Farming of the Iroquois

In: Historical Events

Submitted By austyg243
Words 1607
Pages 7
Austin Gager 4/2010
Intro to Iroquois Professor Tarbell

The Farming of the Iroquois The first memory I have about learning of the Iroquois was in the fourth grade. It was the first day and my teacher was describing to us what we were going to cover that year. One topic that stuck in my head was Iroquois. She told us a brief history and I was instantly intrigued. We covered everything we could but very briefly since there is so much history behind them. Two things that I took interest in where, the long houses and the farming techniques of the Iroquois. So I was very happy to find in the table of contents of the required book of my Introduction to Iroquois class Farming and Fighting.
One reason I was instantly fascinated with the farming of the Iroquois is because the outdoors has always been a marvel for me. From when I was little I was curious about all living things. I live in and heir from a very rural area, which my father and I have covered much of when I was little. He got me attached to all living things. This is why the techniques the

Iroquois used were so amazing to me. In my local area there are many different types of plants grown for harvest. Many just like the Iroquois, such as maize, beans, and different types of squash and pumpkins. These foods are referred to as the Three Sisters. Corn and bean crops did not originate in the northeastern part of America but much more southern in the America’s. It intrigues me on how so long ago people knew how to horticulture to obtain better results for crops. Horticulture according to Webster’s dictionary is the study of plant propagation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects. Iroquois may have not had exactly “studied” horticulture but through trial and error they became excellent at…...

Similar Documents

Iroquois Indians Lacrosse

...Iroquois Indians and Lacrosse Lacrosse is a sport played worldwide and is centerpiece of the Iroquois Indian culture. This sport involves using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse (aka lacrosse stick) and because this is a contact sport, it requires padding. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh that is designed to catch and hold the lacrosse ball. The object of the game is to score by shooting the call into the opponent’s goal. The stick can be used to catch, carry, and pass the ball. This game was introduced in 1750 by the Mohawk tribe. Iroquois loved to play lacrosse because it was a source of entertainment, physical conditioning, and it was also a religious celebration as a way to honor the Creator. One of the highly celebrated traditions goes back to the Iroquois Confederacy where young warriors staged a lacrosse game for one of the league founders, Hayewat-ha, to console him for the loss of his children. Not only is lacrosse played to please the Creator but also is a rite that is sacred to the Thunders, the seven honored grandfathers who move across the sky from west to east cleansing the earth with wind and rains. Often times, lacrosse is prescribed as a ritual healing, usually recommended through a dream or fortune teller. When the Iroquois would play lacrosse, there would be approximately 100 to 150+ men on a field of a few miles long. The teams would play until one team scored 2 of 3 or 3 of 5 goals. This often took......

Words: 649 - Pages: 3

Iroquois Kinship

...IROQUOIS KINSHIP 1 Iroquois Kinship ANT 101: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology November 4, 2012 IROQUOIS KINSHIP 2 IROQUOIS KINSHIP The origin of the Iroquois tribe dates back centuries, much before the Europeans settlers first arrived on North American soil. I will discuss the kinship system of the Iroquois tribe, describe three specific examples of how the kinship of the Iroquois culture impacts the way this culture behaves and compare this culture to my own society. Other names for the Iroquois are Haudenosaunee, People of the Longhouse, and the Six Nations. The Iroquois Indians lived in what is now New York State along the St. Lawrence River. “The Iroquois Indians were known as the "Five Nations". The league was formed before European contact. The original five nations are Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca. The Tuscarora joined later, after European contact, and became the sixth nation.” (Miller, 2000-2001) The Iroquois originated from Up State New York. Throughout migration they gained control of most of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. In 1680, “their empire extended west from the north shore of Chesapeake Bay through Kentucky to the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers; then north following the Illinois River to the south end of Lake Michigan; east across all of lower Michigan, southern Ontario and adjacent parts of southwestern Quebec; and finally south through northern New England......

Words: 1432 - Pages: 6


...A kinship system is the system of social relationships that constitute kinship in a particular culture. I have chosen to write on the kinship system of the Iroquois. The kinship system of the Iroquois is also known as bifurcate merging. The Iroquois trace their kinship relationship through one sex which is called unilineal descent groups. The Iroquois go through the female line. In this culture the marital partners is determined by kinship, since people must marry outside their lineage and clan. This specific kinship recognizes two groupings: Parents and siblings who are too closely related to marry, and potential spouses and in laws. While they cannot marry their parallel cousin (someone born of a sister, brother, mother, or father) they are allowed to marry their cross cousins (someone born outside of the immediate family). This process is sometimes called a sibling-exchange system. It keeps the wealth in the family and also reasserts alliances between lineages. This culture as I said before is matrilineal which means that the blood line is traced through the mother, which means that the child is the same clan or tribe as the mother no matter who the father is. They also have clans or family groupings; it affects behavior because you are not allowed to marry someone in your own clan. When marrying someone they are considered to be outsiders since when they marry they move to the clan they are married into and become a part of it. Another way this culture is affected is......

