Free Essay

Endless War

In: English and Literature

Submitted By fathehahzulkifly
Words 1204
Pages 5
Dear Students,

I would like to make justification regarding the two themes in the short story “My Friend Luke”. Firstly, let’s hope you really comprehend what is the meaning of “THEME” in literature. “THEME” refers to the central issue/topic that is being discussed in the text.

In the case of “My Friend Luke”, the themes “Respect” and “Identity Crisis” are among the issues that are allude for the reader to grasp, and perhaps see the connection with the reality of life.

“Respect” is being discussed in the story, as Luke does not receive the respect he deserved, neither from his family nor employer. His wife, son and boss do not have high regard towards him due to his timid character. In other words, you could say they are disrespectful towards Luke. However, disrespectful is not the theme being discussed. Disrespectful is the attitude shown to Luke. What the author is trying to convey is, in life, respect is at the utmost importance. It is important to improve respect because of the impacts that respect has both on the relationship and results. As an analogy, when a man works with someone where he has little respect or no respect, he tends to go out of his way to avoid the person. Conversely, in a work relationship, he may still avoid that person, suffer the frustration of having to deal with them, or quit and stay in the job and continue to make himself miserable.

Similarly, that is what happening in Luke’s family and the people around him. They have to deal with the frustration of dealing with Luke as he is the husband, father and the oldest employer as they have lack of respect and show their disrespectfulness as a way to manage the exasperation that they are having with him. Consequently, Luke has a poor relationship with the people around him as a result of lack of respect.

Another example to support this theme is Luke’s behavior on the bus, where in contrast, he is the one showing disrespectfulness towards the bus passengers. Except, at one moment he wants other passengers to give seats to the children and elders. That is also temporary as he wants others to respect and be nice to these people though he is not doing it.

Whether respect is declared or whether it occurs as a judgment, it is an expression of the way the person who is respecting or not respecting sees themselves and others. Respect is in the eye of the beholder and is not a function of the behavior or attributes of those we are relating to. IF RESPECT IS A JUDGMENT, IT BECOMES A TOOL OF THE EGO AND ACTUALLY A SOURCE OF SEPARATION AND CONFLICT BETWEEN HUMAN BEINGS. The alternative is to understand that respect is an action, a declaration and a commitment on our part of whom another person is separate and apart from whatever judgments we might have of their behavior.

Hence, instead of using “DISRESPECT” as the theme, “RESPECT” is more suitable because without respect, it will lead to difference of opinion and negative actions, such as disrespect.

THEME: IDENTITY CRISIS

To comprehend this theme, let’s take a look at the meaning of “IDENTITY CRISIS”. According to the dictionary, IDENTITY CRISIS means:

“A period of uncertainty and confusion in which a person's sense of identity becomes insecure, typically due to a change in their expected aims or role in society.”

While according to the dictionary.com online, IDENTITY CRISIS means:

“A period or episode of psychological distress, often occurring in adolescence, but sometimes in adulthood, when a person seeks a clearer sense of self and an acceptable role in the society”.

Thus, without a doubt, IDENTITY CRISIS is one of the issues portrayed in the short story “My Friend Luke”. What happened to Luke’s behavior on the bus is the episode of his psychological distress. Referring to the short story, Luke, in his actual world is a timid and reserved person. Nevertheless, on the bus, his personality greatly changed to someone who is obnoxious. The underlying message of this incident clearly exemplify that Luke is trying to be accepted by the society (passengers on the bus) for who he really is. He is unable to command himself and be as expected at home or even at work with the role that he is adhered to as a man in the society. As a result, he is unqualified to neither voice any opinion nor be respected by the people around him, as he would love to.

Accordingly, Luke acts the way he wanted on the bus, without concerning what other passengers think about him. The explicit purpose, which can be seen, is definitely a change in behavior, but on a deeper analysis (after all, this is literature, not merely reading on the surface) it is a way for Luke wanting to be accepted by the society. Why do you think the author wrote that particular scene in the short story? Why do you think the author would like to talk about the behavioral change of the main character? Certainly, there is a message or issue that he would like to highlight for the reader to ponder, for this is a literary text. In this case, the message or issue that can be inferred is, when a person is forced to be the person that he refused to be in a context that he lives in, he will continue to exhibit the same personality or characteristics which will eventually become permanent to his life. However, when there is an opportunity for him to be his true self, he will most likely grab it to prove his worth.

