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Educator in a Pastoral Role

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CONTENTS Title Page no. SECTION ONE: BACKGROUND 1 Introduction........................................................................................................2 2.1 Interpretation of Tina’s story.........................................................................3 1.2 Effects.................................................................................................................4 1.2.1 Effects of child abuse..............................................................................4 1.2.2 Effects of sexual abuse and emotional abuse...........................................5 1.3 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs................................................................................6 SECTION TWO: GUIDANCE FOR TINA 2.1 Definition of counselling........................................................................................7 2.2 Differentiation between counselling and support for learning problems.............8
2.3 Phenomenon of child trauma and its effects..........................................................9
2.4 Differentiation between parental involvement and parental counselling...........10
2.5 Learning intervention program..........................................................................
2.6 Guidelines taken into account............................................................................

INTRODUCTION
SECTION ONE: BACKGROUND

One of the most important roles of an educator
In a school is to assist learners pastorally (Best, Lang, Lodge, Wattkins 1995: 63).

Each year in South Africa approximately five million children experience some form of traumatic experience. More than two million of these are victims of physical and/or sexual abuse. Millions more are living in terrorizing atmosphere of domestic violence. Natural disasters, car accidents, life threatening medical conditions, painful procedures, exposure to community violence all can have traumatic impact on the child (Perry 2003:3).
A wise man called Laurell K. Hamilton once said:
“There are wounds that never show on the body that are deeper and more hurtful than anything that bleeds”. But how does a child deals with such hurtful events?
In this assignment, I will firstly: * Interpret Tina’s story and discuss possible effects of a traumatic experience * Discuss effects of child abuse * Discuss effects of sexual abuse and emotional abuse * Discuss Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Later, I will: * Define the concept counselling * Differentiate between counselling and support for learning problems * Discuss phenomenon of child trauma and the effects on Tina’s life. * Differentiate between parental involvement and parental counselling * Provide a learning intervention program for Tina and * Discuss guidelines taken into account in Tina’s case.

1.1 Effects of traumatic experience

Tina is an eleven year old girl who has been sexually abused by her step-brother, John. As a teacher one of the most important roles of an educator in a school is to assist learners pastorally (Norms and standard for educators, 2000). Tina has disclosed that she has been sexually abused ever since her mother’s marriage to John’s father.

Before this incident Tina was blamed for her father walking out of their lives when she was three years old. Recently her step-brother, John has sexually abused her. Tina is living under daily trauma knowing that she can’t tell her mother about what has happened and how she feels. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word trauma as “emotional shock following a stressful event or a physical injury, which may lead to long-term neurosis”.

Tina’s life has now changed. She is disturbed mentally. It is not easy for her to forget what has happened in her life. Robinson (2013:15) maintains that when bad things happen, it can take a while to get over the pain and feel safe again. Tina now sees her home as a frightening and dangerous place to be. Her sense of safety and security has been disturbed. The relationship between Tina and her mother is not good. In most cases Tina’s mother blames her for every wrong deed that happens around their family.

Before this incident Tina was blamed for her father walking out of their lives when she was three years old. Recently she has blamed her for not making an effort to be a family. It is clear that Tina’s mother put her husband and step-child before Tina of which it is becomes difficult for Tina to communicate her feeling with her mother. Bowly 1998; A Miller 1987 state that children are by nature dependant on others. It is through their relationship with others that they gain a sense of security and belief that the world is a safe place. Tina’s ability to trust and rely on her mother is shattered.

Tina took long to disclose that she has been sexually abused. Most victims do not disclose the abuse until long after it occurred (London, Bruck, Ceci & Shuman, 2005). Most children do not report or disclose the child sexual abuse experiences because they are afraid of not believed (Lundquist, Hasson, Suedin, 2004). Her traumatic experience has had an effect on the physical health and mental. She is suffering from a severe fear anxiety and depression. She is struggling with upsetting emotions, frightening memories or a sense of a constant danger. After traumatic experience Tina will now have problems that she didn’t have before the event.