Words: 459 - Pages: 2


...The culture that I have chosen is the Iroquois because they are interesting and complicated kinship. In the Iroquois kinship system, a person’s mother and the mother’s sisters are called “mother,” and the father and his brothers are called “father”. Their kinship system separates their people by relation rather than generation, so instead of the children having aunts and uncles, the children would have mothers and fathers in addition to their own biological mother and father. The grandchildren and great-grandchildren would call their aunts and uncles mother or father instead of the titles that we Americans are given today. After reading on the Iroquois I found that the female is the dominate sex within the group, since women were the main producers of food and mutual owners of the land. Iroquois lineage is matrilineal which means as family’s kinship are traced through female decent. The matrilineal kinship is not as common as a patrilineal descendant group, but it is more common when it comes to horticultural groups (Haviland, 2002). In horticultural groups females are the primary gatherers of food for the group while the men cleared and burned the land and forest to prepare them for farming. The men were also small game hunters and warriors. The Iroquois live in longhouses, in which the husband lives within their wives community. The longhouses provide a compartment for each nuclear family to live. Since the Iroquois is a matrilineal group, the eldest female of...

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

The Iroquois

...Kinship is the cornerstone for how people within a society relate to others and race lineages. Many societies trace their lineage through the father, which is called patrilineal, or through the mother which is called matrilineal. The Iroquois nation traced their kinship through the matrilineal decent lines. Kinship directly relates to how family groups think, act and live along side each other. The culture of the Iroquois can also be compared to how many American families relate to one another as well. Iroquois Lineage The Iroquois nation traced their lineage through the female sex; this is called the matrilineal line. Women of the Iroquois nation were the sole producers of food and all land was handed down to children from the female line. When a man and woman of the Iroquois nation would marry they would have to do so in an exogamous way, meaning they must and always marry outside of their lineage. The Iroquois were not to marry anyone with the same clan name thus they marry in exogamous way. “The Iroquois kinship system recognizes two groupings: (1) parents and siblings who are tool closely related and (2) potential spouses and in-laws. (Nowak, B. & Laird, P. 2010 chapter 4.5 Marriage) This is the same in modern day America American Lineage In the American culture lineages are traced through the patrilineal lines of the family. When a man and woman in today’s American culture decide to marry they will choose a partner who is outside of their family. Today it is......

Words: 1115 - Pages: 5

Us vs Iroquois

...The Iroquois constitution was written years before the US. Constitution. It is older than the document itself and its amendments. Many believe our constitution incorporated many ideas of democratic government from the Iroquois constitution because of the various similarities found in both documents, such as the basic structure of the documents, designation of a person in charge, the power of veto, impeachment and the division of government. There is also historical evidence that some of the founding fathers were in direct contact with the Iroquois people. Freedom of speech, religion and press have been controversial issues for many years. That is why a preamble was part of both constitutions. The inclusion of a preamble is vital in both documents. The Iroquois used symbolism,” Five bound arrows symbolize our complete union. ... We have tied ourselves together in one head, body, one spirit and one soul to settle all matters as one” both preambles highlight the importance of unity and liberty. Antifederalists were concerned with protecting individual’s rights and fought for the inclusion of a Bill of rights to our constitution. That is why our constitution reads; “We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5


...Factory Farming Each year millions of pigs, chickens, cows, and other mass produced animals are being abused, brutally murdered, and have even become a health hazard to human beings. Many people have turned a blind eye to this world wide epidemic so they can continue to benefit from the prices and convenience of factory farmed animals. It is true that man is the ruler over animals, but they are still living creatures that do feel pain from abuse and do still suffer when neglected. It’s bewildering to realize that we as a human race have revolutionized women’s rights, civil rights, and even going as far as protecting the environment but we continue to accept the horrific abuse of animals. It’s time for a change! Today’s farming has come a long way from what it was like forty or fifty years ago but trust me not in a positive way. Since what most people focus on now a day is money that is all they seem to care about. First lets define the word brutality according to the free dictionary on on-line brutality is the state or quality of being ruthless, cruel, harsh, or unrelenting (Brutality, 2000). Many large corporation run most of the farms today due to the economy and regular farmers not being able to afford to run let alone own a farm, factory farming has become the way to do business, despite the fact that animals are meant to graze on green pastures and drink from clean watering holes many animals are instead being confined to small cages, being brutally abused,......