In correspondence to this, Luke was forced to be someone he dislikes, by those who have stronger personalities than he does, or more dominant than him for a long period of time (evidently until he is old). Beyond question, the real situation that he is dealing with could cause him suffering psychologically as he is put away from everything in such duration. Being on the bus is where he could get the opportunity to act the way he wanted, which is deemed unacceptable by the people close to him. Undeniably, through Luke’s action on the bus, he feels accepted as no one is telling him that his actions are wrong.

Identity crisis is a conflict that people face in them. Therefore, the meaning of identity crisis fits the scene demonstrated by the author in the short story “My Friend Luke” and for that reason, “IDENTITY CRISIS” is the theme for the short story.

P/S: If you have any doubts on what you learn, please feel free to seek clarification from your lecturers instead of trusting a single source of information that has little support/explanation. Trust us, we did research before teaching you in class.

To understand more why this theme is the topic discussed for this short story, please read more on identity crisis and see the relation with the main character, Luke. You can also click the link below, an explanation by Dr. Susan Krauss on identity crisis:

http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201203/are-you-having-identity-crisis…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The War

...oduction The Nigerian Civil War, 1967 – 1970, was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the South-eastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed republic of Biafra. The war became notorious for the starvation in some of the besieged war-bound regions, and the consequent claims of genocide made by the largely Igbo people of those regions. Causes of the Conflict The conflict was the result of serious tensions, both ethnic and religious, between the different peoples of Nigeria. Like most modern African nations, Nigeria was an artificial construct, put together by agreement between European powers, paying little regard to historical African boundaries or population groups. The Nigeria which received independence from Britain in 1960 had a population of 60 million people of nearly 300 differing ethnic and tribal groups. Of the ethnic groups that made up Nigeria, the largest were the largely Muslim Hausa in the north, the Yoruba in the half-Christian, half-Muslim south-west, and the Igbo in the predominantly Christian south-east. At independence a conservative political alliance had been made between the leading Hausa and Igbo political parties, which ruled Nigeria from 1960 to 1966. This alliance excluded the western Yoruba people. The well-educated Igbo people were considered by many to be the main beneficiaries of this alliance, taking most of the top jobs and leading business opportunities in the Nigerian federation. The Yoruba......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Scars of War

...The Scars of War Lou Hampton United States History 1763-1877 September 18, 2012 During the 1840s and 1850s, great change was coming to America. Northerners lived in a world of change in which they hardly understood. Their confusions and anxieties of that world made them ready for conflict. However, it was not completely clear what they were fighting for. The war wiped away their confusions and revealed to them where they stood and defined what kind of people they might be. Social and economic changes were happening as the North headed toward war. The economy accelerated, increased output, generated more wealth, moved products and people at faster speeds, transmitted information more rapidly and linked distant places by rail, telegraph and newspapers. New inventions, industries and products had sprung to life. The population multiplied six fold and the amount and size of cities were continuing their growth. There were 400 places with over 2,500 people. Swelling its possibilities, the nation expanded in size when in 1845 Texas joined the Union. Another factor in the nation’s growth was in 1846 when the Oregon territorial boundary was settled. The sudden economic growth was not as beneficial as it seemed. Per capita wealth was growing but there was a decline in actual wages. The North controlled about 92 percent of the wealth. This helped fuel sectionalism because the Southerners became afraid that they would lose their own culture and power in Congress. ......

Words: 3044 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

The Wars

...The Wars by Timothy Findley Novel Study 1. Journal Entries Character Sketch Robert Ross, the “nineteen years old” protagonist in Timothy Findley’s The Wars is: -innocent: “Robert is easily bruised” this can be interpreted in the sense that Robert represents innocence which is can be easily corrupted by bad things such as war. -introverted: “Robert avoided them through the journey-wanting to protect the last of his privacy”“he was studious and careful: exact. He watched the men around him from a distance...he found excuses to keep them at bay” -compassionate: Robert is compassionate towards the weak and helpless like his mentally challenged sister Rowena for whom he was a loving “guardian”. When he was forced to shoot the wounded horse on the convoy ship, it really pained Robert to shoot the animal and when it took more than one shot to kill it, Robert felt bad for not putting it out of its misery to the point he gets frustrated with himself and the horse -a leader: Robert was a person who could lead and follow, although he knew that Captain Leather’s orders to place the gun beds in a bad spot he followed his orders and during the gas attack he was able to direct his men, who weren’t issued gas masks, to safety (he told them to urinate on their handkerchiefs). One of his men was in shock and was unable to urinate so Robert, the only person with a gas mask, gave his mask to the soldier. Furthermore, when they were ‘escaping’ the German, Robert,......

