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Effects of Creative Educational Drama Activities on Developing Oral Skills as Perceive by the Teachers

In: English and Literature

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Chapter I
PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction
The age we live in may be defined as the communication age. Effective communication is considered one of the most important skills that individuals should have. Receptive and expressive language abilities constitute a significant aspect of effective communications in terms of language skills. One of the expressive language elements is speaking skill. Speaking is the most common and important means of providing communication among human beings. The key to successful communication is speaking nicely, efficiently and articulately, as well as using effective voice projection. Furthermore, speaking is linked to success in life, as it occupies an important position both individually and socially. As is the case with many basic skills, one of the important periods to improve speaking skill is, incontrovertibly, during primary education. Speaking skills acquired and developed during primary education are significant with regard to both acquisition and permanence. Therefore, it is essential that efficient and effective teaching methods are employed in order to improve speaking skills during primary education. In our view, a favourable technique in aiding primary school students to acquire and develop oral skills is the use of creative and educational drama activities. No matter where this technique is applied, creative drama may be considered a method of learning –a tool for self-expression, as well as art.
Background of the Study
Atimonan Central School is known for its being the biggest elementary school in our town. Atimonan Central School serves as the training ground of the primary students in preparation to the next level of their education. Effect of Creative Educational Drama Activities on Developing oral Skills in Grade Six pupils in Atimonan Central School, helps to develop the abilities of the learner not only in the academic performance. It also aims to enhance the speaking ability of the primary students especially the grade six pupils in Atimonan Central School.
As a future educator, the researcher believes that the Effects of Creative Educational Drama Activities can help to develop the oral skills of the grade six pupils.
Statement of the Problem
This study aim to find out what will be the effect of Creative Educational Drama Activities in grade six pupils in Atimonan Central School during the S.Y. 2011-2012.
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Does the aim of the Creative Educational Drama Activities meet the learning needs of our students? 2. Does the teaching of the Creative Educational Drama Activities have any broader effect in the teaching of other subjects? 3. Is there a significant difference between the creative drama activities and oral skills of grade six pupils in Atimonan Central School S.Y. 2011-2012?

Conceptual Framework

Formulate a lesson plan.
Conduct creative educational drama activities in the classroom.

Effects of Creative Educational Drama Activities on Developing Oral Skills.

Figure 1
Conceptual Framework
All skills are equally important more so speaking skill as you have to communicate with people in person, at your job and in your normal life. If people are being trained in reading, writing and listening they are being prepared for speaking as well. You can not speak unless you are exposed to a great amount of language. It is only possible through sheer listening and reading and then writing to some extent. All skills are interconnected.
Teacher and pupils are the first responsible on learning a good and effective oral skills. They must know the functions of having creative educational drama activities in the classroom. This study will determine if the effects of creative drama activity will result in the improvement of oral skills among grade six pupils of Atimonan Central School.
Significance of the Study
This study will attempt to describe one situation where the effect of the curriculum is being accomplished successfully in an innovative way, while at the same time, taking a critical look at the curriculum document itself. It is hoped that through the process of planning, organizing, observing, and critically reflecting, valuable insights into teaching of the arts specifically, will become clear.
These insights will provide the collaborative team and other teachers and administrators with enriched understandings as to teaching of the arts with the assistance of the new curriculum guide. These insights may also act as a road map directing new ideas on the road to curriculum implementation.
The researcher believes that Creative Educational Drama Activities have a beneficial factor not only to the students but also to the teachers.
PUPILS will develop their oral communication skills through drama activities.
TEACHERS will know the importance of teaching this kind of activities to their students. Teachers require practical in services with hands-on and ready-to-use resources to ensure the success of the activity.
SCHOOL HEADS must know the importance of the effect of creative drama activities on the oral skills of the pupils so that they will allow this kind of activities in the school.
FUTURE RESEARCHERS they will put into practice whatever they will learn in this study. They will be able to create activity that will develop the oral skills of the learners.
Scope and Limitation
The scope of this study covers the Grade Six pupils of Atimonan Central School during the S.Y. 2011-2012 as the respondents of this study. The researcher will formulate a lesson plan related to the development of oral skills using the creative educational drama activities, to measure the oral skills capability of the 50 respondents of the grade six pupils.

Definition of Terms To make this study more understandable for the readers, several terms are used by the researcher operationally defined:
Acquisition a skill or a particular type of knowledge is the process of learning or developing it.
Creative involve the inventing and making new kinds of things.
Ensure means to make certain that it happens.
Expressive behaviour is clearly indicates feelings or intentions.
Receptive new ideas or a suggestion is prepared to consider or accept.
Speaking an activity of giving speeches and talks.

