Explain Research and Evaluation in a Public Relations Context, the Methods Used to Gather Data for These Purposes, and Why Research and Evaluation Are Important to the Pr Planning Process

In: Other Topics

Submitted By HeathaB
Words 979
Pages 4
Research and evaluation go hand-in-hand as key features that contribute to any successful public relations efforts. Without them, public relations plans and activities would have no clear direction or guidance as to how to speak to their intended audiences. With the increase in organisations seeking justification for their PR spend; it is even more important for practitioners to demonstrate return on their investment through their own evaluation. Effective primary and secondary research, along with a commitment to ongoing evaluation is crucial to any public relations plan. It is important that both research and evaluation are always undertaken as it will ultimately provide a solid foundation and help to ensure the campaign is continually evolving, increasing the chances of its success.
Research, an essential tool for any public relations campaign, assists with the gathering of information and opinions, contributing to the strategic plans ability to increase its efficiency, establish realistic goals and target the right market. With the main purpose of research being to find answers to the questions being asked, it enables the public relations practitioner to build theories that will assist in solving the problems they will face. Harold D. Lasswell, a political scientist, explained the questions every practitioner should ask, ‘who says what, to whom, how, with what effect’ (Lindenmann 2006, p. 3). If a practitioner can find answers to these questions, they will be in a better position to understand the relationship between the product and the intended market.
Finding the answers to this is not simple though, so to do this, both secondary and primary research must be carried out. Secondary research is often referred to as ‘desk research’ and is based on gathering information that is pre-existing and already available in the public realm. Examples of this are…...

Similar Documents

Laboratory Activities in Method of Research

...Activity No.1 Understanding Educational Research I. Introduction We are now living in a BETTER world, a world where ignorance but truth and understanding is at trend. This could be recognize as the fruits of research; leading to better predictions, and better understanding of the world we live in. In education, we could identify research with a better understanding of the individual, and better understanding and improvement of the teaching and learning process and in other circumstances in which it is most fruitfully carried on. II. Objectives: At the end of this activity, it is expected that students will be able to: 1. Define research and educational research. 2. Differentiate research from educational research. 3. Give the uses of research in education. 4. List researchable topics in education. III. Write ups/ instruction: 1. Obtain at least 5 definitions of research from different authors. Compare these definitions and synthesize your own definition of research. 2. From three different authors, copy the meaning of educational research. Synthesize your own definition by referring to the definition obtained. 3. Differentiate research from educational research. 4. Give the uses of research in education. 5. List down five topics in education which you think need research. IV. Answers: 1. Five (5) definitions of research from different authors. i. “Research is the continuous discovery and exploration......

Words: 13528 - Pages: 55

Research Methods

...Business research Business research can be described as a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem encountered in the work setting that needs a solution. It comprises a series of steps designed and executed, with a goal of finding answers to the issues that are of concern to the manager in the work environment. This means that the first step in research is to know where the problem areas exist in the organization, and to identify as clearly and specifically as possible the problems that need to be studied and resolved. Once the problem that needs attention is clearly defined, then steps can be taken to gather information, analyze the data, and determine the factors that are associated with the problem and solve it by taking the necessary corrective measures. This entire process by which we attempt to solve problems is called research. Thus research involves a series of well-thought-out and carefully executed activities that will enable the manager to know how organizational problems can be solved, or at least considerably minimized. Research thus encompass the process of inquiry, investigation, examination, and experimentation. These processes have to be carried out systematically, diligently, critically, objectively, and logically. The expected end results would be the discovery that will help the manager to deal with the problem situation. Definition of research 1. A voyage of discovery or a journey/movement from the known to unknown; An......