1.2 .1 Effects of child abuse

Abuse is harmful to children and the effects of abuse affect each child differently. There are different kinds of abuse like sexual, physical and emotional abuse, Hobbs (1993:47). The National Department’s Circular 12 0f 1987 defines this in a more comprehensive way. The Natal Education Department’s Circular 12 of 1987 states that child abuse can be defined as physical or any adult responsible for the care and the wellbeing of a child. Depriving the child of a proper diet, medical attention and education can also constitute child abuse.

According to Lewis (1999: [i]) maintains that many South African learners are affected by trauma because of the high level of violence both within the home and in wider community. What happened to Tina is child abuse. Tina may experience a range of emotional abuse, physical problems and physiological abuse and trauma as a result of being abused by her step-brother, John. All forms of abuse are likely to result in emotional problems for Tina, in particular, a lack of self-esteem and distrusts of adults.

Effect of child abuse is extremely serious especially to Tina because she is a young girl who only has eleven years old. According to Hobbs et al (1993:47) there is physical effect of child abuse, emotional effect of child abuse and sexual effects of child abuse. These effects they are likely to be experienced by Tina. Tina might be experiencing guilty and self-blame, nightmare, insomnia, fear of thing associated with the abuse. Tina might experience difficulties in forming satisfactory relationships with other adults.

Tina has been a victim of child abuse. Engelbrecht & Mosiane (1997:10) states that many South African children are abused and assaulted daily; some are even killed some people do not respect the fundamental rights of others, especially those of woman and children who are usually vulnerable. Tina is likely to abuse her own children when she grows up, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse.

The overall impact of abuse also depends on the child’s natural reactions to stress and ways of coping with stressful situation. Tina tried to cope for so long with this trauma but later disclose it. Maybe it had done more damage to Tina than she appears. Discussing and guiding Tina through a recovery process is crucial in this case.

1.2.2 Effects of sexual abuse and emotional abuse

Child sexual abuse is a complex phenomenon to understand. It is multi-faceted in that definition includes a broad range of behaviours, which can be perpetrated across a broad range of intra-familiar and extra-familiar relationships and there is considerable variability in the duration and frequency of the abuse (Paine & Hansen, 2002).

Robertson (1989:3) defines child sexual abuse as “any sexual activity with a child who cannot give informed consent to the activity”. This definition defines what happened to Tina. Tina felt powerless to prevent it, it happened unexpectedly and repeatedly worse it happened early in her childhood. What happened to Tina was not a one-time event of which that brings emotional abuse and physical abuse. However untreated child sexual abuse not only scars children and destroys families it also leaves offenders free to abuse and cripple future generations.

There is a close relationship between physical and emotional abuse. Robinson (2013:15) states that when bad things happen, it can take a while to get over pain and feel safe again. Tina is again likely to suffer emotional abuse. Lourie and Stefano (in Hobbs et al 1993:108) define emotional abuse as “an injury to the intellectual or psychological capacity of a child, as evidenced by an observable and substantial impairment in his or her ability to function within his or her normal range of performance and behaviour with due regard to his or her culture.

Tina has been sexually abused and she’s again emotional abused because she can’t talk her fear with her mother or step-father. Between Tina’s mother and her step-father there was poor parent-child relationship. Tina’s mother is terrorising her. Hobbs et al (1993:114) defines terrorising as where “the adult verbally assault the child, creates a climate of fear, bullies and frightens the child, and make the child believe that the world is capricious and hostile.

Tina’s mother has created a climate of fear in Tina’s life, specifically at home. She has accused her for breaking up the family. Tina’s sense of safety and security has been disrupted. This is too much for one person, especially a young girl like Tina. Tina will now have lower educational status, and have more mental health problems. This will lead to grief, depression, extreme dependency, inability to judge trustworthiness in others, mistrust, anger and hostility. This will be evident in her emotional, physical and behavioural ways.