Words: 1745 - Pages: 7

Sustainable Farming vs Industrial Farming

...the food we consume. So, why does our food contain so many pesticides, because over 70% of it comes from Industrial Farming Operations. Today I would like to talk about multiple reasons as to why we need to move away from Industrial Farming and towards a more sustainable type of farming. What is Industrial Farming? Industrial Farming is a type of farming that maximizes production of food and profits by using excessive amounts of chemical pesticides, herbicides, and hormones that end up in what we eat, drink and breathe. What is Sustainable Farming? Sustainable Farming produces food without excessive use of pesticides, hormones, antibiotics or petroleum-based fertilizers. This practice encourages short and long term health benefits and lessens the likelihood of certain diseases. Pesticides Industrial Farming relies on the routine use of toxic pesticides applied to both crops and animals. These chemicals are known to pollute air, soil, water, and to have negative effects on human health. Sustainable farms minimize the use of pesticides and rely on alternative forms of pest control whenever possible. One such method, integrated pest management, involves carefully assessing the overall environment of a farm and using techniques including mechanical pest traps, predatory insects, and insect-repelling plants to control pests. Environment Industrial Farming causes massive topsoil erosion and aquifer depletion, undermines genetic diversity, and pollutes air, water, and......

Words: 938 - Pages: 4

Organic Farming

...Why the government should Subsidize Organic Farming Organic farming is a farming method focused on advancing environmental and ecosystem benefits, as opposed to the external output in farming. It promotes the health of the ecosystem, biodiversity, and the soil biological activity. Government subsidies farmer receive are aimed at promoting healthy and beneficial and responsible farming. To understand why it is crucial for the government to subsidize organic farming, it is good to evaluate the benefits that accrue from organic farming. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the gains achievable if the government was to subsidize organic farming. One of the focuses of most governments is the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG). A UN framework for climate change is now a key focus for most governments. One way of achieving this is the subsidizing farmers to do organic farming. The aim of doing that is that, by the use of organic farming methods, the increase in greenhouse gases reduces. The essence of this is to reduce the number of energy intensive farming that have a negative impact on farming. In addition, using less energy intensive methods means more saving on the inputs and additional benefits to the farmers. This is important since, over the years, the gains and benefits for farming have reduced. That is because, of among other things, bad weather, and scares of public health. Therefore, promoting a method that will directly benefits the farmer and the environment......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Iroquois Kinship

...Iroquois Kinship Tiffany Wheeler ANT 101 Introduction to Cultural Anthropology Alfred Wilfong April 17, 2013 Iroquois Kinship The Iroquois people were very structured, with the women being the top dogs in their social setting. Iroquois women were in control of crops, particularly maize, and that gave them control over more than just a food source. Men were allowed to do their job as long as the women agreed with what they were doing. If women were against a particular raiding activity, they withheld maize from the warriors, which meant the men could not go (Nowak, 1979). Properties were inherited by females, such as land and tools. After marriage, men moved in with their wives to their longhouse. Marriage was encouraged between what the Iroquois considered cross cousins, which today would be what normal people consider to be their cousins. For example, if someone's maternal uncle married an unrelated woman and they had children, it would be encouraged for the cousins to marry one another. Marriage was a delicate thing, however, because the woman was capable of simply packing her husband's belongings and tossing them outside to get her point across that their marriage was over. Based on the above information, the biggest example of the way the Iroquois kinship system impacts the way they behave is their matriarchal system. The eldest woman in each longhouse has the authority to determine the rights to property and resources. Another example would be their......

Words: 635 - Pages: 3


...issue of organic aquaculture, the National Agricultural Library published an 80-page bibliography, Organic Aquaculture, through the Alternative Farming Systems Information Center. ATTRA Page 11 rganic certifying agencies can certify organic aquaculture operations, but the products are not allowed to carry the USDA organic label. O Organic Aquaculture Organic production of crops and livestock in the United States is regulated by the Department of Agriculture’s National Organic Program, or NOP. The NOP is an organic certification and marketing program that ensures foods and food products labeled as “organic” meet universal standards and guidelines for organic production. Production inputs used in organic production – such as feed and fertilizers – must be of natural origin and free of synthetic materials. A farm plan, documentation of inputs and production methods, and farm inspection are required to obtain “certified organic” status. This process allows farm products to be labeled and sold as organic. Organic trout, tilapia, salmon and other fish species are raised in Europe, Australia, and Israel using production standards developed by international organic certification agencies Organic Aquaculture: AFSIC Notes #5 by Stephanie Boehmer, Mary Gold, Stephanie Hauser, Bill Thomas, and Ann Young. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library, USDA. afnotes5.htm Evaluating an......