Words: 2033 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The Endless Crisis

...THE ENDLESS CRISIS REPORT Introduction The Endless Crisis was written by John Bellamy Foster, the editor of Monthly Review and professor of sociology at the University of Oregon collaborating with Robert W. McChesney. The article came originally from the introduction of the book called The Endless Crisis: How Monopoly-Finance Capital Produces Stagnation and Upheaval from the United States to China. The Great Financial Crisis and the Great Recession began in the United States in 2007 and quickly spread across the globe, which appear to be the turning point of the world history. The recovery plan was set to two year, however the world economy five years after crisis is still in the sluggishness. The Traid – United States, Europe, and Japan remain caught in a slow growth condition, financial instability, and high unemployment rate. As a consequence, the effects spread globally. Despite the slowdown of the global economy, China is the only country found out to be a bright spot as its economy is still expanding. Different views on the Stagnation In the United States, the focus of financial crisis shifted to the idea of economic stagnation. The idea of stagnation was introduced by authorities and published books as follow. Firstly, Ben Bernanke, chairman of Federal Reserve Board said on his speech in 2011 that the stagnation was not affects only the United States, but the global economy as a whole. He moreover stressed that he do not expect the long-run potential......

Words: 6358 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

The Drug War

...some of the horrors of these raids. Many times people who are suspected of being involved with drugs somehow become victims of the DEA planting drug evidence on innocent people who are of no real threat to society. These people are then forced to make a deal with DEA agents in order to eliminate or reduce sentence time in return for going undercover for the agency. In one case a young girl with a bright future ahead of her was killed in this line of action. DEA agents will refuse to admit that they force this dangerous work upon people. In the end I think the primary purpose of this film is to inform the audience of the endless drug war that has been going on for decades and how no good can come of it. Our money would be better spent helping addicts recover and setting up treatment facilities rather than funding the DEA which fuels a hopeless war....

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Education: a Key to Endless Opportunities

...everyday lives easier. Education is important because it helps people enhance their skills and knowledge, and because of it, people can have an access in different jobs. Undeniably, having a job is very essential in our lives , it yield or it gives us our daily need in order to survive. In conclusion, Education is beneficial or very important to every human or to our society. Words cannot even describe how important education is. Everyone of us has the right to have an access in education, though, unfortunately, not all people has the opportunity to study, but, we, people who has the chance to study should not let this opportunity to pass by. And if the time comes, we should become an instrument and way to help those people to experience the endless opportunities of education and how it can change one’s life....

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

World War

...The term "World War" was coined speculatively in the early 20th century, some years before the First World War broke out, probably as a literal translation of the German word Weltkrieg.[5] German writer August Wilhelm Otto Niemann had used the word in the title of his anti-British novel Der Weltkrieg: Deutsche Träume ("The World War: German Dreams") as early as 1904, published in English as The coming conquest of England. The Oxford English Dictionary cites the first known usage in the English language as being in April 1909, in the pages of the Westminster Gazette. It was recognized that the complex system of opposing alliances–the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire vs. the French Third Republic, the Russian Empire, and the British Empire was likely to lead to a worldwide conflict in the event of war breaking out. The fact that the powers involved had large overseas empires virtually guaranteed that a war would be worldwide, as the colonies' resources would be a crucial strategic factor. The same strategic considerations also ensured that the combatants would strike at each other's colonies, thus spreading the fighting far more widely than in the pre-colonial era. Other languages have also adopted the "World War" terminology. For instance, in French, the two World Wars are the Guerres mondiales; in German, the Erste und Zweite Weltkrieg (World War I was only known or commonly recognized in public as der Weltkrieg in Germany when it was over, while...