1.3 Effects of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

The most fundamental and basic five layers of the pyramid are self-actualization, esteem, friendship and love, security and physical needs. If these needs are not met with the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need Tina will feel anxious and tense. Maslow’s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire the secondary or higher level needs.

Firstly, physiological needs are the physical requirements for Tina’s survival. If these requirements are not met, her human body will not function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are thought to be the most important, they should be met. Secondly, safety needs. There was absence of physical safety in Tina’s life, of which will make her (re) experience trauma or stress disorder. Tina has a greater need to feel safe. She has a right to a safe childhood and a life free from violence. Tina’s needs include: personal security, financial security, health and well-being and safety against accidents/ illnesses and their adverse impacts.

Thirdly, love and belonging needs. This need is strong especially in Tina’s life as she is still an eleven year young girl. Due to neglect this will impact Tina’s ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationship such as: friendship, intimacy and family. According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups, regardless if these groups are large or small. Tina needs to love and be loved. If there will be an absence of love and belonging she will be susceptible to loneliness.

Fourthly, esteem need. Tina has a right to feel respected by her mother, her step-father and her step-brother, John. The right to be respected includes the need to have self-esteem and self-respect. Tina has lack of self esteem because she is mistreated and abused by her family. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. Tina needs respect since she had lack of self-esteem. Her depression will hinder her from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect. Deprivation of this need may lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness.

Lastly, self-actualization need. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be. Tina needs to become what she is capable of becoming that would be her greatest achievement. Tina has a right to achieve what she believes she can achieve but she cannot do that because to achieve this need is to reach her potential. Of which it is a bit difficult for now she is traumatised mentally because of her sexual abuse. Many people do not reach this stage of self-actualization. This need is fully satisfied rarely.

SECTION TWO: GUIDANCE FOR TINA 2.1 Definition of counselling Many people will, at some point in their lives, find themselves in the role of a counsellor without having a true understanding of the concept of counselling or what the role of the counsellor entails. The Concise Oxford dictionary gives at least two definitions of counselling: “give advice to (a person) on social or personal problems, especially professionally” and “the process of assisting and guiding clients, especially by a trained person on a professional basis, to resolve especially personal, social or psychological problems and difficulties”. According to Gills (1997:2) counselling can be defined as facilitative process during which the counsellor within the framework of a special relationship, uses specific skills to help young people to help themselves more frequently. The Oxford English Dictionary defines counselling as “The provision of professional assistance and guidance in resolving personal or psychological problems”. 2.2 Differentiation between counselling and support for learning problems

Learners whose skills are below expectation for their age and ability may be identified by parents or caregivers, centres and schools as having learning difficulties. Learning difficulties can encompass a range of different problems. It can be the shortcomings in the development and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, comprehension and mathematical abilities.

The Oxford English Dictionary states that learning difficulties is a general term which refers to children or students who experience difficulties with their learning. According to Best, Lang, Lodge, Wattkins (1995: 63) maintains that one of the most important roles of an educator in a school is to assist learners pastorally. So, if a learner experience learning problem teachers may have no option but to help the learners themselves. Someone who has a learning problem may find it hard to learn things in the normal way, as the brain is not able to receive and process information in the same way as others. They may have trouble certain tasks or displaying certain skills.

A learning problem cannot be cured but there is support available to help those with learning difficulties succeed in life. So the support for learning problems is when a teacher helps learners with their learning difficulties whereas counselling is the provision of professional assistance and guidance in resolving personal or psychological problems. Sometimes counselling is defined as to “give advice to (a person) on social or personal problems, especially professionally”, the Concise Oxford dictionary.

The teacher supports learners with their learning difficulties the counselling is a facilitative process during which the counsellor within the framework of a special relationship, uses specific skills to help young people to help themselves more frequently.

