv`b Gi `vwqZ¡ †hgb wPËvKl©K †Zgb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e‡j g‡b n‡q‡Q|

cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB gvbyl mgv‡R GK‡Î emevm K‡i Avm‡Q| Avgv‡`i GB mgv‡R wewfbœ m¤úª`v‡qi †jvK emevm Ki‡Q Zv‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU †kÖwY nj †e‡`| †e‡` m¤úª`vq g~jZ GKwU wQbœg~j m¤úª`vq| Avgv‡`i mgv‡R †e‡` m¤úª`vq GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© m¤úª`vq| GRb¨ GB wel‡q cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘Z Gi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv i‡q‡Q, G Kvi‡b G wel‡q cÖwZ‡e`bwU Avwg h‡_‡ó ¸iæ‡Z¡i m‡½ cÖ¯‘Z K‡iwQ| cÖwZ‡e`bwU hw` Kv‡iv `„wó AvKl©b K‡i Zvn‡jB Avgvi cÖ‡Póv mv_©K n‡e e‡j Avwg Avkv Kwi|

M‡elYvi welqe¯‘i wee„wZ I cÖZ¨q cwiwPwZ t

†e‡` t †e‡` nj GKwU m¤úª`vq| GwU GKwU g~jZ hvhvei m¤úª`vq| †e‡` m¤úª`vq wQbœg~j m¤úª`vq, Giv g~jZ mvc Gi †Ljvi gva¨‡g RxweKv wbe©vn K‡i|

m¤úª`vq t m¤úª`vq kãwU g~jZ GKwU we‡kl †kÖwY‡K †evSv‡Z e¨eüZ nq| Avgv‡`i mgv‡R emevmKvix wewfbœ †kÖwY †ckvi †jvK‡K Avjv`vfv‡e †`Lv‡bvi Rb¨ m¤úª`vq k‡ãi e¨envi Kiv nq|

M‡elYvi D‡Ïk¨ t

mgvRweÁv‡bi M‡elYvi weÁvb wfwËK AbymÜvb Acwinvh©| wbe©vwPZ wel‡qi Dci M‡elYv I AbymÜv‡bi gva¨‡g mwVK wm×v‡šÍ DcbxZ n‡Z n‡j cÖ_‡g M‡elYvi D‡Ïk¨ wbe©vPb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| Avgvi M‡elYvi welq nj Ò†e‡` m¤úª`v‡qi Rxeb cÖbvjxÓ D³ wel‡qi M‡elYv cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ wb‡¤œv³ D‡Ïk¨¸wj wba©viY Kiv nj t

( ‡e‡` m¤úª`vq m¤ú‡K© Rvbv
( ‡e‡` m¤úª`v‡qi g‡a¨ we`¨gvb ms¯‹…wZ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv
( ‡e‡` m¤úª`v‡qi wewfbœ mgm¨v I mgvav‡bi c_ m¤ú‡K© Rvbv

M‡elYvi cwiwa I GjvKv cwiwPwZ t

M‡elYvi cwiwa t Avgvi M‡elYvi GjvKv h‡kvi Gi emyw›`qv GjvKv| G MÖv‡g wewfbœ †ckvi †jv‡Ki emevm| Gi g‡a¨ †e‡` m¤úª`vq Ab¨Zg|

GjvKv cwiwPwZ t Avgvi M‡elYvi GjvKv h‡kvi †Rjvi emyw›`qv GjvKv| GB GjvKvwUi bvgKib m¤ú‡K© †Zgb wKQz Rvbv hvqwb| GwU kn‡ii GKUz `~‡i Aew¯’Z GKwU GjvKv|

D³ GjvKvq wewfbœ †kÖwY †ckvi †jvKRb emevm K‡i Gi g‡a¨ †e‡` m¤úª`vq Ab¨Zg| GLvbKvi RbmsL¨v cÖvq 50,000 (cÂvk nvRvi) Rb|

mvwnZ¨ ch©v‡jvPbv t

mvgvwRK M‡elYvi ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ cÖ‡qvM GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ch©vq n‡”Q mvwnZ¨ ch©v‡jvPbv| mvwnZ¨ ch©v‡jvPbv ej‡Z mswkøó M‡elYv †ÿ‡Îi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z M‡elYv cÎ cÖKvwkZ eB cy¯ÍK, Rvb©v‡j, mvgwqKv, cÎ-cwÎKv, wewfbœ bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` Aa¨vqb Ges ch©v‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g M‡elYv †ÿÎwU †Kvb †Kvb welq BwZg‡a¨ AbymÜvb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