Words: 23393 - Pages: 94

Evaluation of Secondary and Primary Research

...Marketing Report Assignment 1 MBA7003 Assignment 1: Marketing Research Report “Evaluation of Secondary and Primary Research” Student Name: Rana Ahmed Saeed Khan Student Number: ST20027073 Course Title: Module Title: MBA Marketing Module number: MBA 7003 Module tutor: Katherine Mutter Submission details: To be submitted on 18th April 2013 Marketing Report Assignment 1 MBA7003 Table of Contents S no. Topics Page 01 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………... 2. Primary Research…………………………………………………………………. 01 3. Secondary Research……………………………………………………………… 01 4. Value and weaknesses of Secondary research carried out…………………… 03 5. How primary research may be used to supplement the secondary research…03 6. Research report on UK mobile market…………………..…………………..……..03 7. Conclusion…………………..…………………..…………………..……………….. 04 8. References…………………..…………………..…………………..……………….. 04 Marketing Report Assignment 1 MBA7003 1. Introduction: The report analyzes various aspects of primary research and offers an understanding of how secondary research can be used to supplement it. Merits and demerits of primary and secondary research are discussed in academic and marketing terms. 2. Primary Research: Primary research is developed by researchers by witnessing first hand sources without using their own analysis, interpretation and opinions. It usually includes diaries, speeches, autobiographies, interviews and newspapers or magazines (University......

Words: 1155 - Pages: 5

Business Research Methods

...Research Methods –STA630 VU Research Methods (STA630) Contents Lesson 1: INTRODUCTION, DEFINITION & VALUE OF RESEARCH ........................ 14 What is Research?................................................................................................................... 14 What is the value of Research? ............................................................................................... 14 Research helps in developing methodologies ......................................................................... 15 We are surrounded by research............................................................................................... 16 Lesson 2: SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF RESEARCH & ITS SPECIAL FEATURES ...... 17 Important Characteristics of Scientific Method ...................................................................... 17 1. Empirical......................................................................................................................... 17 2. Verifiable ........................................................................................................................ 18 3. Cumulative ..................................................................................................................... 18 4. Deterministic.................................................................................................................. 18 5. Ethical and Ideological Neutrality ............................................................

Words: 85920 - Pages: 344

Pr Plan for the Launch of Inscope Produced for Belcher Rollins by Cloud Public Relations

... | |Please note that a number of assumptions have been made in response to this assignment. These include the size of the Belcher | |Rollins business and its operations, its international locations, its listings on international stock markets and its | |financial reporting process. Assumptions have also been made about the product development process and pricing. All of these| |are as realistic as possible, having been established through detailed research of the current market leader, Reed Elsevier, | |and its major competitors. | | | |As InScope is directly comparable to the Reed Elsevier ‘Scopus’ product, it has also been assumed that Scopus does not exist | |at time of the InScope launch. | INSCOPE: A NEW GENERATION OF RESEARCH PR PLAN FOR THE LAUNCH OF INSCOPE PRODUCED FOR BELCHER ROLLINS BY CLOUD PUBLIC RELATIONS APRIL 2009 CONTENTS Page | | | |Executive Summary |4 ...

Words: 12728 - Pages: 51

Res 342, (Research and Evaluation) Complete Class

...RES 342, (Research And Evaluation) Complete Class IF You Want To Purchase A+ Work Then Click The Link Below , Instant Download http://hwnerd.com/RES-342-Research-And-Evaluation-Complete-Course-1511.htm?categoryId=-1 If You Face Any Problem E- Mail Us At Contact.Hwnerd@Gmail.Com Week 1: Individual Assignment: Assignments from the E-Text Prepare answers to the following assignments from the e-text, Applied Statistics in Business and Economics, by Doane and Seward: Chapter 8 – Chapter Exercises 8.48 and 8.64 Individual Assignment: Hypothesis Identification Article Analysis Use the UOP Online Library or the Electronic Reading Reserve (ERR) to locate a peer-reviewed article that reports original research and pertains to a specific, stated hypothesis that was used to validate a research study. Use "major databases (eg - ProQuest)" in the Online Collection, and the key search words "research studies in" to obtain an article. You can select communication, finance, economics, marketing, technology, or other faculty approved topic for the research study. Prepare a 350-700-word analysis of your selected article. Start by identifying and summarizing the hypothesis described in the article. Then explain whether the hypothesis was rejected or accepted, and what the implications of this finding are for the study. Be sure to properly cite your article, and be prepared to discuss your analysis in class. Week 2: Team Assignment: One Sample......

