Free Essay

Encoding Decoding Summary

In: Other Topics

Submitted By swayswati
Words 626
Pages 3
* Titled 'Encoding and Decoding in the Television Discourse,' Hall's essay offers a theoretical approach of how media messages are produced, disseminated, and interpreted * His model claims that TV and other media audiences are presented with messages that are decoded, or interpreted in different ways depending on an individual's cultural background, economic standing, and personal experiences. In contrast to other media theories that disempower audiences, Hall advanced the idea that audience members can play an active role in decoding messages as they rely on their own social contexts, and might be capable of changing messages themselves through collective action. * Encoding/decoding is the translation of a message that is easily understood. When you decode a message, you are extracting the meaning of that message into terms that you are able to easily understand. * Hall claims that the decoding subject can assume three different positions: Dominant/hegemonic position, negotiated position, and oppositional position. 1. dominant (or 'hegemonic') reading: the reader fully shares the text's code and accepts and reproduces the preferred reading - in such a stance the code seems 'natural' and 'transparent'; 2. negotiated reading: the reader partly shares the text's code and broadly accepts the preferred reading, but sometimes resists and modifies it in a way which reflects their own position, experiences and interests (local and personal conditions may be seen as exceptions to the general rule) - this position involves contradictions; 3. oppositional ('counter-hegemonic') reading: the reader, whose social situation places them in a directly oppositional relation to the dominant code, understands the preferred reading but does not share the text's code and rejects this reading, bringing to bear an alternative frame of reference (radical, feminist etc.) (e.g. when watching a television broadcast produced on behalf of a political party they normally vote against).

* Hall advances a four-stage model of communication that takes into account the production, circulation, consumption and reproduction of media * "Each stage will affect the message (or ”product”) being conveyed as a result of its ’discursive form’ (e.g. practices, instruments, relations). This implies that, for example, the sender of information can never be sure that it will be perceived by the target audience in the way that was intended, because of this chain of discourse. 1. Production – This is where the encoding of a message takes place. By drawing upon society's dominant ideologies, the creator of the message is feeding off of society's beliefs, and values. The preferred reading produced can be done on purpose or any unconscious biases that the author is unaware of. 2. Circulation – How individuals perceive things: visual vs. written. How things are circulated influences how audience members will receive the message and put it to use. 3. Use (distribution or consumption) – This is the decoding/interpreting of a message which requires active recipients. This is a complex process of understanding for the audience. 4. Reproduction – This is the stage after audience members have interpreted the message in their own way based on their experiences and beliefs. What is done with the message after it has been interpreted is where this stage comes in. At this point, you will see whether individuals take action after they have been exposed to a specific message.
'above all, a semiological conception'. Hall rejected textual determinism, noting that 'decodings do not follow inevitably from encodings' (Hall 1980, 136). In contrast to the earlier models, Hall thus gave a significant role to the 'decoder' as well as to the 'encoder'. * Audience is the encoder and the decoder in some sense- TV prod. look to audience socio-economic culture to develop TV prog. Once the prog. is created the audience provides feedback and if the feedback is good, it results in continuation of the same encoding or creating sth new.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Decoding Speech Prosody: Do Music Lessons Help?

...Emotion 2004, Vol. 4, No. 1, 46–64 Copyright 2004 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 1528-3542/04/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.46 Decoding Speech Prosody: Do Music Lessons Help? William Forde Thompson, E. Glenn Schellenberg, and Gabriela Husain University of Toronto at Mississauga Three experiments revealed that music lessons promote sensitivity to emotions conveyed by speech prosody. After hearing semantically neutral utterances spoken with emotional (i.e., happy, sad, fearful, or angry) prosody, or tone sequences that mimicked the utterances’ prosody, participants identified the emotion conveyed. In Experiment 1 (n 20), musically trained adults performed better than untrained 56), musically trained adults outperformed untrained adults. In Experiment 2 (n adults at identifying sadness, fear, or neutral emotion. In Experiment 3 (n 43), 6-year-olds were tested after being randomly assigned to 1 year of keyboard, vocal, drama, or no lessons. The keyboard group performed equivalently to the drama group and better than the no-lessons group at identifying anger or fear. In the past 10 years, the possibility of links between musical and nonmusical domains has generated excitement among researchers and the popular press. One line of research concerns short-term benefits in nonmusical domains that occur as a consequence of passive listening to music. In two widely cited studies (Rauscher, Shaw, & Ky, 1993, 1995), listening to music composed by Mozart led......