Av‡jvP¨ M‡elYv †ÿ‡Î GKRb wkÿv_©x wnmv‡e Avgvi c‡ÿ we¯ÍvwiZ M‡elYv cÖwZ‡e`b Ges bw_cÎ we‡kølY Kivi my‡hvM wQj mxwgZ| Avwg MÖvgxb mgvR, ¯^v¯’¨ welqK wewfbœ †jL‡Ki eB, cwÎKv, mvgwqK c‡Îi mvnvh¨ wb‡qwQ| Z‡e Gi g‡a¨ Avwg †h mKj †jL‡Ki eB¸‡jvi mvnvh¨ †ewk wb‡qwQ Zvi g‡a¨ W: Lyikx` Avjg Gi ÒmgvR M‡elYv c×wZÓ Ges G.‡K bvRgyj Kwig Gi ÒmgvRweÁvb mgxÿvÓ Ab¨Zg|

wØZxq Aa¨vq

c×wZ t mvgvwRK M‡elYv †h‡nZz GKwU ˆeÁvwbK Kg©KvÛ †m‡nZz Aek¨B GUv weÁvb wbf©i nIqv DwPZ| M‡elYvq e¨eüZ A‡bK c×wZ i‡q‡Q| †hgb- mvgvwRK Rwic c×wZ, HwZnvwmK c×wZ, Zzjbvg~jK c×wZ, cÖZ¨ÿ AskMÖnY c×wZ, ch©‡eÿY c×wZ| GB M‡elYvq Avwg mvgvwRK Rwic c×wZi mvnvh¨ wb‡q M‡elYv Kvh© m¤úbœ K‡iwQ|

mvgvwRK Rwic c×wZ ej‡Z mvgvwRK Ae¯’v, mvgvwRK mgm¨v, Dbœqb g~jK Kg©KvÛ BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© M‡elYv †ÿÎ †_‡K mivmwi Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni gva¨‡g M‡elYv cwiPvjbv Kiv‡K †evSvq|

Chaponan e‡jb, The Social Survey is the systematic collection of fats about people living in a specific geographic cultural or administration area.

mvgvwRK Rwic c×wZ MÖn‡Yi c‡ÿ †ekwKQz hyw³ i‡q‡Q| h_v-

( e¨w³i KvQ †_‡K ¯^í Li‡P Z_¨ msMÖn Kiv m¤¢e
( wewfbœ cÖK…wZi Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni †KŠkj MÖn‡Yi my‡hvM _v‡K
( ‡h‡nZz e¨vcK msL¨K RbmsL¨vi Dci Rwic cwiPvjbv Kiv nq †m‡nZz mvgwMÖK m¤ú‡K© mvavibZ AwaK MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv jvf K‡i|
( M‡elYvq M‡elK‡K ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ARvbv mvgvwRK A_©‰bwZK mgm¨v m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb K‡i Ges
( Z_¨‡K hvPvB Kivi †ÿ‡Î Rwic GKwU Dc‡hvMx c×wZ wnmv‡e mycwiwPZ I Kvh©Kix|

Rwi‡ci cÖKvi‡f` t mvgvwRK Rwic 2 cÖKvi h_v-

( bgybv Rwic Ges ( ïgvwi Rwic

Gi g‡a¨ bgybv Rwic A‡cÿvK…Z ¯^í Li‡P m¤úbœ Kiv m¤¢e| GRb¨ Avwg bgybv Rwic‡K wbe©vPb K‡iwQ|

mvÿvrKvi t

mvÿvrKvi n‡”Q `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³i g‡a¨ D‡Ïk¨g~jK K‡_vcK_b| mvgvwRK M‡elYv Z_v mvgvwRK Rwic Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni m‡e©vrK…ó Ges mycwiwPZ †KŠkj n‡”Q mvÿvrKvi|

