Epidemiology of Tb

In: Science

Submitted By melgraham09
Words 1528
Pages 7
Benchmark Assignment: Tuberculosis Epidemiology
Melinda A. Graham
Grand Canyon University: NRS 427 November 15, 2015

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that has been present in history for many years. Even with modern medicine and the advances that have been made to treat TB it is still claiming lives. This disease is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transferred from person to person ultimately affecting the lungs, but can cause harm to other parts of the body (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015). Although this disease is not as common as it once was in the United States it is still present in our world and causing mortalities. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), TB “ranks as the second leading cause of death from a single infections disease” (2015, para 1). Therefore, it is necessary and important for healthcare individuals to be familiar with TB and understand the epidemiology behind the disease. Being aware of the role of the community health nurse plays in regards to this disease and being aware of resources that can help the community is fundamental in providing for the wellbeing of all. To become familiar as to how the community health nurse can provide for community members with TB it is important to understand the typical signs and symptoms a patient may display. Some of the symptoms a patient may report in association to TB is generalized weakness, recent weight loss, and reports of a fever, night sweats, hemoptysis, chest pain, or cough (CDC, 2015). The individual may have contracted the disease through microscopic droplets in the air from another person that has TB. Overall TB is transmitted from person to person through airborne droplets by cough, sneezing, or doing any activity such as speaking, laughing, or signing that may release droplets (Mayo Clinic, 2015). This disease can cause quite…...

Similar Documents


...Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population NUR/408 January 14, 2013 Theresa White Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population This paper will define epidemiology and vulnerable population. The methods and steps involved in the epidemiology process will be discussed. The diseases of a specific vulnerable population and emphasis of one disease will be examined with cultural, ethical, and legal considerations. The epidemiology triangle is explained and evaluating the feasibility of prevention will be explored with definitive steps for prevention. Epidemiology and Vulnerable Population Stanhope and Lancaster (2012) states “epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related events in human populations and the application of this knowledge to improving the health of communities (p. 282). In many communities there populations at risk for to specific health care problems creating a vulnerable population. “Vulnerability is a general concept meaning “susceptibility,” and its specific connotation in terms of health care is at risk for health problems” (De Chesney, 2008, p. 3). As Stanhope and Lancaster (2012) identify “epidemiology is a multidisciplinary enterprise that recognizes the complex interrelationships of factors that influence disease and health at both the individual level and the community level; it provides the basic tools for the study of health and disease in communities” (p. 282). In every community there are vulnerable......

Words: 2427 - Pages: 10

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis

...Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Jennifer Shanley Grand Canyon NRS 427 March 15, 2014 Epidemiology of Tuberculosis One of the world’s deadliest diseases, tuberculosis (TB), affects over one third of the world’s population. According to the CDC, in 2012 there were nearly 9 million people that were affected with this disease (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014). Tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This is a disease that affects not only the lungs but may also affect other parts of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. This disease is preventable as well as curable by can also be deadly if not treated. When a patient presents with TB they may have complaints of having a bad. cough that lasts for three or more weeks, pain in the chest, or may cough up blood or sputum (CDC, 2014). They may also present with symptoms such as weakness or fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, or chills (CDC, 2014). The transmission of TB occurs from person to person and is spread by airborne droplet nuclei (Cleveland Clinic, 2014). An example of how this is spread would be through the air by coughing, sneezing, singing, laughing, or talking. These droplets remain suspended in the air for many hours and are inhaled and trapped in the airway or alveoli of the person that was exposed (Cleveland Clinic, 2014). After being exposed to the bacteria that causes TB the person may have mild symptoms and may not seek treatment right......

Words: 1529 - Pages: 7

Tb and Women

...TB and Women Background: Tuberculosis(TB) is an infectious bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets from the throat and lungs of people with the active respiratory TB disease. In healthy people, infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis often causes no symptoms, since the person’s immune system acts to “wall off” the infection. These people have latent TB infection, where they do not feel sick and cannot spread the bacteria to others. However, in some cases, the bacteria continue to multiply in the body making a person sick with active TB disease. The symptoms of active TB of the lung are coughing, sometimes with sputum or blood, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats. It is a disease of poverty affecting mostly young adults in their most productive years. The vast majority of TB deaths are in the developing world. Left untreated, each person with active TB disease will infect on average between 10 and 15 people every year and this continues the TB transmission. Overall, one-third of the world’s population is currently infected with the TB bacillus. 5-10% of people who are infected with TB bacilli (but who are not infected with HIV) become sick or infectious at some time during their life. People with HIV and TB infection are much more likely to develop TB. The risk for developing TB disease is also higher in persons with diabetes, other chronic...