Words: 7856 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

The Effect of Prediction on Depth of Encoding

...The Effect of Prediction on Depth of Encoding Student X name University of New South Wales 2 Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prediction on depth of encoding. Participants (N=136) were given sentence stems and instructed to think of a word to finish the sentence. The full sentence was then completed with either a predictive or a nonpredictive word, and a recognition test given to see how well each word was retained in memory. Out of the three hypotheses, the results supported stronger encoding of predictive words over non-predictive words or the prediction itself. It was suggested this could be due to predictive words forming a more elaborate memory trace, which then integrated better with existing mental categories. 3 The Effect of Prediction on Depth of Encoding When reading a sentence, the mind can form a prediction about which word should come next. Yet it is not clear how this prediction affects the encoding of the actual word that completes the sentence. A word that fulfils the prediction could be better encoded than one that violates it, simply because it forms a smoother fit, or because the mind was already prepared for it. Alternatively, the violation itself might create a stronger impact, leading to better encoding. A third possibility also exists: that the prediction overwrites the encoding of the actual word, regardless of its congruency. One of the most enduring theories of encoding is the levels of processing......

Words: 1492 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Summary

...his ideas in such a manner as will add something important, something indispensable in order to secure an adequate realization of his ideas. To call style embellishment is the same thing as to strip it of its very essence, that is, to render unnecessary those elements which secure the manifold application of the language units. No doubt there are utterances which contain all kinds of unmotivated stylistic means. Moreover, there are writers whose style abounds in such utterances. But they are either those who, admiring the form, use it at the expense of the matter, or those who, by experimenting with the potentialities of language means, try to find new ways of rendering their ideas. In both cases the reader is faced with difficulties in decoding the message and this greatly hinders understanding. A very popular notion of style among teachers of language is that style is technique of expression. In this sense style is generally defined as the ability to write clearly, correctly and in a manner calculated to interest the reader. Though the last requirement is not among the indispensables, it is still found in many practical manuals of style, most of which can be lumped together under the title "Composition and Style". This is a purely utilitarian point of view of the issue in question. If this were true, style could be taught. Style in this sense of expression studies the normalized forms of the language. The teaching process aims at lucidity of expression. It sets up a......

Words: 151690 - Pages: 607

Free Essay

Differential Manchester Encoding

...DIFFERENTIAL MANCHESTER ENCODING 1. Rules The Differential Manchester encoding rules (after Halsall) are as follows: 1. There is a transition at the start of the bit if the data is a logic ‘0’ Note: Tanenbaum has a transition for a logic ‘1’ instead. 2. There is always a transition in the middle of the bit. 3. The direction of the transition is immaterial (hence there are two possible waveforms for any data stream depending upon the initial conditions). This gives us the following sample test data assuming pairs of logic levels for one actual bit: Data 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 Differential 01 10 10 10 01 01 10 01 Manchester (1) Differential 10 01 01 01 10 10 01 10 Manchester (2) After Halsall 2. Design Steps The output is toggling which suggests a flip flop. If Data = ‘0’ Output = Clock or inverse clock If Data = ‘1’ Output = 2 on –ve clock or inverse 2 on –ve clock Hence the output must be made up of two AND gates and an OR gate to select either * clock or inverse clock when Data = ‘0’ or * 2 on –ve clock or inverse 2 on –ve clock if Data = ‘1’ By De Morgan’s theorem (A.B)+(C.D) = (A.B).(C.D) So we can use three 2 input NAND gates instead of two 2 input AND gates and one 2 input OR gate. Finally we need to flesh out the additional circuitry required. 3. Test Data set The actual test data needs to be more along the following lines: Data 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Output 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 ...