Bingham Ges B.V More ms‡ÿ‡c M‡elYvi D‡Ïk¨ e¨eüZ mvÿvi‡K D‡Ïk¨mn K‡_vcK_b wnmv‡e wPwýZ K‡i‡Q|

ÒmvÿvrKvi e¯‘Z mvgvwRK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU c×wZÓ

Z‡e AwaKvsk mvgvwRK weÁvbxMb g‡b K‡ib †h, mvÿvrKvi‡K ev¯Íe cÖK…wZ wbiƒcb Kiv m¤¢e bq| GiRb¨ mvÿvrKv‡ii †ekwKQz ˆewkó¨ Zz‡j aiv GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRbxq| h_v-

( †gŠwjKfv‡e cÖkœ wRÁvmv Ges DËi cÖ`vb Kiv nq
( mvÿvrKvi MÖnYKvix Ges mvÿvrKvi cÖ`vbKvixi ga¨Kvi m¤úK© KvVv‡gvMZ Ges
( mvÿvrKvi cÖwµqvB e¨vcK m‡PZbZv we`¨gvb

†KŠkj t Avgiv wba©vwiZ M‡elYv c×wZ n‡”Q Rwic M‡elYv| G‡Z msM„wnZ Z‡_¨i †ÿ‡Î GKvwaK Z_¨ i‡q‡Q| †hgb- mvÿvrKvi Abym~Px ch©‡eÿY BZ¨vw`| Avwg M‡elYvi Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni †KŠkj wnmv‡e mvÿvrKvi Abym~Px wbe©vb K‡iwQ| mvÿvrKvi Abym~Px n‡”Q Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni D‡Ï‡k¨ wKQz msL¨K cÖkœgvjvi mgwó hv wjwLZ AvKv‡i M‡elK Zvi †Kvb cÖwZwbwa Z_¨ `vZvi wbKU Dc¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i| M‡elYvi cÖYxZ cÖkœgvjvwU KvVv‡gve× Ges AeKvVv‡gve× Dfq ai‡bi cÖkœgvjvi mgš^‡q MVb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

bgybvqb t bgybvqb GKwU Av`k© †KŠkj wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ| Rwic c×wZ‡K eZ©gv‡b e¨envi Ki‡Z mgMÖK Rwic Ges cwie‡Z© bgybv Rwic AwaK gvÎvq MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡q‡Q| bgybvi wfwˇZ G Rwic m¤úvw`Z nq e‡j G‡K bZzb Rwic ejv nq| †h cÖwµqvq ev †KŠkj cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g we¯Í…Z mgMÖK †_‡K bgybv (mgMÖ‡Ki GKK cÖwZwbwaZ¡kxj Ask) wbe©vPb Kiv nq| †mB †KŠkj ev cÖwµqv‡K bgybvqb Kiv nq| bgybvq‡bi g~jK_v nj bgybv ch©‡eÿ‡Yi ga¨ w`‡q mgMÖK m¤ú‡K© GKwU mwVK I ¯úó avibvi DbœwZ nIqv| bgybv n‡”Q †Kvb mgwói GKwU ÿz`ª Ask hvi mgMÖK †_‡K Pqb Kiv n‡q _v‡K|

