Fiber Optics

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By dimka1293
Words 2001
Pages 9
History of Fiber Optics

The idea of using light waves for communication can be traced as far back as 1880 when Alexander Graham Bell invented the “photo-phone” shortly after he invented the telephone in 1876. In this remarkable experiment, speech was transmitted by modulating a light beam, which traveled through air to the receiver. The flexible reflecting diaphragm (which could be activated by sound) was illuminated by sunlight. The reflected light was received by a parabolic reflector placed at a distance of about 200 m.
The parabolic reflector concentrated the light on a photo-conducting selenium cell, which formed a part of a circuit with a battery and a receiving earphone. Sound waves present in the vicinity of the diaphragm vibrated the diaphragm, which led to a consequent variation of the light reflected by the diaphragm. The variation of the light falling on the selenium cell changed the electrical conductivity of the cell, which in turn changed the current in the electrical circuit. This changing current reproduced the sound on the earphone.

Fiber Optic Technology

Fiber Optic is a technology that uses glass as thin as a human hair to transmit data from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. It is widely used for communications, which permit transmits data over longer distances and at higher bandwidths than other forms of communications. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry images, thus…...

Similar Documents

Fiber Optics vs Led

...Fiber optic light sources must be able to turn on and off millions to billions of times per second while projecting a nearly microscopic beam of light into an optical fiber. Both Light Emitting Diodes and Laser transmitters are considered to be semiconductor light sources. However, they differ greatly in output patterns. Forward biased LEDs generate light when positive voltage is applied to the “p” region and negative voltage is applied to the “n” region of the diode. Random photons are emitted at the junction where the “p” and “n” regions meet once a current is passed through the LED. The photons that are emitted are out of phase and not launched in the same direction. This is called incoherent light. Only a small percentage of this light is actually coupled into the optical fiber since incoherent light is difficult to focus. There are two types of LEDs, surface emitting and edge emitting. Surface emitting LEDs are formed from a single semiconductor material in the “pn” junction. Because of this, incoherent photons radiate from all points of the junction. Edge emitting LEDs are formed from similar materials with different refractive indexes. These indexes are used to guide the light and create a directional output. Light is emitted though an etched opening in the diode. Laser sources also have a “p” and “n” region but contain the emitted photons using an optical cavity and reflecting mirrors on each end of the diode. One mirror is only partially reflective......

Words: 563 - Pages: 3

Fiber Optic Cable Design

...Briannah Lawson Unit 9 Lab 1 NT 1310 May 18, 2013 Before you can begin to design a fiber optic cable design, one needs to establish with the user or network owner where the network will be built and what communications signals it will carry. (LANs or Local area network)And security systems use structure cabling systems built around well-defined industry Standards. Many campus carry backbone network used in industrial complexes or Institutions uses as long as 500 m or more cabling requiring optical fiber. Telephone networks are mainly outside the building (OSP) systems, connecting buildings over distances as short as few hundred meters to hundreds or thousands of Kilometers. Data rates for telecom are typically 2.5 to 10 gigabits per second using very high power lasers that operate exclusively over single modes fibers. Designing long distance or outside building application generally means choosing cabling containing singlemode (SM) Fiber over all other media. Many users may opt to use FTTD, as a complete fiber network because its very cost effective solution, negating the requirement for telecom rooms full switches, with data quality power and grounds, plus year-round air conditioning. Also choosing transmission equipment is the next step in designing a fiber optic network. This step will usually be cooperative venture involving the customer, who knows what kind of data they need to communicate, the desiner and installer, and the manufactures of transmission......

Words: 410 - Pages: 2

Contrast of Copper and Fiber Optics

...Copper and Fiber Optics: Copper has been used in electric wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and the telegraph in the 1820s. The invention of the telephone in 1876 created further demand for copper wire as an electrical conductor. Copper wires in a cable may be bare or they may be plated to reduce oxidation with a thin layer of another metal, most often tin but sometimes gold or silver. Plating may lengthen wire life and makes soldering easier. Twisted pair and coaxial cables are made to reject electromagnetic interference, prevent radiation of signals, and to provide transmission lines with defined characteristics. Shielded cables are encased in foil or wire mesh. Fiber optic cable is one of the fastest-growing transmission mediums for both new cabling installations and upgrades, including backbone, horizontal, and even desktop applications. Fiber offers a number of advantages over copper. Fiber optics, though used extensively in the modern world, is a fairly simple, and relatively old, technology. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later. Unpigmented human hairs have also been shown to act as an optical fiber Below I explain how Fiber Optics is now the best solution for all Technology needs today. 1. Greater bandwidth Fiber......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Fiber Optics