Chapter II
Related Literature and Studies
This chapter focuses on a review of literature and studies. The discussion will then turn to the effects of creative drama activities on developing oral skills of young learners.
Related Literature
According to Jed Davis and Mary Jane Evans creative drama is an improvisation, non-exhibitional, process-centered form of drama in which participants are guided by a leader to imagine, enact, and reflect upon human experiences . The creative drama process is dynamic. The leader guides the group to explore, develop, express and communicate ideas, concepts, and feelings through dramatic enactment. In creative drama the group improvises action and dialogue appropriate to the content it is exploring, using elements of drama to give form and meaning to the experience. The primary purpose of creative drama is to foster personality growth and to facilitate learning for the participants. Participation in creative drama has the potential to develop language and communication abilities, problem-solving skills, and creativity; to promote a positive self-concept, social awareness, empathy, a clarification of values and attitudes, and an understand of the art of theatre. a positive self-concept, social awareness, empathy, a clarification of values and attitudes, and an understand of the art of theatre.
According to research published by D. Betts and L.A. McCammon students develop interpersonal skills through creative dramatics. Creative dramatics increases cooperation among students. Students often enter into leadership roles when planning activities, such as scriptwriting, in creative dramatics.
Creative dramatics allows students to understand history and literature from different perspectives and to explore ideas from multiple angles, so it fosters critical thinking. Creative dramatics helps students understand other cultures by providing an avenue for role-playing people in these cultures or creating narratives about these cultures. These activities also help students develop empathy by helping them see characters from different perspectives; the activities promote tolerance.
Creative dramatics gives students and educators various options, including role-playing, acting, movement, technical theatre, scriptwriting and improvisation. Students are willing to take more risks after they have engaged in creative dramatics. Students tend to feel anxiety toward the creative activities only initially, and gradually they develop more self-confidence.
According to research conducted by S. A. Melnick and M. B. Schubert and presented at an Annual Meeting of the Eastern Educational Research creative dramatics improves student attitudes toward school and how students see themselves. Student absenteeism decreases when students engage in creative dramatic.
Creative dramatics can increase student comprehension of the material in the class, helping students learn content, writing and drama simultaneously. Teachers use creative dramatics to help children develop a greater vocabulary, faster word recognition, listening skills, oral expression and writing skills. These improvements come from creative dramatics putting students in situations where they actually use the vocabulary words, which allows them to understand the words.
According to Margie Griffin Hillebrech dramatic play, or creative dramatics, is a useful teaching aid. Children learn by imitation and the use of creative dramatics aids in that process. It helps instruct in all curriculums and bolsters creative thinking, social skills, morals, and communication skills. The ways to incorporate dramatic play into your lessons are the following:
Improvisation: Conflict improvisation
Improvisation starts when two or more students take a given phrase or idea and build a scene around it. The instructor can come up with the original idea, but once the method is learned let the children come up with the scenarios. It works well to use the current subject of the class as the basis for the scene. One example would be a foreigner standing outside the Statue of Liberty asking an American what the statue means as part of a lesson on the statue or American history.
Skits: Acting out a story
Another use of dramatic play is to take a book or fairy tales the class has read and turn it into a skit. There are many resources online for educators to find such adaptations, but it would also work well to have the children write their own. They could break up into groups and each take a section of the story, write out a script and perform for the class. You could do the skits with or without costumes or props, depending on what you wish to accomplish with the lesson.