Z…Zxq Aa¨vq

†e‡` m¤úª`vq m¤ú‡K© avibv t †gviv GK Nv‡U‡Z ivw›` evwo Av‡iK Nv‡U LvB, †gv‡`i my‡Li mxgv bvB, c‡_ Nv‡U Ny‡i †gviv mvc †Ljv †`LvB, †gv‡`i Ni evwo bvB|‡h hvhvei h~_Pvix gvbe‡Mvôx¸‡jv‡K evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ A‡j, we‡klZ Rjeûj-wejeûj-b`xeûj A‡j †`Lv hvq, Zv‡`iB cÖPwjZ bvg †e‡`| ‰e`¨ †_‡K †e‡` kãwUi D™¢e| mvaviYZ, AwaKvsk †e‡` cyiæl Ges bvix bvbv iKg SwoeywU Ges †UvUKv wPwKrmvi mv‡_ RwoZ e‡j G‡`i bvg n‡q‡Q †e‡` ev evB`v| GB m¤ú«`v‡qi †jv‡Kiv †gvU bqwU kvLvq wef³| G¸‡jv n‡jvt jvD‡qv, PvcvBjv, evwRKi, †eR, MvBb, †gjøQ, ev›`vBiv, gvj I mvcywoqv| †e‡`iv Avgv‡`i mgv‡Ri GZB cÖvwšÍK GKwU Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q †h Avgv‡`i RvZxq cwimsL¨v‡b ch©šÍ Zv‡`i †Kv‡bv ¸iæZ¡ †bB, Avgv‡`i RvZxq bxwZ-wba©viYx ‰eVK¸‡jv‡Z Zv‡`i K_v KL‡bvB D‡V Av‡m bv|

BwZnvm, HwZn¨ I ms¯‹„wZ t c„w_exe¨vcx inm¨gq GK`j gvbyl n‡jv wRcwm| Giv hvhve‡ii g‡Zv Ny‡i †eovq GLv‡b-ILv‡b| †`‡k †`‡k ev AÂj‡f‡` Zv‡`i G‡KK bvg, Avi †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ wewPÎme †ckv| 1427 mv‡ji w`‡K c¨vwim bMix‡Z nVvZ& nvwRi nq GK`j gvbyl| bi-bvix, wkïA™¢yZ Zv‡`i †Pnviv, A™¢yZ Zv‡`i K_vevZ©v, DrKwÉZ c¨vwim‡K Zviv Avk¦¯Í K‡i wjUj BwRÞ wn‡m‡e| c‡i BD‡iv‡ci bvbv kn‡i G‡`i †`Lv hvq| cwiPq †`q wjUj BwR‡Þi gvbyl wn‡m‡e| BD‡ivc ZLb GKev‡K¨ †g‡b †bq Giv BwR‡Þi gvbyl| I‡`i †cvkvK, I‡`i fvlv, I‡`i PvjPjb me BwRcwkqvb‡`i g‡ZvB e‡U| GB BwRcwkqvb †_‡K µ‡gB G‡`i bvg n‡q †Mj wRcwm| Avgv‡`i A‡ji wRcwmiv †e‡` bv‡gB cwiwPZ, †e‡` gv‡bI ågYkxj ev feNy‡i| b`xwbf©i evsjv‡`‡k †e‡`‡`i evnb ZvB n‡q I‡V †bŠKv| †bŠKvq msmvi Avevi †bŠKv wb‡q Ny‡i †eov‡bv †`k-‡`kvšÍ‡i|‡e‡`iv `vwe K‡i Zviv †gvMj Avg‡j 1638 mv‡j AvivKvb †_‡K G †`‡k G‡mwQ‡jv| G Rb¨B Zv‡`i K_vq wKQzUv AvivKvbx Uvb Av‡Q| Zviv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ hLb K_vevZ©v e‡j ZLb GB Uvb ¯úó eySv hvq| Avgv‡`i †e‡` m¤ú«`vq wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ mv‡¼wZK Ô‡Vi fvlvÕq K_v e‡j| ïay K_vB e‡j bv, GB fvlv‡Z wewfbœ †køvK-gš¿-msMx‡Zi D”PviYI Zv‡`i g‡a¨ cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i Rxe‡bi GKwU Acwinvh© A½ msMxZ| †e‡` ej‡ZB Avgv‡`i †`‡k mvc-mvcy‡o, mv‡ci wel bvgv‡bvi gš¿, mvc‡Ljv †`Lv‡bvi K_v P‡j Av‡m| Z‡e Avgv‡`i †`‡k mvcy‡o ev mv‡ci IuSv gv‡bB †e‡` bq| †e‡`-m¤ú«`vq ewnf©~Z A‡bK gvby‡li †ckv GLb GB GKB| GKv`k kZ‡K †mb Avg‡j ejøvj †mb wn›`y mgv‡Ri †h eY©wefvM K‡iwQ‡jb, Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Rj-APj k~`ª‡`i GKwU As‡ki †ckv IuSve„wË|‡e‡` ïay wkí&-mvwnZ¨-ms¯‹„wZ‡K wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ jvjb Ki‡Q bv, cvkvcvwk Zviv †h Avjv`v ‰ewP‡Î¨i aviK Ab¨Zg b„-‡Mvôx, mn‡RB Zv Aby‡gq| †e‡`iv Zv‡`i Rxeb‡K GK‡N‡q g‡b K‡ib bv| cÖK…wZi gv‡SB Giv Rxe‡bi ‰ewP‡Î¨i mÜvb K‡ib| Avi †e‡`‡`i GB mÜvbB Avgv‡`i †jvKmvwn‡Z¨i DcRxex Ask n‡q hyM hyM a‡i Av`„Z n‡q Avm‡Q AvR ch©šÍ|‡jvKmvwn‡Z¨i GK e„nZ& Ask Ô‡e‡` m¤ú«`vqÕ| Ô‡e‡` bvix I ms¯‹„wZÕ †`‡L †evSv hvq Zv‡`i ‰ewPΨgq Rxe‡b A‡bK wKQz mvsmvwiK Dcv`vb i‡q‡Q, hv Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q wkÿYxq n‡Z cv‡i| we‡kl K‡i †e‡` bvix‡`i K‡Vvi msMÖvg, mvnm, ggZ¡, fv‡jvevmv Ges †bZ…Z¡¸Yvewj|