...1. Crosstalk - Unwanted transfer of signals between communication channels. 2. Waveguides – A metal tube or other device confining and conveying microwaves. 3. FTTH – Fiber to the x is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications. 4. Simplex – A fiber-optic cable or cord carrying a single fiber. 5. Half Duplex – Allowing the transmission of signals in both directions but not simultaneously. 6. Full Duplex – Refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously. 7. Photodiode – A semiconductor diode that, when exposed to light, generates a potential difference or changes its electrical resistance. 8. Amplitude Modulation – The modulation of a wave by varying its amplitude, used chiefly as a means of radio broadcasting, in which an audio signal is combined with a carrier wave. 9. Analog Transmission – A transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. 10. Digital Transmission – The use of discrete electrical pulses, light pulses, or other discrete signals to create binary codes for data communications. 11. Sample Rate – The sampling rate, sample rate, or sampling frequency defines the number of samples per unit of time taken from a continuous signal to make a discrete......

Words: 305 - Pages: 2

Fiber Optic Networking: Macro or Micro?

...Fiber Optic Networking: Macro or Micro? Clinton Baxter GS1145 Strategies for the Technical Professional Technology is always changing; this whole world revolves around technology anymore. One of the quickest changing pieces of technology is the internet and the cables used to provide you with that internet. We have all moved into the dawn of the newest type of internet connection and cables called fiber optic. These cables are used for very high bandwidth of network connection (Mitchell, n.d.). If you couldn’t tell by now I am a network systems administration student and proud of it. Fiber optic cables are the next huge thing within the networking industry. What is a fiber optic cable you may be asking, well a fiber optic cable is a networking cable made out of strands of glass fibers encased in a rubber/plastic casing. The cords are already designed with macro technology in mind creating a normal sized cable to pass the internet data through and reach your home. The problem they are having with this is the need to put more cables into the router to support the growing amount of customers using fiber optic networking. Also in extreme weather the cords condense creating a micro sized cable and shrinking the cords length causing mass problems in the service the provider can give the consumers (Chappell, 2012). To combat this issue they naturally wanted to make a more durable and smaller cable that won’t create these issues and allow you to have more cables......

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Introduction of Fiber Optic

...Introduction to Fiber Optics The equipment, tools and cabling that comprise a fiber optic link, how they work and their advantages over traditional copper. edu Guide Communications Specialties, Inc. is committed to increased education and knowledge in the Pro A/V and Broadcast industries. We hope that you enjoy reading – and learning! – with our eduGuide series of educational resources. For additional information on these and other industry related technologies, please visit us at today! ©2009 Communications Specialties, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Specifications, claims or other product information contained in this document are subject to change without notice. This document may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, without the express written consent of Communications Specialties, Inc., Fiberlink, Pure Digital Fiberlink, the starburst logo, Scan Do and Deuce are registered trademarks of Communications Specialties, Inc. CSI and the triangle designs are trademarks of Communications Specialties, Inc. October 8, 2009 Table of Contents A Brief Introduction ............................................................................................................ 2 Advantages of Fiber Optic Systems .............................................................................. 3 Optical Transmitters ........................................................................................................... 5 The Optical Fiber......

Words: 5977 - Pages: 24

Cabling and Fiber Optic

...from the surface. The simplest example of visible light reflection is the surface of a smooth pool of water, where incident light is reflected in an orderly manner to produce a clear image of the scenery surrounding the pool. Throw a rock into the pool, and the water is perturbed to form waves, which disrupt the reflection by scattering the reflected light rays in all directions. Signal degradation can occur in many ways. Signal degradation can occur if you are trying to communicate over vast distance that the system was not designed for. An example of this is, if the equipment or cable becomes damaged or the antenna becomes blocked. References Oliviero, A., & Woodward, B. (2011). Cabling: The Complete Guide to Copper and Fiber-Optic Networking (4th ed.).