Pantomime: Acting without words
Pantomime is useful in teaching children to use their facial expressions and body language to communicate instead of words. Have the children all do the same activity, such as walking uphill on a very windy day or defining themselves inside a box. Or have them work one at a time let the children guess what their classmate is feeling or doing by interpreting his face or actions.
Charades: 'Sounds like'
Charades is a popular game, but there are certain skills that need learned before playing. Write the titles of books, movies, or songs written on separate pieces of paper and put into a container. Play one individual against the group, or break into teams for competitive play. One player chooses from the container and tries to get the others to guess the title without talking. Determine ahead of time what the standard clues will be, such as the motion of winding up an old movie camera to represent a movie. The first to guess the title wins and goes next. Or if playing on teams, use a timer and award a point to the team that guesses the title before time runs out.
Puppet theatre: Hand puppets tell a story
You can buy puppets and a stage or have the students create their own. The stage needs to be tall enough to cover the student's body so that only their hands can be seen on it. Act out the stories from books or fairy tales found in the classroom.
According to Shelley Frost dramatic play areas let young children step into new roles. This exploration of situations they may or may not be familiar with helps them develop social skills and an understanding of society. Keeping a variety of dramatic play situations on hand lets you easily change the area to keep the kids interested.
Dramatic Play Situations:
Movie Theater
A white sheet creates the movie screen in this dramatic play center. Hang it on the wall and set up rows of chairs to create the audience. Students take turns being in the movie by standing in front of the white screen and acting out a scene. Setting up a mock concession stand is another option to complete the movie theater setup.
Campground
Create a mock campground for a nature-themed dramatic play area. A small child's tent works well for this dramatic play theme. Create a mock camp fire using red, orange and yellow cellophane as the flames. A toy guitar allows the kids to sit around the campfire singing songs. Backpacks, sleeping bags and binoculars also work well as props for the campground dramatic play idea.
Pizza Place
Pizza is a popular food for young kids. Set up a pizza parlor in the dramatic play area. Check with a local pizza place to see if they'll donate or sell you some pizza boxes. Use cardboard or felt to cut out the different parts of pizzas. The kids assemble the parts to create their own custom pizzas. Setting up a table and chairs allows other kids to serve as the customers at the pizza parlor. For variety, change the theme of the restaurant.
Hospital
A hospital setup works well to accompany a unit on first aid or safety. Gather a variety of materials such as gauze, bandages, toy thermometers and children's doctor's kits. A small cot set up in the area serves as the hospital bed. The kids take turns playing the roles of patients, doctors and nurses. A similar option is to set up a vet clinic using stuffed animals as the patients.
Community Helpers
Policemen, firemen, mail carriers and other community helpers capture the attention of most young kids. They also provide inspiration for dramatic play area themes. Party supply stores often sell firefighter hats, police badges and other costume pieces that make an affordable addition to the dramatic play area. Homemade stop signs made from cardboard, whistles, pretend letters and other props complete the dramatic play center.
Bear Cave
A bear cave lets the kids turn into wild animals. A child's tent or a brown blanket draped over a table works well to create the cave. This dramatic play idea works well during a unit on animals or hibernation. Other animal-themed dramatic play ideas include a zoo or a pet store.
According to Kimberly Turtenwald (2011) drama is a useful tool that allows educators to teach their students skills such as critical thinking, public speaking, cooperation and literacy. Children already use their imaginations to play and create scenarios amongst themselves. Using drama in the classroom encourages children to use their imaginations in different scenarios. Drama can also help children overcome barriers, such as shyness, insensitivity and even physical handicaps. Drama in the classroom helps teachers harness children's natural urge to play and uses it to teach lessons. Instructions
Use music and movement as a warm up exercise. Divide the class into two and line students up facing each other. Play music with a strong beat. Have the first student create a movement. The student across from him repeats that movement and adds another. The second student in the first line does both movements and adds a third. Repeat this process until all students have added a movement. This exercise gets the kids moving and involved.
Assign children an action to act out. This exercise helps children to think about their actions. Have the class guess what each child is doing. Encourage the child to act her actions out in an exaggerated fashion to help the other children guess what she is doing. Younger children may need help with ideas, but older children may be able to come out with ideas on their own.
Set up an improvisational exercise for the students. Supply the children with minimal ideas and let them expand upon them. Provide costumes, props or characters to work from. Have the students create and act out a story using what is provided to them. Each group of students will come up with a different miniature play.
Give groups of student’s child-friendly picture books. Give a different book to each group. Instruct the groups to create their own play from the story in the book. After each group has had the chance to create their story and practice, have them perform the play in front of the rest of the class.
Distribute an easy-to-read play to the class to read aloud. Assign each child a part in the play. If there are not enough parts for each child, split some of the larger ones up, such as narrator parts and guide the children as to whose turn it is. Read through the play once. Then allow the children to read the play again while acting it out.
This course is designed to expand your knowledge of and experience in the various techniques and skills associated with the practice of creative drama. You will be introduced to three main approaches: activity-based work, literature-based work/story drama, and situation-based work/process drama. Through readings, in-class activities, discussion,lesson planning, micro-teaching, and written reflection, you will have the opportunity to develop a practical understanding of the various skills and techniques needed to use creative drama strategies as an art form and as a teaching tool in a variety of contexts.
Related Study Several scientific investigations have demonstrated that creative, and educational drama activities have positive contributions to the general education process and that these activities improve speaking skills.
According to Makita 1995 dramatic and role-playing activities are valuable classroom techniques that encourage students to participate actively in the learning process. It is important to note that dramatic activity takes several different forms and that the teacher can provide students with a variety of learning experiences by deploying different methodologies according to individual needs, interests and learning levels. In addition, these role-playing activities enable the teacher to create a supportive, enjoyable classroom environment in which students are encouraged and motivated to effectively learn the target language. Wessel 1998 found that using drama activities helped to bring written materials to life by infusing the lifeless print with feeling, imagination and thought for the learner, who became an active participant in the learning process. Providing students the opportunity to place themselves directly in the learning experience greatly improves their comprehension. It is concluded that drama activities are useful in motivating students.
It is an unignorable fact that creative/educational drama activities have an effect on developing language arts skills, as well as contributing more generally to the education process. In this regard,
Maley and Duff 1995 explain some characteristics of drama activities that may be considered advantageous in developing language skills. Drama can help the teacher achieve reality in several ways: by making learning the language an enjoyable experience, by setting realistic targets for the students, by creatively slowing down real experiences and by linking the language-learning experience with the student's own life experience. Drama can also create a need to learn the language, either through use of creative tension (situations requiring urgent solutions), or by putting more responsibility on the learner, as opposed to the teacher. In addition, drama allows for activity-centered immersion.
Genesee 2001, which can give language learners optimum exposure to a target language.In Turkey, at the primary-school level, speaking skills are taught within the scope of native language teaching. Because native language teaching entails students acquiring skills and habits rather than a course of knowledge, language skills are acquired by doing and experiencing. The most efficient way of developing students' understanding and expression skills is to facilitate students to be active and direct them towards practice.
As Kavcar 2005 noted, In that case, what is essential in language teaching-instruction is to set into action as many sense organs as possible. Particularly, if the lessons and topics are converted to an experience, then they are perceived and learned so deeply that they are erased from the memory, they are profoundly assimilated and thus permanent learning can be achieved. Hence, it is the creative/educational drama activities that perform this task most efficiently as a teaching method.
Drama has a significant function especially in specifically improving acquired/improved speaking skill among the basic language skills. Smith 2006 noted, although drama has existed as a potential language teaching tool for hundreds of years it has only been in the last thirty years or so that its applicability as a language learning technique to improve oral skills has come to the forefront. Regarding the point that drama has an important impact on language teaching,
Goodwin 2001 states, Drama is a particularly effective tool for pronunciation teaching because various components of communicative competence (discourse intonation, pragmatic awareness, nonverbal communication) can be practiced in an integrated way.
There are some secondary elements involved in acquiring oral communication skills; adding efficiency to communication and drama activities facilitates the improvement of these elements.
Whitear's 1998 approach in this regard is, Speaking is not only about words, structure and pronunciation, but also feelings, motivations and meanings that are valuable benefits for bringing drama to the language learner. Drama techniques and activities to develop communication skills-through fluency, pronunciation, co-operative learning, confidence-building and intercultural awareness-may be added to the above-mentioned elements.
One significant characteristic of the social aspect of oral communication skills is the ability to deliver a speech comfortably and with self-confidence. Drama appears to be the ideal method for students to develop self-confidence.
Sam 1990 agrees by stating, Drama activities can be used to provide opportunities for the student to be involved actively. The activities involve the student's whole personality and not merely his mental process. In this regard Pietro 2000 says, Students who are not naturally talkative often appear more willing to join in the discourse when they realize that they are not dominated by a teacher figure.