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Border War

...Border War A father and his son slowly makes their way over a ten-foot iron fence; propelling themselves upward by wedging their worn sneakers in between the large metal poles. They’re climbing the fence to go visit their family in America. They both have made this trip multiple times, and both know that if their caught the punishment will be a lecture and a free ride home. Maybe next time over they will carry some drugs to make some quick cash, this is my story and just like my dad and I were, many illegal immigrants know how easy it is to cross the border and how light the punishments are. They know that the border is just a small obstacle between them and the United States, acting more as a revolving door than an impenetrable barrier. The border fortifications put in place by the United States of America are ineffective and a waste of time and money because of the insecure fencing, lack of appropriately equipped and trained personnel, and the fact that drugs are still making it across the border into the United States. The current ineffectiveness of America’s border defenses have been around for multiple decades. For the past ten years, the U.S./Mexican border has come under close scrutiny because of the many failed attempts to hold back immigrants and drug dealers coming from Mexico. Larger fences were built along borders near major cities and towns, mainly along the border cities of Texas. Bigger security forces (the Border Patrol Agency) were created in the mid ‘80s......

Words: 1739 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Endless Hope

...The Endless Hope Big brown dog running around, kids laughing and your lovely wife or husband holding a delicious looking apple pie with a great smile right in front of your house while you came back from work. Happy family and affluent life, that is the typical American life anyone can dream to live. Ever since our country was formed, the endless hope for better life was present in every citizens' mind which now we call American Dream. American Dream is defined as the idea that everyone in the United States has the chance to achieve success and prosperity which includes freedom, wealth, love, material things, and happiness. This dream has powered the hopes and aspirations of Americans for generations. According to the definition of American Dream, I think Jay Gatsby from F. S. Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby, lived the American Dream. Jay Gatsby, born James Gatz, was born poor to an unsuccessful farming family in the Midwest. He was very ambitious boy who had dream to be rich and successful since young age. Even his father said "Jimmy was bound to get ahead. He always had some resolves like this or something. Do you notice what he's got about improving himself? He was always great for that." However his poor family could never satisfy his ambition so he decide to leave his family and self define himself. He changes his name to Jay Gatsby and changes his occupation as well as his background. This is concurrent with the notion of freedom in the American Dream, as Gatsby...

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Is War

...Is War Primarily the Product of ‘Human Nature’? It is too great a task to identify a common cause of all wars, past and present, then attribute it responsibility for their commencing. However, what can be done is to identify certain foundations common in all “war”, and pay heed to how “states [or other structures] actually behave, behind the façade of their values-based rhetoric” (Kaplan, 2012, p.1). It will be this essay’s goal to determine first, what needs be included in the definition of “human nature”, and what constitutes “war”, and second, stake the claim that all political action, including that of states, is derived primarily from this definition of human nature. The first task is to define what is meant by “war”, and while definitions abound, it is possible to order them into one of two categories supplied by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. The first is the modern conventional view, that war is “the state of armed conflict between nations or states” (Oxford, 2007, p.3573), and the second, considerably broader, of “any active hostility or struggle between living beings” (Oxford, 2007, p.3573). The former accounts well for conflicts that were overwhelmingly state-centric, such as the First World War, and marks a clear distinction between war and individual political violence: war is the business of states. However, is the Vietnam War to be understood—like the Korean—as a simple north versus south conflict, despite the northern state only assuming active......

Words: 2214 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Wars

...War is an organized and often prolonged conflict that is carried out by states or non-state actors. It is generally characterised by extreme violence, social disruption and an attempt at economic destruction. War should be understood as an actual, intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities, and therefore is defined as a form of (collective) political violence or intervention. The set of techniques used by a group to carry out war is known as warfare. An absence of war is usually called peace. While some scholars see warfare as an inescapable and integral aspect of human nature,[1] others argue that it is only inevitable under certain socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[2] For some, the practice of war is not linked to any single type of political organization or society. Rather, as discussed by John Keegan in his A History of Warfare, war is a universal phenomenon whose form and scope is defined by the society that wages it. Another argument suggests that since there are human societies in which warfare does not exist, humans may not be naturally disposed for warfare, which emerges under particular circumstances. The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is the Second World War, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests.[3] Proportionally speaking, the most destructive war in modern history is the War of the Triple Alliance, which took the lives of over 60% of......