2.3 Phenomenon of child trauma and its effects

It is frustrating to know that learners’ mind can be affected by a traumatic incident such as sexual abuse at home. Homes should be a place of safety but with Tina is different. She was abused at home; this brings a lot of emotional reaction. Bisson and Shepherd (1995:718) note the following four-stage emotional reaction specific to victim of violence: * Stage 1: Initial shock and denial * Stage 2: Fear and anxiety * Stage 3: Apathy and anger, often accompanied by feelings of depression * Stage 4: Resolution

Her traumatic experience of being sexually abused has had an effect on the physical health and mental. Lewis (1995:15) holds that the trauma response has three phases, namely: * The impact phase * The recoil phase * Reintegration
According to Matsakis (1996:34); Lewis (1999:15) states that during the impact phase, which can last from a few seconds to a few days immediately after the trauma, Tina may appear emotionally disoriented, confused, irrational and disorganised. According to Lewis (199: 16), after the impact phase, the reality of the trauma begins to sink in and the trauma victim usually begins to experience feelings such as sadness, guilt and anger. Tina is also experiencing the same thing because since she was sexually abused she will go through these three phases. In the final phase (reintegration) Tina will begin to live with the trauma as a memory that is not overwhelming, and begins to re-engage with other people (Lewis 1996:16). In this phase Tina’s trust in others starts to be rebuilt and she begins to relate emotionally to others in the same way as before the trauma.

As one of the most important roles as an educator to assist learners pastorally they should help learners with their frightening situations. Lewis (1999:42) states that adult caregivers (including teachers) have a significant influence on the child’s ability to recover from trauma. Educators can help the learner to cope with frightening situations, but if the teacher is not available that can increase the learner’s distress. 2.4 Differentiation between parental involvement and parental counselling

Most children have two main educators in their lives – their parents and their teachers. Parents are the prime educators until the child attends an early years setting or starts school and they remain a major influence on their children’s learning throughout school and beyond. The school and parents both have crucial roles to play. South Africa 1996 states that many South Africans rightfully feel that parents and communities should be more involved and play a bigger role in the development of their schools.

Parental involvement can be described as having an awareness of and involvement in a child’s schoolwork and a commitment to consistent communication with educators about a child’s progress at school (Epstein 2005:77-96). It involves an understanding of the interactions between parenting skills and a child’s success in school. Parental involvement is important to the educational success of a young child and generally declines when a child enters the higher grades.

According to Epstein (2005: 77-96) the benefits of parental involvement include: * Parental involvement leads to improved educational performance of children * Parental involvement foster better behaviour in classrooms * Parents who participate in decision making experience greater feelings of ownership and are more committed to supporting the schools mission * Parental involvement improves school attendance * Parental involvement creates better understanding of roles and responsibilities between parents, educators and children * Parental involvement improves the child’s emotional well-being

In contrast to parental involvement, parental counseling can be described as individual counseling designed to support and educate parents through their child’s recovery process (Shoeman 2009:105). Parental counseling is a service offered to parents who are looking for some guidance on issues pertaining to their child or adolescent.

Unlike parental involvement, parental counseling does not decline when the child reaches higher school grades but is rather a continuous and life-long process.

According to Epstein (2005:77-96) the benefits of parental counseling differ from the benefits of parental involvement (discussed above), in that parental counseling helps parents: * Understand why their child may be experiencing learning problems * Develop strategies or interventions that will empower them as parents

EDPHOD8 Unisa study guide (2014), states that parental involvement needs to go beyond the election of the schools governing body and participation in parent-teacher meetings. Parents can make many constructive contributions to schools, including the following: * Involvement in life-skills education programmes and assisting teachers in addressing the diverse need of learners * Involvement in the teaching of particular skills, topics or areas of information * Fundraising * Involvement in sport, cultural and other extramural activities * The maintenance of equipment and facilities

2.5 Learning intervention program
2.6 Guidelines taken into account…...

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