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Critical Analysis: Cultural Encoding/Decoding

...The arrangement of television programming together with the initial meanings depicted and portrayed on our television screens, shape and define our cultural society more than we realize. However, for several reasons, one of which is that scholars hold differing views on the relevancy and suitability of coding in our programming, basic principles of decoding/encoding (Hall 1980) have been substituted with our cultural norms and as a result, they influence our interpretation of "the meaning". This critical review will explore two different articles on this issue and assess their contents. One could argue that Daniel Miller's paper “The Young and the Restless in Trinidad: A Case of the Local and the Global in Mass Consumption" (2002) which is a study on local and global transformation and cultural content in television programming does not fully take into account John Fiske's "Television Culture"(1987) which outlines the codes of images that determine the way we create and understand television; when claiming that society is already pre-disposed to coding cultures and therefore specific coding does not necessarily apply when cultural context is imposed on an audience. Firstly, Fiske and Miller believe that coding is involved in the process of guiding an audience to a meaning. Secondly, they imply that while culture context does manipulate an understanding of meaning, there needs to be an initial adapted code before context comes into play. Both of the articles,......

Words: 1393 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Decoding the Dna of the Toyota Production System

...96 ARTWORK BY AMY NINC The Toyota story has been intensively researched and painstakingly documented, yet what really happens inside the company remains a mystery. Here's new insight into the unspoken rules that give Toyota its competitive edge. Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System by Steven Spear and H. Kent Bowen long been hailed as the source of Toyota's outstanding performance as a manufacturer. The system's distinctive practices -its kanhan cards and quahty circles, for instance - have been widely introduced elsewhere. Indeed, following their own internal efforts to henchmark the world's best manufacturing companies, GM, Ford, and Chrysler have independently created major initiatives to develop Toyota-like production systems. Companies that have tried to adopt the system can be found in fields as diverse as aerospace, consumer products, metals processing, and industrial products. What's curious is that few manufacturers have managed to imitate Toyota successfully-even though the company has been extraordinarily open about its practices. Hundreds of thousands of executives from thousands of businesses have toured Toyota's plants in Japan and the United States. Frustrated by their inability to replicate Toyota's performance, many visitors assume that the secret of Toyota's success must lie in its cultural roots. But that's just not the case. Other Japanese companies, such as Nissan and Honda, have fallen short of Toyota's standards, and Toyota has...

Words: 7627 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Marketing Summary

...Summary of Marketing Week 1: Chapter 1+8 and 4 Week 2: Chapter 5 and 6 Week 3: Chapter 9 and 10 Week 4: Chapter 3 Week 5: Chapter 11+12, 13 and 14 Week 6: Chapter 15 and 16+18 Week 7: Chapter 19 and 20 Chapter 1 - Marketing now Chapter 3 - Strategic marketing Chapter 4 - The market environment Chapter 5 - Consumer markets Chapter 9. Segmentation and positioning. Chapter 10. Competitive strategy. Chapter 15. Integrated marketing communications strategy. Chapter 19 - Managing market channels - Place Chapter 1 - Marketing now Definition: a social and managerial process by which individuals and group obtain what they want through creating and exchanging products and value with each others. or the process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. Old, “telling and selling”. Now, satisfying customer needs. Selling happens after product is produced, marketing starts much earlier and helps determining whether a profitable opportunity exists. “The aim of marketing is to make selling unnecessary.” Marketing process: create value for customer 1) Understand customer needs and wants 2) Design a customer-driven strategy 3) Construct an integrated marketing programme that deliver superior value 4) Build profitable relationships and create customer delight capture value from customer 5) Capture value from customer to create profits and customer......

Words: 7242 - Pages: 29

Free Essay

Memory Summary

...Memory Summary There are three stages of memory. These three stages make up the sections in our brain that helps us remember. If it was not for these sections, we would not be able to remember the information we receive every day. Sensory Memory: The first section is Sensory Memory. Sensory memory is the first stage and it registers the information coming into our brain and holds it for a very brief period. The information that the sensory memory receives usually fades after three seconds or less. The sensory memory is like a camera that takes “snapshots” of your surroundings (Hockenbury, 2014). Once the information is processed, it will transfer the information to the short-term memory. Short-term Memory: Short-term memory is the next stage of our memory. This stage is the working memory. The information in the sensory memory moves to the short-term memory and held for approximately 20 seconds (Hockenbury, 2014). Short-term memory retrieves old information from long-term memory, as well as encoding the information to store in the long-term memory. Long-term Memory: Long-term memory is the last and final stage. This section can hold information for a lifetime and has an unlimited amount of room for storage (Hockenbury, 2014). The reason there is so much room is that it has different memory systems. The most effective way to get the information you receive to stay in your long-term memory is by elaborative rehearse the information. This way you can memorize the......

