Free Essay

Ducation

In: Science

Submitted By amdi
Words 2637
Pages 11
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878
Volume 2 Issue 3, March 2014

Trajectory Tracking of a 2-Link Robotic Manipulator
Using Adaptive Terminal Sliding Mode Controller
Saurav Chanda1, Pranjal Gogoi2
1

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Dibrugarh University Institute of Engineering & Technology
Dibrugarh University, Assam, India
2
Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Dibrugarh University Institute of Engineering & Technology
Dibrugarh University, Assam, India

Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive terminal sliding mode controller which combines adaptive control and sliding mode control to control a 2-link nonlinear robotic manipulator with uncertain parameters. We use an adaptive algorithm based on the concept of sliding mode control to alleviate the chattering phenomenon of control input. Adaptive laws are developed to obtain the gain of switching input and the boundary layer parameters. The stability and convergence of the robotic manipulator control system are guaranteed by applying the Lyapunov stability theorem. Simulation results demonstrate that the chattering of control input can be alleviated effectively. The proposed controller scheme can assure robustness against a large class of uncertainties and achieve good trajectory tracking performance.
Keywords: Robotic manipulators, sliding mode control, adaptive law, Lyapunov stability theorem

1. Introduction
A chattering free adaptive terminal sliding mode controller for uncertain systems is proposed in this paper. The actual control law is obtained by integrating the discontinuous derivative control signal and hence it is continuous. The sliding mode control is based on the design of a high-speed switching control law that drives the system’s trajectory onto a user-chosen hyperplane in the state space, also known as sliding surface.
The main feature of sliding mode control are the following: (1) fast response and good transient performance; (2) robustness against a large class of perturbations or model uncertainties; and (3) the possibility of stabilizing some complex nonlinear systems which are difficult to stabilize by state feedback control laws. Chattering phenomenon can cause some problems such as saturation and heat for mechanical parts of robot manipulators or drivers. To reduce or eliminate the chattering, various papers have been reported by many researchers and classified in two most important methods, namely, boundary layer saturation method and estimated uncertainties method.
Non linear control methodologies are more general because they can be used in linear and non linear systems. These controllers can solve different problems such as, invariance to system uncertainties and resistance to the external disturbance.
The most common non linear methodologies that have been proposed to solve the control problem consist of the following methodologies: •






Feedback Linearization Control Methodology
Passivity-Based Control Methodology
Sliding Mode Control Methodology
Robust Lyapunov-Based Control Methodology
Adaptive Control Methodology
Artificial Intelligence-Based Methodology

The requirement of prior knowledge about the uncertainty bands for designing terminal sliding mode controllers is not a

Paper ID: J2013152

necessary requirement in the proposed controller. Trajectory tracking of a 2-link robotic manipulator which is a non-linear system with mismatched uncertainties also considered in our simulation study. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy is successful in eliminating the undesired chattering in the control input while ensuring satisfactory stabilization as well as tracking performances.
Hence the proposed controller is suitable for practical applications. .

2. Description
2.1 Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator
Dynamics of an n-link robotic manipulator can be expressed as,
(1.0)
M(q) + C(q, ) + G(q) = τ + represent the position, velocity and where q, , ∈ acceleration of the joints respectively,
M(q) =
(q) + ΔM(q) ∈ stands for the inertia matrix,
C(q, ) = (q, ) + ΔC(q, ) ∈
(q) + ΔG(q) ∈ is the centripetal Coriolis matrix, G(q) = is the joint torque vector and is the gravitational vector, τ ∈

is the disturbance torque vector. Here
(q),
(q, ), (q) are the nominal terms and ΔM(q), ΔC(q, ),
ΔG(q) represent the perturbations in the system matrices.
Then the dynamic model of the robotic manipulator can be written as,
(q) + (q, ) +
(q) = +
+ F(q, , ) (1.1) where F(q, , ) = −ΔM(q) − ΔC(q, ) − ΔG(q) ∈ is the lumped system uncertainty which is bounded by the following function
||F(q, , )|| ≤ + ||q|| + || ||2 (1.2) and are positive constants. where ,
Suppose the control objective is to make the robotic manipulator track a reference trajectory. Let and q be the
18 of 23

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878
Volume 2 Issue 3, March 2014 desired and actual position vectors. The tracking error and its derivatives are defined as e=q− , = − and = −
Using (1.1),
=
[ +
+ F(q, , ) – (q, ) –
(q)] –
(1.3)

2.2 Adaptive Terminal Sliding Mode Controller where, =

+

[

The time derivative of (1.3) yields
[ −

=
(q, ) −

(q, )

(q)] −

) +
(

(

) +

(q)]

[τ −

(q))] +

+

+
(q,

+

+
F(q,

,

)=

[τ −

(q))]+

(q, ,
[
(q,

)



(q,

,

) =

such that,
(q, , ) ≤
Here

,

(q,

,

) +

F(q, , )

+

||q|| +

and

Defining

(1.5)

( −

adaptation

error

the

(2.2)

=

(2.3)
)

(2.4)

Where positive tuning parameters. The dead zone technique is used to modify the adaptive tuning law as =

(

0,
={
0,

)+c

The nonsingular terminal sliding manifold (NTSM) for an nlink robotic manipulator is chosen as σ=s+β (1.7)

where Here β = diag(

,

, ....,

) is a design matrix.