Words: 2116 - Pages: 9

Tb - Epidemiology and Nursing Role

...Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Nursing Role Tuberculosis has been a persistent threat to the human race as far back as Hippocrates (c.460-c.370 BC). Globally, tuberculosis has infected millions during waves, often killing scores of people at a time, and then receding giving it an almost supernatural quality (Daniel, 2006). In recent history tuberculosis has been recorded in all corners of the world, and currently infects one third of the global population. In 2012, TB was responsible for killing 1.3 million people, making it the second largest fatal disease next to AIDS. The purpose of this paper is to describe tuberculosis, explain contributing factors, describe the disease in relation to the epidemiologic triangle, and finally discuss the role of community nurses in the prevention and treatment of the disease. Tuberculosis is a respiratory disease spread through the air. This is of course a simple definition and robs the disease of its true nature. In order to fully understand tuberculosis one must leverage the rules of communicable disease investigations. In that vein, tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium, specifically mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB, as it is often referred, is indeed spread through infected sputum, carried through the air from a host to a new host. Once in the lungs, the bacteria become latent or active. Latent TB infection means the patient is not symptomatic, yet will test positive on skin test. The second route leads to......

Words: 1779 - Pages: 8


...Thesis How has Chicken Pox evolved over time related to advances in community and public health nursing? Chicken Pox is a very common childhood disease caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus. This contagious itchy red rash covers the entire body with red blistery spots causing discomfort (Web MD 2013). Immunization, education, awareness and the epidemiology of Chicken Pox has made drastic improvement in the occurrence and mortality of disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2014). Description of Communicable Disease Chicken Pox can be easily transmitted from one person to the next by means of sneezing, coughing, saliva and surface contact (Web MD 2013). The fluid filled blisters rupture and accelerates the probability of transmission by contact. This disease is contagious 2-3 days prior to the rash appearing having an impact on how quickly this disease is transmitted due to the patient being asymptomatic (Web MD 2013). The ones who remain most at risk are those who’ve never had the disease or obtained a vaccine. The preliminary symptoms start to appear 14-16 days after contact with someone who had the disease (Web MD 2013). Symptoms include flu like symptoms with a fever, decreased appetite, headache, cough and sore throat. The itchy red spots appear taking approximately 2 days to go through the stages of blistering, bursting, drying and crusting over (Web MD 2013). Spots continue to appear everyday for about one week. It will take about one and......

Words: 1520 - Pages: 7

Epidemiology Paper

...Epidemiology Paper Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that predominantly affects the respiratory system but has capability of affecting and damaging all organs. In the past this disease has been referred to as Pott's disease, Consumption, scrofula, phthisis, and the White Plague ("History of," 2014). There are many theories regarding the origins of this disease. Popular theory states this disease originated under 6000 years ago and the first human acquired case was in Africa less than 5000 years ago ("History of," 2014). From Africa it spread over trade routes and also spread to animals such as cows and dogs ("History of," 2014). Sea lions and seals breeding on African beaches are believed to be the carriers of TB across the Atlantic ocean to South America where it then was spread to hunters thus introducing the first cases of TB to the western world ("History of," 2014). TB is caused by a mycobacterium named Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Symptoms of TB are chest pain, hemoptysis, cough lasting 3 weeks or longer, weakness, fatigue, appetite and weight loss, chills, fever and night sweats ("Tuberculosis (TB)," 2014). TB’s mode of transmission is airborne through small microscopic droplets that travel through the air after a person with the disease in their lungs coughs, speaks or sings or sneezes ("Tuberculosis (TB)," 2014). Latent and active TB are the two different types of TB conditions one may experience after exposure. Latent TB infection occurs in an individual who......

Words: 1298 - Pages: 6

Concepts of Epidemiology

...Concepts of Epidemiology: Tuberculosis Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V 10-26-2014 Concepts of Epidemiology: Tuberculosis “In 2013, 9 million people fell ill with TB and 1.5 million died from the disease” (WHO, 2014). Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected. About one-third of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria, but is not (yet) ill with the disease and cannot transmit the disease. (WHO, 2014). “Tuberculosis mostly affects young adults, in their most productive years. However, all age groups are at risk. Over 95% of cases and deaths are in developing countries. People who are infected with HIV are 26 to 31 times more likely to become sick with TB” (WHO, 2014). Risk of active TB is also greater in persons suffering from other conditions that impair the immune system. Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats. “TB is a treatable and curable disease. Active, drug-sensitive TB disease is treated with a standard six-month course of four antimicrobial drugs that are provided with information, supervision and support to......

