Financial Development and Economic Growth in Malaysia

In: Business and Management

Submitted By giba
Words 3302
Pages 14
1.0 Pengenalan

Sistem kewangan merupakan satu sistem yang mengandungi institusi perbankan, pasaran kewangan, pengantara kewangan lain seperti dana persaraan dan syarikat insurans. Sebuah badan kawal besar, iaitu bank pusat yang menyelia dan mengawasi operasi pengantara kewangan ini. Ia merupakan satu sektor dalam ekonomi yang menggunakan sumber-sumber produktif untuk memudahkan pembentukan modal melalui peruntukan daripada pelbagai alat-alat kewangan, iaitu memenuhi pelbagai keperluan antara pemberi pinjaman dan peminjam. Maka, sistem kewangan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam mengerahkan(mobilizing), pengantara untuk simpanan(intermediating saving), dan memastikan sumber-sumber ini adalah diperuntukkan dengan cekap kepada sektor-sektor yang produktif. Selain itu, Wang yang dominan dalam sesebuah ekonomi sekarang ialah wang kredit, wang yang tercipta ekoran aktiviti sektor perbankan mengambil deposit dan mengeluarkan pinjaman. Perkembangan ini serta peningkatan pesat inovasi kewangan dalam ekonomi berasaskan kredit boleh mempengaruhi pertumbuhan ekonomi di sesebuah negara.

Ini yang menjadikan peranan sektor kewangan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi sering menimbulkan perdebatan di kalangan ahli-ahli ekonomi. Misalnya Miller (1998) yang menyatakan bahawa sektor kewangan telah dilebih-nyatakan(over-stressed) terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi. Manakala, ahli ekonomi lain seperti Schumpeter (1911) dan Mikinnon (1973) yang menggunakan pelbagai kaedah ekonometrik telah memberikan kesimpulan yang sama, iaitu sektor kewangan adalah penting untuk mempengaruhi kegiatan ekonomi di sesebuah negara. Pandangan ini menyokong hipotesis sektor kewangan mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi (finance leading growth) atau dikenali sebagai hipotesis dorongan penawaran. Ini bererti pembangunan sektor kewangan adalah pra-syarat kepada perkembangan kegiatan ekonomi. Sebaliknya, jika pembangunan…...

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