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Summary

...Summary of Online Degrees Could Be a Good Fit for Some In the article Online Degrees Could Be a Good Fit for Some Teens Briana Boyington is portraying that there is no correct type of college. There are different options for a different variety of learners and their different circumstances; whether it be a job, financial instability, or a student just needs relief from classroom learning. These options include four year universities, community colleges, and online degree programs. There are positives and negatives for every option. A few negatives for online degree programs is students lose some of the social interactions with other students and faculty that occur when attending school on campus. Employers are sometimes weary of hiring students that only have an online degree, campuses that offer both online and in class learning are looked at more highly. It is made clear in this article that online learning is a robust choice for a student who is self-determined, not likely a successful path for a student who has struggled in the classroom. When graduating high school online degree programs aren’t typically broadcasted, or encouraged. Most teenagers are set on living the college life so to speak. Boyington suggests that even though online learning is not the typical pathway, it could be a great path to success for many students who can’t go away to college as initially planned. A good online school would be one that inspires students to interact and get as close to......

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Summary

...SUMMARY TEAM A University of Phoenix CJA 484 Dwayne Carr May 4, 2015 SUMMARY What did you find that was really useful, or that challenged your thinking? During this weeks reading and research in class I found it profoundly difficult to completely comprehend the fiscal demands part of correctional institutions as my concentration is on human services not finance. However, keeping fiscal budget demand in mind when implementing policy can be important as the world does revolve around money. Without proper budgeting the correctional institution would not have any programs for inmate’s to get help or education. The most important thing to remember is the safety of the prison staff must come first when implementing policy change. Furthermore the development of technology use like RFID tag to track inmate sin prison can eliminate investigation time and save money in the long run. The only issue seems to be is the initial cost of the devices outweighs the money saving. Inmates however will most likely tell the truth knowing they are being tracked it is almost like having a good working camera sin every area of the prions without the constant monitoring or mess-ups of film. Was there anything that you've already taken and applied in your workplace? Working security requires the use of some of the latest technological advancements. While it is not necessarily in a corrections environment, the use of technology is still paramount to the effectiveness of our tasks....

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Summary

...Summary 1. A summary is a clear concise orderly retelling of the contents of a text and is ordinarily about 1/3 or 1/4 as long as the original. To make a summary you should: a) write out clearly in your own words the main points of the text, subordinating or eliminating minor points; b) preserve the proportion of the original; c) change direct narration to indirect, use words instead of word combinations and word combinations instead of sentences; d) omit figures of speech, repetitions and most examples; e) use proper names instead of personal pronouns; f) don’t introduce any extra material by way of opinion, interpretation or appreciation. 2. Words and phrases suitable for a summary: a) At the beginning of the story the author describes (depicts, dwells on, touches upon, explains, introduces, mentions, recalls, characterizes, criticizes, analyses, comments on, enumerates, points out, generalizes, makes a few critical remarks, reveals, exposes, accuses, blames, condemns, mocks at, ridicules, praises, sympathizes with, gives a summary of, gives his account of, makes an excursus into, digresses from the subject to describe the scenery, etc.); b) The story (the author) begins with a/the description of (the mention of, the analysis of, a/the comment on, a review of, an accounts of, a summary of, the characterization of, his opinion of, his recollection of, the enumeration of, the criticism of, some/a few critical remarks about, the accusation of,......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Encoding and Decoding