Words: 1319 - Pages: 6


...Epidemiology: HIV The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the world’s largest pandemics as well as one of the most known diseases. With HIV being so common amongst our population, in today’s world many people still lack the knowledge of what HIV really is and how it is transmitted. This paper will explain in depth of how HIV is spread and the impact it has on society. Let’s begin with the history of HIV, where did it come from? Although there is no actual evidence to support this theory scientist believed the disease came from Chimpanzee’s that were infected. Hunters would eat the contaminated meat and then they became infected. The first report of HIV contraction came from a man from Congo in 1959, but how he became HIV positive is unknown (Where did HIV come from?, 2011). In 2011 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 49, 273 people were diagnosed with HIV in the United States. In the same year there were an estimated 1.1 million people with the disease and 1 out of 6 of those people might not know they are infected (HIV in The United States, 2011). HIV is transmitted through body fluids such as semen, pre- semen, rectal and vaginal fluids as well as through the sharing of needles. This makes the gay, lesbian and MSM population more susceptible to acquiring the disease due to their risky sexual practices (HIV Transmission, 2014). The populations of intravenous drug users are also at risk for catching HIV, many of them being homeless and......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6


...Epidemiology Question 1 1. Case control studies are designed in such a way so as to explore whether exposure can be associated with a particular outcome, such as a disease or certain condition. In these studies, the definition groups are based on the outcome and exposure assessment for potential risk factors. The first step in case control studies is the identification of the case (for example a group of people known to have the certain condition), as well as the control group ( a group that does not have the outcome). The second step is to explore whether some of the subjects in each group were exposed, and how the frequency of the exposure is measured between the case and the control group. Case control studies are basically observational, because there is no intervention taking place, and is a retrospective determination of the exposure to a certain risk factor. Advantages of case control studies • Case control studies are relatively less time consuming, since the disease has occurred in the past, therefore there is no need to assess the disease or condition. • They are an efficient way to study rare cases and diseases or outbreaks of diseases, since they are fast; during an outbreak, the fast examination of certain conditions is required, and a sufficient number of people suffering can be quickly accessed. • They allow a simultaneous examination of multiple conditions and risk factors • Allow the establishment of associations between suspected risk...

Words: 3862 - Pages: 16


...Epidemiology Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Abstract Descriptive epidemiology is based on two important premises which are central in the field. The first premise states that disease does not occur in isolation. Secondly, patterns of disease occurrence are placed under three important categories of person, place and time. This paper seeks to build understanding on the three areas by giving relevant examples where they are applied. Epidemiology Person In Epidemiology studies the important demographic information will include age, sex, marital status, race, ethnicity, and religion and socioeconomic status. Age is considered the most important factor and is used in analyzing trends in disease occurrence. Advancement in age may be associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases. The elderly are also linked with several challenges. Changes marking age are shown by two important phases in life which shows greater frequency (Descriptive Epidemiology n.d). Sex as a second determinant of the person, and allows us to make references across sexes. For instance psychological studies have revealed that women cope well in the event of stress than men. Marital status is closer to this, and in epidemiology studies, it can be useful in establishing patterns of chronic diseases across genders (Descriptive Epidemiology n.d). Race and ethnicity have been used in epidemiology studies to......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3


...Epidemiology NUR 408 October5, 2015 Epidemiology Epidemiology is the basic principle of public health. According to Hilfinger Messias, McKeown, and Adams (2012, p. 255 ), “Epidemiology has been defined as the study of the occurrence and distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations, including the study of the determinants influencing such states, and the application of this knowledge to control the health problems” (Porta, 2008, p 81). The goal of epidemiology is optimal health for the entire community. It is important to remember that health does not merely mean medical treatment for specific diseases, but also assurance of available services and development and implementation of policies and programs to meet the needs of the population as a whole. Descriptive epidemiology is the study of the “association of health events to person, place, and time” (Stroup, D. & Thacker, S., 2009, p. 262). Analytical epidemiology studies the causes and risk factors of health events. In order to evaluate the health events in a population, both descriptive and analytical epidemiology are important (Stroup, D. & Thacker, S., 2009). Three categories of data sources commonly used in epidemiologic studies including surveillance data, census data, and vital records, data collected for other purposes, and epidemiologic data (Hilfinger Messias, McKeown, and Adams 2012). The epidemiological triangle is composed of three elements of disease, and......