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Fiber Optic Patch Cables

...manufactures, markets, and distributes electrical, electronic and fiber optic connectors, interconnect systems, coaxial, and specialty cables to various customers, ranging from large multi-billion dollar OEMs to consumers. At Amphenol Cables on Demand™ (ACD), we guarantee our interconnect products to be of the highest quality as demanded by our largest OEM customers. Only premium materials and quality engineering are used in the design and manufacturing of our Amphenol Cables on Demand™ product offerings. Fiber Optic Patch Cables Fiber Optic Patch Cables Direct from Amphenol [25% OFF SALE] -- When only the best fiber optic patch cables will work in an installation, Amphenol Cables on Demand has the optical products you need. As the official online arm of Amphenol, our products are manufactured by a firm that is a leader in this industry. With over 25 years experience in the design and manufacture of fiber optic cable assemblies for both harsh and benign environments. 10-Gigabit Multimode Cables (Aqua OM3) [25% OFF] -Are you considering a network optical backbone upgrade to 10-Gigabit Ethernet? Amphenol OM3 50Micron (50/125) Laser Optimized Multimode fiber optic patch cables combine scalable 10-Gig performance and backwards compatibility with legacy equipment. Specifically designed for use with VCSEL light sources, our 10GbE patch cables sport an impressive 2000/500 MHz/km bandwidth. Get 25% OFF ALL Fiber Optic Orders with Coupon Code: CABLE25Connectors: LC to LC......

Words: 427 - Pages: 2

Fiber Optics

...EXECUTIVE SUMMARY You may ask yourself what is needed for a new building and what are the codes that must be followed in order to have a building nice and free of hazards. Well to start here are the new building requirements for the following materials: patch cables, cat 6 cables, fiber optic multi-mode, cable trays, Cisco- WS-C3750 G24PS-S 24 Ports, laser printer, vertical runs, computers, Cisco border router, server run a and server run b. The following codes must be in play to ensure the building or work space is safe for everyone. 1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 2. Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) 3. Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) 4. Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) 5. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 6. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 7. Federal Communication Commission (FCC) 8. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 9. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 10. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 11. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 12. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 13. International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 14. CSA International (CSA) 15. IP/MPLS Forum (ATM Forum) 16. European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 17. Building Industry Consulting Services International (BICSI) 18. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 19. ANSI/TIA-568-C Cabling Standard The......

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Copper vs Fiber Optic

...Unit 4. Assignment 1. Copper vs. Fiber Paper Copper (Ethernet) Cable * Ethernet cables are vulnerable to electromagnetic interference because they work through electrical signals. * Due to the way in which data is transmitted across Ethernet copper cabling, it is vulnerable to being intercepted. * Ethernet offers less bandwidth. Ethernet can provide data transfer speeds of up to 1000Mbps, but through the use of Cat 6 cables it can support data transfer rates of up to 10Gbps. * There is always electricity present in Ethernet cables. * Copper cabling strands are thicker than optical fiber strands, so less wires can be bundled in a 22 gauge copper cable than in a 22 gauge optical fiber cable. Optical Fiber Cable * Fiber optic cables are ideal for high voltage locations, in buildings prone to lightning strikes, and locations where explosive fumes are present. Because optical fiber cables work through the transmission of light, interference from electronic devices isn’t a concern. * Information sent via fiber optic cables is much more difficult to intercept because light can’t be read in the same way signals sent via copper cabling can be. * A single optical fiber strand has been shown to transmit data at a rate of 100 terabits per second. Optical fiber transmits data faster than copper Ethernet cable. * Unlike Ethernet cable, optical fiber cable is non-flammable because it does not use electricity. | Optical fiber Copper wire Safety ✔......

Words: 814 - Pages: 4

Fiber Optics: the Super Highway of Information

...Fiber Optics: The Super Highway of Information We live in an information age. Broadband is the foundation of economic growth and telecommunications is making its mark in all parts of the world. It is what enables the internet that drives e-commerce, education and universal access to information. Rapidly increasing communication density in this growing field and the ever increasing information flow is resulting in massive expansion in worldwide networks. The need for quick and reliable transmission and retrieval of ever increasing volumes of information over great distances is getting more and more important every day. This paper explains the history, the fiber optic theory, and the future of worldwide fiber optics networks already in progress. One would normally think that fiber optics is relatively new to this century, but looking back in history, there are many concepts which lead to the creation of fiber optics. The transition to optics concurred with the conversion from analog to digital transmission in the telephone network and with the growing necessity of computer data transmission. Long before fiber optics was first discovered, many signals were carried through a copper coaxial cable. Invented by Oliver Heaviside in 1880, copper conductors are used for mostly analog signals, such as high frequency radio waves, cable television signals, and power lines (Nahin 1988). He determined by wrapping an insular layer around a transmission line both improves the quality......