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Avevm¯’j t mg‡qi cÖfv‡e cwieZ©‡bi †Qvuqv jvM‡jI evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ RvqMvq †Mvôxfy³ n‡q evm K‡i Giv| XvKvi mvfvi, gyÝxMÄ, mybvgMÄ, MvRxcy‡ii Rq‡`ecyi, PÆMÖv‡gi nvUnvRvix, wgimivB, wZbUzix, Kzwgjøvi †PŠÏMÖvg, Pvw›`bv, Gbv‡qZMÄ, †dbxi †mvbvMvRx, DËie‡½i wewfbœ RvqMvq Gme †e‡`i Avevm| Zv‡`i cvi¯úwiK †hvMv‡hvM GLbI wU‡K Av‡Q| mybvgM‡Äi †mvbvcy‡i evm K‡i †e‡` mgv‡Ri e„nËi GKwU Ask| Ave`yjøvncyi, gxiKvw`g, wPZjxq, gvKnvwU GjvKvq †e‡`‡`i Avw` evm wQ‡jv- GB me GjvKv †_‡KB m¤¢eZ Zviv fvUcvov, e³vicæi, AvwgbevRvi cÖf„wZ ¯’v‡b Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q|AvaywbK mf¨Zvi Pig DrK‡l©i ciI †e‡`‡`i Rxeb cÖevn Av‡Rv cðv`c`| mvgvwRK I bvMwiK AwaKvi †_‡K Zviv ewÂZ| †e‡` mgvR feNy‡i hvhvei Rxe‡bi wkK‡j Ave× n‡q `ywe©ln MwZavivi HwZn¨ wUwK‡q †i‡L‡Q| †mB Avw`Kvj †_‡KB G †e‡` mgvR †`‡ki ivRavbx wefvMxq kni †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †`‡ki cÖZ¨šÍ A‡j G‡`i wePiY| b`xgvZ…K evsjv‡`‡ki me b`x‡Z Qz‡U †eovq Iiv| b`x, Lv‡ji wKbvi †Nu‡l †Pv‡L c‡o †e‡`wb‡`i †bŠKvi eni| wVKvbvwenxb, AcwiwPZ, ARvbv, A‡Pbv I m¤ú~Y© AcwiwPZ Nv‡U G‡m †bŠKv †fovq| Avevi GKw`b †mLvb †_‡KI DavI| Gfv‡eB KvU‡Q I‡`i w`b, gvm, eQi I hyM| KvU‡Q I‡`i Rxe‡bi g~j¨evb gyn~Z©¸‡jv Ges Zv A‡bKUvB AwbwðZfv‡e|

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