Words: 1660 - Pages: 7

Concepts of Epidemiology

...CONCEPTS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Mfon Umanah Grand Canyon University: NRS 427V 11/29/2015 Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease that affects mainly the lungs, it is caused by germs that travels through the blood stream and the lymph node, TB is contagious infectious disease and can spread from person to person through the air. It can also affect brain, the kidneys, or the spine. An infected person can die if prompt treatment is not initiated. Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria named Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB can be in active or inactive form, if a person with active tuberculosis of the lungs coughs or sneezes, a person who is nearby can inhale the bacteria, a casual or briefed contact with an infectious person may not lead to an infection, It takes long hours of exposure to transmit the infection, unless the contacted person is ill or have a weakened immune system. TB spread easily in a crowded environment. TB is airborne disease and can stay in the air for several hours, depending on the environment. Symptoms includes cough, with bloody sputum, chest pain especially with TB of the lungs, general symptoms of tuberculosis includes malady, weakness, fever, weight lost, excessive night sweat. Other symptoms depends on the part of the body that is affected. TB can be fatal without treatment, it typically affects your lungs, and can spread to other parts of the body through bloodstream, the following complications occurs with untreated infection; Spinal pain, a back pain and......

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5


...Epidemiology: Global and Public Health Jennifer Nurse NUR408 January 2011 Nancy Nurse, EdD, RN, PHN, LSN Epidemiology: Global and Public Health According to the Centers for Disease Control, “diabetes affects 25.8 million people, 8.3% of the U.S. population” (Center for Disease control and Prevention, 2012, par 1). Twice as many African Americans are likely to develop diabetes than Caucasian Americans. These statistics represent how serious diabetes has become for the black community. Epidemiology can focus healthcare efforts and interventions to help lower the incidence of diabetes of the African Americans. This paper will focus on the role of epidemiology in the observation of the frequency of diabetes in the morbidity and mortality of American of African decent. This paper will also include the definition and description of epidemiology, epidemiological methods, the epidemiological triangle, types of epidemiology, and prevention that is related with diabetes in the African American community. Definition and Description of Epidemiology Epidemiology is defined as, “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems.” (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012, p. 243). Epidemiology has provided an understanding of the......

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8


...Epidemiology Paper Allison Brown Nur 408 May 14, 2012 Prof. Pamela Orr Epidemiology Paper People have many health concerns and diagnosis that presents to the current public health as daunting. The first step in any medical situation regarding a person’s health is prevention that is talked among the professionals in the health community. This will be the only way to help the cycle to break that will further prevent other diseases from occurring. Using epidemiology and the epidemiology triangle diabetes in African Americans will be observed. This health concern in many communities in the United States can be prevented and helped, but information is the key to success. In this paper we will be examining the definition and description of epidemiology, the steps and methods of epidemiology, reviewing the data of the selected population. We will also be looking at the epidemiological triangle as well as various levels of prevention. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. Various methods can be used to carry out epidemiological investigations: surveillance and descriptive studies can be used to study distribution; analytical studies are used to study determinants (WHO, 2012). Epidemiology is a type of science that guides our understanding of the strong points of how exposure and the relation to how it......

Words: 1897 - Pages: 8


...Epidemiology Paper Anavictoria Fortaleza March 5, 2012 NUR408 Epidemiology Paper Vulnerable populations are "those with a greater than average risk of developing health problems by virtue of their marginalized socio-cultural status, their limited access to economic resources, or personal characteristics such as age and gender" (De Chesnay & Anderson, 2008). Infants and young children are vulnerable to a host of healthcare problems, they are susceptible to viral infection especially respiratory infection such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus. In this paper, the author will define and describe epidemiological triangle as it relates to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), types of epidemiology, and levels of prevention of RSV. Epidemiology Definition Epidemiology is defined as "the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems" (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). The study of epidemiology is important because it search for causes or factors that are related with increased risk or likelihood of disease, it deals with group of people rather than with individual person, and it helps public health with decision making and aids in developing and evaluating interventions to control and prevent health problems (CDC, 2012). Epidemiology is used to "monitor the health of various populations, understand the determinants of health and disease in communities,......

Words: 1827 - Pages: 8