...Decoding Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding model Stuart Hall is a prominent sociologist and cultural theorist and author of the significantly influential essay Encoding/Decoding; published in 1973 during the time of his position as director of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University (Chandler 2001). Encoding/Decoding is a theoretical framework devised to critically examine how society or the hegemonic institutions in society, disseminate messages implanted or ‘encoded’ (Hall 2001, p.167) with meaning ‘through the operation of codes within the syntagmatic chain of a discourse’ (Hall 2001, p.166). Hall’s model examines the processes in which television texts are constructed with dominant codes or ‘preferred readings’ (Hall 2011, p.172), whilst signifying theoretical strategies from which audiences can deconstruct and consume such readings existing within texts in correspondence to cultural and social conditions. Hall’s model laid the foundations for much ethnographic research; it is upon this premise and its comprehensive influence, that in this essay the advantages and limitations of his model will be evaluated with focus on how effectively it functions within the indicated parameters of specific texts and discourses. Hall’s model which is fundamentally a mode of communication and audience reception theory, stems from early models of which proposed to analyse how audiences interpreted texts through the visual and aural discourse of......

Words: 1921 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Delta Encoding

...Delta encoding Delta encoding is a way of storing or transmitting data in the form of differences between sequential data rather than complete files; more generally this is known as data differencing. Delta encoding is sometimes called delta compression, particularly where archival histories of changes are required (e.g., in software projects). The differences are recorded in discrete files called "deltas" or "diffs", after the Unix file comparison utility, diff. Because changes are often small – for example, changing a few words in a large document, or changing a few records in a large table – delta encoding greatly reduces data redundancy. Collections of unique deltas are substantially more space-efficient than their non-encoded equivalents. From a logical point of view the difference between two data values is the information required to obtain one value from the other – see relative entropy. The difference between identical values (under some equivalence) is often called 0 or the neutral element. A good delta should be minimal, or ambiguous unless one element of a pair is present. Simple example Perhaps the simplest example is storing values of bytes as differences (deltas) between sequential values, rather than the values themselves. So, instead of 2, 4, 6, 9, 7, we would store 2, 2, 2, 3, −2. This is not very useful when used alone, but it can help further compression of data in which sequential values occur often. IFF 8SVX sound format applies this encoding to raw...

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Summary

...Alphabetic Index and Tabular List Memo Isaak, Shiboyan 201 1/30/2016 HCR Alphabetic Index and Tabular List Memo In this summary I will like to illustrate to very important topics which are “Tabular index & Tabular list memo”. This two will be mentioned and discussed with detail of their foundation and what they mean. I also like to state the fact on what problems might occur if proper coding is not used by those who are in charge of it. The ICD-10 is split into alphabetic index & tabular list. Alphabetic index’s which provides an index’s of disease descriptions in alphabetical list of terms and their corresponding codes. The alphabetic index’s consists of parts which are: indexes of disease & injury, external causes of injury, table of drugs, table of neoplasms & chemicals. The tabular list is a structured list of codes divided into chapters based on conditions & body systems. Tabular list consists of categories, subcategories and codes and when many times a specified code is not available for a condition then it is put through tabular list for the code to be specified. Tabular list descriptions are listed in more than one manner as well as made up of 21 chapters of disease, description and their codes. The first part Alphabetic index’s use and purpose is to organize the list of indexes of disease descriptions in alphabetical list of terms and their corresponding codes plus helps the medical staff member better locate the description matching the......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Encoding and Decoding: Uses

...Stuart Hall’s seminal paper Encoding/Decoding (1980) arose primarily from Hall’s reservations regarding the theories of communication underpinning mass communications research. It worked on the assumption that the ‘media offered an unproblematic, benign reflection of society’ (Proctor, 58). Mass communications research became prevalent after the Second World War and was funded by commercial bodies with a desire to know how audiences could be influenced more effectively through advertising. According to the mass communications model, the sender (mass media) generates a message with fixed meaning, which is then communicated directly and transparently to the recipient (audience). Hall’s paper challenged all three components of the mass communications model ; arguing that – (i) the message is never transparent to the audience (ii) meaning is not simply fixed or determined by the sender; and (iii) the audience is not a passive recipient of the meaning. Hall’s encoding/decoding theory focuses on the different ways audiences generate (rather than discover) meaning. Hall’s theory re-addressed the themes of the Uses and Gratifications theory : examining audience power over the media, rather then the media’s effects on the audience (Katz: 1959). Such theoretical study later concluded that audiences use the media to fulfil their own needs and gratifications (Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M.: 1974). Hall's model focuses on groups rather then the individual, which is more...

Words: 3048 - Pages: 13