Words: 12936 - Pages: 52


...While Farming has been Around for Centuries Anita M. Ebbinghausen DeVry University Introduction While farming has been around for centuries, the way farmers, farm has been up for debate for many decades. There have been several studies on the Industrial agricultural and equal studies about organic agriculture. According to Best, (2007) “the question as to why humans behave toward the environment is an environmentally friendly or degrading manner has been discussed in the sociological literature for more than 30 years.” (p. 451). Farmers are unable to produce their product and their land has been standing uncultivated in order to reduce the surplus of production. The long-standing concern about the social and environmental sustainability of industrial agriculture has been added to the rising question from dependency on cheap energy derived from fossil fuel. The United States is currently dependent on Industrial Agriculture, switching to Organic Agriculture will benefit the economy and help the environment. Industrial Agriculture Although the United States is currently dependent on industrial agriculture it was somewhat prosperous in accomplishing the goals of maximizing market based production and furnishing brief economic returns, it overlooked many of the unintended negative consequences. The most important recant consequence was the soil and water degradation and the loss of the farmer and the robust rural communities (Kirschenmann, 2009). It......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4


...Iroquois Tina Mack Ashford University ANT234 Nadia Khrais May 12, 2014 Iroquois When we think of Indians we think of tepees, bow and arrows, and free roaming hunters. Iroquois were different they lived in longhouses and farmed. They were different in other ways as will. This paper will try to describe the way the Iroquois lived and suffered. The Iroquois lived in longhouses that were made of young saplings lashed together with strips of bark. The frame work was then covered with large sheets of bark, probable from the young sapling used for the frame work. The longhouse was usually twenty feet wide, twenty feet high, and ranged from sixty to two hundred twenty feet long. “The length of a longhouse was determined by the size of the extended family for which it would serve as a home. The interior of the longhouse was divided into a series of compartments or apartments about 20 feet long. Each compartment was the home of two families. Each family shared a fire for heating, cooking, and light, with the family that lived across the central aisle or corridor. This aisle ran the length of the longhouse from end to end, door to door. A longhouse, 220 feet long, could be the home of 18 families, or about 90 people; a longhouse of 60 feet might serve as the home of four families or 20 people. The longest longhouse known from archeological excavations was 400 feet long and was probably the home of about 36 families, or 180 people.” (Alliance,website......

Words: 1277 - Pages: 6


...Organic Farm Business Plan Freedom Farm Submitted for Commerce 492.3, University of Saskatchewan 2001 Rosalind Ball Heather Hack Murray Nelson Myles Thorpe Executive summary Introduction Organic farming in Canada, and Saskatchewan in particular, has steadily increased especially in recent years. Reasons for the increase in organic food production are: market premiums of 2 to 2.5 times the conventional market price; an expansion in the consumer sector willing to pay the higher prices demanded by organic food; an expansion of markets in the developed world where Saskatchewan farm exports traditionally are targeted; and lower input prices due to organic production. This document is a proposed business plan, with a financial model, for setting up and operating an organic grain farm in Saskatchewan. The business is new, and is named Freedom Farm. Financial performance is projected for a ten-year period from 2002 to 2012. To sell organic produce at premium, Freedom Farm will obtain organic creditation from the Organic Crop Improvement Association (OCIA). The mission statement of Freedom farm is: To provide quality organic produce to suit customer demand while maintaining soil fertility and crop productivity. Operations Plan The proposal is for the establishment of a new organic grain production business in Kipling, South East Saskatchewan. The proposed business is a sole......

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6


...producing an economic benefit or only a cost. The costs for monitoring soil and regularly changing plants are to be considered, but are not the most expensive costs to take into account. The biggest financial challenge for organic farming is education (Juneghani et al.). It is difficult to educate farmers to be aware of the techniques needed and to educate them as to the reasons that it is better to experiment with new methods rather than continue to practice their craft in the same way that their families have done for generations. This is especially true in developing countries where the majority of people are illiterate and elderly (Juneghani et al.). For example, a study on apple farmers in a province in Iran showed that around seventy percent of the people surveyed were illiterate and that the majority of these farmers were between the ages of forty-one and fifty (Juneghani et al.). The researchers found a reluctance to new methods to be especially high amongst elders and uneducated people, who often are negatively disposed to new ideas and modern ideas of farming (Juneghani et al.). This study concluded that it would be a long, slow and resource-consuming process to educate people to use different farming methods when they are barely making a profit (Juneghani et al.). Further, the cost of paying for repeated testing of soils every few years is significant for small farmers. The tests to determine whether a crop is best suited for......

Words: 1479 - Pages: 6