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Res 342 Research and Evaluation Ii /Complete Class

...RES 342 Research and Evaluation II /Complete Class Download Entire Class Here http://homework-aid.com/RES-342-Research-and-Evaluation-II-Complete-Class-245.htm Or Visit:Homework-aid.com Week 1 Res 342 Individual Assignment: Assignments from the E-Text Prepare answers to t ane and Seward: Chapter 8 – Chapter Exercises 8.48 and 8.64 Individual Assignment: Hypothesis Identification Article Analysis Use the UOP Online Library or the Electronic Reading Reserve (ERR) to locate a peer-reviewed article that reports original research and pertains to a specific, stated hypothesis that was used to validate a research study. Use "major databases (eg - ProQuest)" in the Online Collection, and the key search words "research studies in" to obtain an article. You can select communication, finance, economics, marketing, technology, or other faculty approved topic for the research study. Prepare a 350-700-word analysis of your selected article. Start by identifying and summarizing the hypothesis described in the article. Then explain whether the hypothesis was rejected or accepted, and what the implications of this finding are for the study. Be sure to properly cite your article, and be prepared to discuss your analysis in class. Discussion Questions What are the steps espoused by the textbook (or instructor) for formal hypothesis testing? Explain why the sequence is important? What might happen if the hypothesis test is performed before the researcher has decided on the......

Words: 1964 - Pages: 8

Res 342 Research and Evaluation Ii /Complete Class

...RES 342 Research and Evaluation II /Complete Class Download Entire Class Here http://homework-aid.com/RES-342-Research-and-Evaluation-II-Complete-Class-245.htm Or Visit:Homework-aid.com Week 1 Res 342 Individual Assignment: Assignments from the E-Text Prepare answers to t ane and Seward: Chapter 8 – Chapter Exercises 8.48 and 8.64 Individual Assignment: Hypothesis Identification Article Analysis Use the UOP Online Library or the Electronic Reading Reserve (ERR) to locate a peer-reviewed article that reports original research and pertains to a specific, stated hypothesis that was used to validate a research study. Use "major databases (eg - ProQuest)" in the Online Collection, and the key search words "research studies in" to obtain an article. You can select communication, finance, economics, marketing, technology, or other faculty approved topic for the research study. Prepare a 350-700-word analysis of your selected article. Start by identifying and summarizing the hypothesis described in the article. Then explain whether the hypothesis was rejected or accepted, and what the implications of this finding are for the study. Be sure to properly cite your article, and be prepared to discuss your analysis in class. Discussion Questions What are the steps espoused by the textbook (or instructor) for formal hypothesis testing? Explain why the sequence is important? What might happen if the hypothesis test is performed before the researcher has decided on the......

Words: 1964 - Pages: 8

Research Methods

...MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT TOPICS ● WHAT IS A TOPIC? ● TOPICS AS PUZZLES ● PUZZLES AS RIDDLES TO BE UNRIDDLED ● BASIC ADVICE ON RESEARCH TOPICS ● THE EARLIER THE BETTER ● GO FROM THE GENERAL TO THE PARTICULAR ● AVOID POLITICIZED TOPICS ● BE CAREFUL WITH PERSONAL ISSUES ● FIND THE LINE OF LEAST RESISTANCE BETWEEN A AND B ● AIRING YOUR TOPIC ● SOURCES FOR GENERATING IDEAS ● ANALYSING THE POSSIBILITIES OF A TOPIC ● THE INITIAL SEARCH AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ● TOPIC QUESTIONS ● METHODOLOGY AND DATA QUESTIONS ● VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY QUESTIONS ● WHERE YOU SHOULD NOW BE ● USE REFERENCE AIDS ● RISKING A POOR CHOICE OF TOPIC ● FEATURES OF GOOD TOPICS ● USING YOUR SUPERVISOR ● FOCUSING IN ON A POTENTIAL RESEARCH TOPIC ● DEVELOPING RESEARCH QUESTIONS ● DEFINING CONCEPTS ● STATING THE AIMS AND PURPOSE OF YOUR RESEARCH ● WRITING OBJECTIVES FOR YOUR RESEARCH ● USING A HYPOTHESIS IN YOUR RESEARCH ● RESEARCH PROPOSITIONS ● SUMMARY OF THIS CHAPTER ● FURTHER READING Your first rite of passage into the world of research is finding a topic for your dissertation. You can make the process difficult by ignoring the advice of your supervisors and this book or you can work through the tactics we suggest here and enjoy the challenge. The main problems some of our students seem to have in identifying potential topics are that they have misconceptions about what a masters research topic is. In this chapter we will look at some criteria to use when thinking about a topic, at sources for generating......