Chapter III
Methods and Procedures This chapter presents the methods to be use to secure the data needed for the research study. It includes the following aspects: Research design, Research locale, Sampling design and Procedures, Research instruments, Data gathering and the Statistical treatment.
Research Design The researcher will use the descriptive method of research; the main tool in data gathering is questionnaire, to determine the effects of creative educational drama activities on developing oral skills of the grade six pupils of Atimonan Central School Atimonan, Quezon, weighted mean and mean percentage score will be used as statistical treatment.
Research Locale The researcher will conduct her study in Atimonan Central School Atimonan, Quezon. It is located at the center of the town proper. The biggest school compound in Atimonan.
Sampling Design and Procedures Atimonan Central School is the main source of respondents by the researcher. The respondents are chosen through random sampling to measure the perception on the effects of creative educational drama activities on developing oral skills. The total respondents will be 50 pupils which is 25 pupils from section 1 and 25 pupils from section 2.
Research Instrument The researcher will use a questionnaire as her main instrument to be answered by the respondents. This questionnaire contains what the respondents understand after conducting creative educational drama activities.
The researcher will also conduct creative drama activities in grade six. After conducting creative drama activities the students will answer the question that the researcher gave. Those questions will be answer orally to determine the oral skills of the pupils through the use of a rubric in oral skills that the researcher formulated.
Data Gathering Procedures
The researcher will send a letter of permission to the office of the District Supervisor and Principal of Atimonan Central School for asking to conduct the oral skill test on the selected pupils in section 1 and section 2 of grade six pupils of the said school.
The researcher will conduct her study in a day. The researcher will give creative drama activities and followed by an evaluation.

Statistical Treatment To determine the findings of the study, the certain statistical formula were applied: M
MPS= x 100 No. of items

The researcher will be using this formula to measure the oral skills of the pupils by using rubrics. 5(f) + 4(f) + 3(f) + 2(f) + 1(f)
WM=
N

Where: WM= weighted mean f= frequency N= total no. of respondent This formula will be used to determine the effect of creative educational drama activities on developing oral skills of grade six pupils.…...

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