Words: 2949 - Pages: 12

Fiber Optic Safety and Installation

...very first step that needs to be taken is to ensure that the optic fiber and copper cables that are about to be installed should comply with all the three requirements that includes the federal regulations, the international standards and the companies requirements. It is also important to wear your PPE and have the proper tools needed for the job. These are the safety rules that need to be followed with fiber optic and copper cable installation: 1. Keep all food and beverages out of the work area. If fiber particles are ingested they can cause internal hemorrhaging 2. Wear disposable aprons to minimize fiber particles on your clothing. Fiber particles on your clothing can later get into food, drinks, and/or be ingested by other means. 3. Always wear safety glasses with side shields and protective gloves. Treat fiber optic splinters the same as you would glass splinters. 4. Never look directly into the end of fiber cables until you are positive that there is no light source at the other end. Use a fiber optic power meter to make certain the fiber is dark. When using an optical tracer or continuity checker, look at the fiber from an angle at least 6 inches away from your eye to determine if the visible light is present. 5. Only work in well ventilated areas. 6. Contact wearers must not handle their lenses until they have thoroughly washed their hands. 7. Do not touch your eyes while working with fiber optic systems until they have been thoroughly washed. 8. Keep......

Words: 2063 - Pages: 9

Fiber Optic Cladding

...Fiber Optic Cladding Cladding is ordinarily know by the definition of the act or process of bonding one metal to another, usually to protect the inner metal from corrosion. In the case of fiber optics metals are not used glass is in place of metal. Core (optical fiber) The structure of a typical single-mode fiber. The core of a conventional optical fiber is a cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the fiber's length. The core is surrounded by a medium with a lower index of refraction, typically a cladding of a different glass, or plastic. The core of a conventional optical fiber is a cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the fiber's length. The core is surrounded by a medium with a lower index of refraction, typically a cladding of a different glass, or plastic. Light travelling in the core reflects from the core-cladding boundary due to total internal reflection, as long as the angle between the light and the boundary is less than the critical angle. As a result, the fiber transmits all rays that enter the fiber with a sufficiently small angle to the fiber's axis. The limiting angle is called the acceptance angle, and the rays that are confined by the core/cladding boundary are called guided rays. The core is characterized by its diameter or cross-sectional area. In most cases the core's cross-section should be circular, but the diameter is more rigorously defined as the average of the diameters of the smallest circle that can be circumscribed......

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Fiber Optics

...Fibre Optics A relatively new technology with vast potential importance, fibre optics, is the channelled transmission of light through hair-thin glass fibres. The clear advantages of fibre optics are too often obscured by concerns that may have been valid during the pioneering days of fibre, but that have since been answered by technical advances. Fibre is fragile An optical fibre has greater tensile strength than copper or steel fibres of the same diameter. It is flexible, bends easily, and resists most corrosive elements that attack copper cable. Optical cables can withstand pulling forces of more than 150 pounds. Fibre is hard to work with This myth derives from the early days of fibre optic connectors. Early connectors where difficult to apply; they came with many small parts that could tax even the nimble fingered. They needed epoxy, curing, cleaving and polishing. On top of that, the technologies of epoxy, curing, cleaving and polishing were still evolving. Today, connectors have fewer parts, the procedures for termination are well understood, and the craftsperson is aided by polishing machines and curing ovens to make the job faster and easier. Even better, epoxyless connectors eliminate the need for the messy and time- consuming application of epoxy. Polishing is an increasingly simple, straightforward process. Pre-terminated cable assemblies also speed installation and reduce a once (but no longer) labour-intensive......

Words: 2158 - Pages: 9

Fiber Optics

...Fiber is Basis of Info Highway Table of Contents Title Page1 Table of contents2 Article Review…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3-4 Companies Review....................................................................................................................................5-7 Works Cited8 The article “Fiber is Basis of Info Highway”; written by: Mathew Ingram for the Globe and Mail; is about the race to cover the globe with fiber optic cable. The author talks about corporate buyouts and huge company mergers to compete in the fiber optic Industry. I found the article intriguing to read and understand why companies are competing in the field and the rate at which there competing. I’ll be going over some of the mergers and buyout in a bit as well as mentioning some of the big players in this fiber optic game. Every few days there seems to be a new fiber related deal going on. Just to note a few of the bigger ones; JDS Uniphase merged with E-Tek Dynamics in a $15 billion (US) deal. JDS is a product from a merger a year previous with JDS Fitel and Uniphase; is already one of the largest fiber-equipment companies, and well on its way to becoming what analysts call the Intel of fiber (referring to Intel’s dominance of the computer chip market). Nortel Networking is another company throwing large sums of money around in the fiber world, paying $3.2 billion (US) for Qtera Systems who’s technology boosts the carrying power of the fiber. Nortel’s......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5