Words: 15471 - Pages: 62

Res 342, (Research and Evaluation) Complete Class

...RES 342, (Research And Evaluation) Complete Class IF You Want To Purchase A+ Work Then Click The Link Below , Instant Download http://hwnerd.com/RES-342-Research-And-Evaluation-Complete-Course-1511.htm?categoryId=-1 If You Face Any Problem E- Mail Us At Contact.Hwnerd@Gmail.Com Week 1: Individual Assignment: Assignments from the E-Text Prepare answers to the following assignments from the e-text, Applied Statistics in Business and Economics, by Doane and Seward: Chapter 8 – Chapter Exercises 8.48 and 8.64 Individual Assignment: Hypothesis Identification Article Analysis Use the UOP Online Library or the Electronic Reading Reserve (ERR) to locate a peer-reviewed article that reports original research and pertains to a specific, stated hypothesis that was used to validate a research study. Use "major databases (eg - ProQuest)" in the Online Collection, and the key search words "research studies in" to obtain an article. You can select communication, finance, economics, marketing, technology, or other faculty approved topic for the research study. Prepare a 350-700-word analysis of your selected article. Start by identifying and summarizing the hypothesis described in the article. Then explain whether the hypothesis was rejected or accepted, and what the implications of this finding are for the study. Be sure to properly cite your article, and be prepared to discuss your analysis in class. Week 2: Team Assignment: One Sample......

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Res 342 Research and Evaluation Ii /Complete Class

... RES 342 Research and Evaluation II /Complete Class Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwaid.com/shop/research-and-evaluation-ii/   Week 1 Res 342  Individual Assignment: Assignments from the E-Text Prepare answers to t ane and Seward: Chapter 8 – Chapter Exercises 8.48 and 8.64 Individual Assignment: Hypothesis Identification Article Analysis Use the UOP Online Library or the Electronic Reading Reserve (ERR) to locate a peer-reviewed article that reports original research and pertains to a specific, stated hypothesis that was used to validate a research study. Use “major databases (eg – ProQuest)” in the Online Collection, and the key search words “research studies in” to obtain an article. You can select communication, finance, economics, marketing, technology, or other faculty approved topic for the research study. Prepare a 350-700-word analysis of your selected article. Start by identifying and summarizing the hypothesis described in the article. Then explain whether the hypothesis was rejected or accepted, and what the implications of this finding are for the study. Be sure to properly cite your article, and be prepared to discuss your analysis in class. Discussion Questions What are the steps espoused by the textbook (or instructor) for formal hypothesis testing? Explain why the sequence is important? What might happen if the hypothesis test is performed before the researcher has decided on the significance level?   Explain the difference between...