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Civil War

...How does the US Civil War define Americans? In the Civil War, Americans collectively repudiated slavery, and were willing to fight very hard to preserve their country from being torn apart by secession, so it was a form of redemption and a demonstration of patriotism. America also fought very hard in WWI, and WW II, and the Cold War, and in the current war on terror, so the Civil War would not still be the dominant symbol of American patriotism, but it remains important. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2702949?uid=3739960&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21106146471671 Why did the South loose the War? The main reason was that the North had a 10 to 1 advantage in industrial workers. As general Sherman said to a southern colleague, "We can make a locomotive while you are hard pressed to turn out a pair of shoes." This disparity led to a 40 to 1 advantage in naval strength. Water power allowed the Union to build "Scott's Anaconda", a naval blockade which prevented the South from trading with the rest of the world (trading cotton for guns, for example). The trade embargo was devastating to the South's economy, and their soldiers were often equipped with inferior weapons, not enough food, and ragged and barefoot. It is astonishing that the war lasted as long as it did. The South's only advantage was the superiority of their generalship, and the fighting spirit of the private soldiers, but the best generals and the best soldiers could not win against......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Is This War?

...the basic necessities required for them to survive, there is one thing the Dani people do all day, every day, and that is fight. Some have called the endless battles in which the different Dani tribes participate a war, but it is not. What the Dani have would be considered a feud, or a never-ending stream of revenge killings. The Marine Corps defines war as “A violent clash of interests between or among organized groups characterized by the use of military force,” and continues to define the essence of war as “A violent struggle between two hostile, independent, and irreconcilable wills, each trying to impose itself on another.” In the case of the Dani, their battles are occurring purely for revenge, either for the death of a fellow Dani in a previous battle, or the death of one in a raid on a village or settlement. Thus neither side is trying to push their beliefs or way of life onto one another. A feud is defined as “A state of prolonged mutual hostility, typically between two families or communities, characterized by murderous assaults in revenge for previous injuries.” This spells out what occurs between the Dani tribes to a T. Each battle occurs entirely because in a previous battle someone was wounded or killed. In conclusion, the frequent, and almost daily battles that take place within the Baliem Valley is not war, or warfare. It is a simple feud, one that takes place out of a want for revenge as much as a increased level of boredom....

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Greek Wars

...period of history. This is a period of interesting wars and advances in warfare. I will take a deeper look in this paper into the different wars, leaders and weapons used. There were many great wars in this period. The Greek states often fought each other. Sparta and Athens fought a long war, called the Peloponnesian War, during the period from 431 to 404 BC. Sparta won. Only the threat of attack by a foreign enemy made the Greeks forget their quarrels and fight on the same side. Their main enemy was Persia. The conflicts against Persia lasted on and off from 490 to 449 BC. The Persian kings tried to defeat Greece and make it part of the Persian Empire. In the end, it was Greece which conquered Persia, when Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Kingdom in the 330s BC. The strength of the army was the hoplite. They were foot soldier, and the artilleries were a long spear and a sword. They also had a shield. Hoplites clashed in lines or ranks. Eight to ten ranks made a formation called the phalanx. Each soldier held his long spear underarm. Enemy fighters saw only a figure of spears and shields, that was tough to go through and tough to break once it started advancing forward. The Greeks had archers and cavalry, but the phalanx that won many well-known battles. I will highlight some wars throughout this time period and showing how the soldiers lived. Fighter had to pay for their armour, unless their father was executed in war. Then they were given the weapons and armour......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Civil War

...The Civil War More Americans died during the Civil War from 1861-1865 than in any other war, ever. While these dates may define the period of war action, in fact the Civil War was the result of a long, history of complex issues of such things as Constitutional interpretation, economics, and the ethics of slavery. Below are brief sketches of only a few of the memorable names from that era of U.S. history. Also online at the Smithsonian is a collection of Civil War photographs by Mathew Brady. Henry Clay (1777-1852) George Peter Alexander Healy (1813-1894) Oil on canvas, circa 1845, NPG.65.44 National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Transfer from the National Gallery of Art; gift of Andew W. Mellon, 1942 Henry Clay was one of the most influential congressmen of the early 1800s, with a political career that spanned nearly fifty years. Born in the midst of the American Revolution, he devoted his professional energy to the preservation of the union of the states in the stormy years preceding the Civil War. To that end, he crafted several key compromises between the North and the South, for which he became known as "The Great Pacificator." But even his legendary statesmanship could not keep war from erupting nine years after his death. Differing interpretations of the Constitution were at the heart of the Civil War. Clay and other supporters of the Union insisted that states were subject to federal authority, while others, most......

Words: 1639 - Pages: 7