Words: 1955 - Pages: 8

Explain Why Conformity and Obedience Are Important in the Public Services, with Reference to Research Studies

...M3. Explain why conformity and obedience are important in the public services, with reference to research studies. Conformity and obedience are forms of social influence which strongly affect our behaviour is social situations, from following fashions and unwritten social norms which organise our behaviour, to committing immoral acts because we are commanded to by someone who appears to be in a position of authority. This essay looks at the similarities and differences between the three, looking specifically at the factors that influence each two. Conformity within a group entails members changing their attitudes and beliefs in order to match those of others within the group. Those that conform tend to be obedient and compliant. In order to conform, the group member must attribute someone as having the legitimacy and credibility to lead or influence the group's behaviour. Without this "leader", conformity toward the group's goals will be less prevalent. If a member of the group fails to conform to the groups needs, he/she would lose credibility with the rest of the group. Conformity is a change in an individuals behaviour according to certain accepted standards within society as well as the influence of others whether this be a real or imaginary influence. There are 2 key concepts of conformity, acceptance or compliance. People plan to join a specific public service because they want to belong to that team because they may like the sentiments of the service etc.......

Words: 2278 - Pages: 10

Research Methods

...through reasoning and research. Qualitative research in a complex analysis and is characterized by mathematical calculations but no experimentally. Quantitative research however is carried out experimentally and relies and builds on mathematical techniques such as quality, frequency and amount etc. Qualitative analysis provides more details and is more focused and deep process. Qualitative analysis put emphasis on how and what meaning is given to a certain situation.  Qualitative approach is subjective and has understanding nature. In this type of research, the researcher has to engage more with the subject under consideration. This type of research is also referred to as interpretative research, understanding and gathering information and interpreting it with respect to daily life. Quantitative research method involves the mathematical parameters such as height, weight and other parameters which have numerical value. The emphasis of this type of research is on the comparison between different variable of the system.   So it depends on mathematical techniques and procedures such as mean, median, frequency and other statistical procedures. According to Kotler et al “Marketing research is a process that identifies and defines marketing opportunities and problems, monitors and evaluates marketing actions and performance, and communicates the findings and implications to managements.”   This means that marketing research is the collection, evaluation and recording of......

Words: 1396 - Pages: 6

Evaluation of Research

...Evaluation of Research Today with a lot of information available in different format and forms it is very critical to have it evaluated properly in order to present credible research. To provide reliable, relevant, and bias free information the students should carefully review research to ensure that it meets the guidelines for writing. To make sure that the information is credible or reliable the students should pay attention “to proof of facts” (Litman, 2011, p. 7). Credibility of information depends on facts, statistics, and evidence; also, the students have to make sure that information agrees with personal knowledge and with other specialists in the field. In addition it is very important to see the publication of the source, either it “scholarly or peer-reviewed” (Litman, 2011, p. 7). According to Bell (2009), these article are written by researches and practitioners in particular subject areas and information includes footnotes, bibliography, or references. Another important aspect on searching is making sure that the information bias free. The students have to make sure that this “information has balanced presentation of opposing perspectives” (Litman, 2011, p. 7). In any publicity the author should not make any point of view critically. The reader should be responsible making his or her own decision on a particular topic. To make sure that the author uses proper tone of language in publication also make a major role on bias free information (Bell, 2009). Not......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Research and Evaluation

...Regression Analysis Team A has determined to execute a linear regression analysis, an equation that states the linear association linking two variables, to conclude if home prices are established on distance (Doane & Seward, 2007). The computation and tests are founded on the real estate data table provided by Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, (2008). The global opinion of the Team A is that the distance to the city center determines the price of the home. h: Distance establishes price h: Distance does not establish price for any regression analysis there ought to be two variables, a dependent (price) and an independent (distance). With the intention of measuring the strength and direction of correlation, one would use a regression equation (Doane, 2007). According to the least squares standard, the equation for this is Y = a + bX. Y is the forecasted Y value, (a) is the y-intercept, and b is the slope of the line. Team A will be employing the data in the Data Set for the research: With the aim of interpreting, the data of two variables must be recognized (1) coefficient of correlation (R) and (2) coefficient of determination (R2). The square root of R2 is clearly r, which is the correlation coefficient (Orris, 2007 p211). Coefficient of the correlation will be a number between 0 and 1. The nearer the number is to 1.00, the stronger the correlation, and the farther the number is to 0.00, the lower the correlation. Given that the square root, r can also be a value as low as......

Words: 914 - Pages: 4