,
0,
(2.5) positive constant. where Now, the adaptive terminal sliding mode control law for the robotic manipulator is obtained as,

Taking the derivative of (1.7) yields
=

+

+

(2.6)

+ β(p/q)

= β(p/q)

as

are to be estimated by using the

)

are positive constants.

where c = diag( , ...,
) is a design matrix. The first and second derivative of (1.6) can be obtained as,
= +c

) is a positive matrix.

and

parameters adaptation law.

Let us consider the linear sliding surface as, s = + ce (1.6)

+c =

the

=

Remark 5:5: The assumptions in the above inequalities are valid as the input disturbance is assumed to be bounded, i.e.
|| || < χ where χ is a positive constant. Furthermore, the modeling uncertainity F(q, , ) is also bounded by the assumption
+ ||q|| +
.
||F(q, , )|| ≤

=

(2.1)
……….

Here
+

+

+



+ F(q, , ) (1.4)

where

(2.0)

( + (q/p)

(1.8)

For an n-link robotic manipulator (1.0), if the NTSM manifold is chosen as (1.7), then the tracking error e will converge to zero if the time derivative of the control input is selected as,
=
+
(1.9)

Paper ID: J2013152

A Lyapunov function is defined as V = control law it is easy to find that,
=
=
=

and using the

19 of 23

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878
Volume 2 Issue 3, March 2014

Clearly,

the

above equation implies that if, the control law forces the sliding manifold σ to zero in finite time.

physical parameters of the two-link robotic manipulator considered in the simulation study

Using Lyapunov stability criterion,
The NTSM manifold σ can be shown to possess finite time reachability to zero which ensures that the tracking error of the converges to zero in finite robotic manipulator e = q − time. 3. Simulation Results
The proposed chattering free adaptive terminal sliding mode
(TSM) controller is applied for trajectory tracking of a two-link rigid robotic manipulator shown in Fig.5.4. For the above twolink manipulator, the dynamic equation (5.27) has the following parameters,
M(q)=

Table 1.0: Physical parameters of two-link robotic manipulator
The

reference

as disturbances considered are and proposed controller signals

are and . The inertial states are selected
. The external

are

. The parameters of the selected as and .
C(q, ) =
The simulations are carried out in MATLAB – Simulink platform by using ODE 4 solver with a fixed step size of
0.005sec.

G(q) =

The tracking response and control inputs obtained by using the
NTSM controller.

Figure 1.1: Configuration of a two-link robotic manipulator is the angular position vector where
Here q(t) =
(t) are the angular positions of joints 1 & 2. M(q) is the inertia matrix, C(q) is the centripetal Coriolis matrix. G(q) is the applied torque. The is the gravity vector and two-link robotic manipulator has four inner states
,
,
,
two output states and and two inputs
. Friction terms are ignored. Table 1.0 lists the and Paper ID: J2013152

Figure 1.2: Output tracking response of Joint 1 & Joint 2 with the controller

20 of 23

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878
Volume 2 Issue 3, March 2014

Figure 1.5: Control input of Joint 1 & Joint 2 with proposed controller Figure 1.3: Control input of Joint 1 & Joint 2 with proposed controller Simulation results obtained by applying the proposed adaptive
TSM control laws (2.0) and (2.6) are shown in Fig. 1.4 - Fig.
1.7. It is observed from Fig. 1.4 that both the joints 1 and 2 track the reference trajectory faithfully. The control inputs applied to both the joints show no chattering as is evident in
Fig. 1.5. The convergence plots of the estimated parameters
,
are shown in Fig. 1.6. The sliding surfaces and the sliding manifolds are plotted in Fig. 1.7 which confirms that these converge to zero quickly.

&
Figure 1.6: Estimated parameters proposed adaptive tuning method

using the

Figure 1.4: Output tracking response of Joint 1 & Joint 2 with the controller

Paper ID: J2013152

21 of 23

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878
Volume 2 Issue 3, March 2014 manipulator which is a nonlinear system with mismatched uncertainty is considered which demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed control strategy. Simulations performed on a twolink robotic manipulator demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

5. Future Scope
Discrete Sliding Mode Controllers will be easier to implement as compared to microcontrollers and digital signal processors
(DSPs) which can also be used to control a huge number of continuous systems. The proposed design method may be extended by using intelligent controllers based on Neural
Networks and Fuzzy Logic to incorporate flexibility and intelligence. References

Figure 1.7: Sliding surfaces and sliding manifolds using the proposed controller
The output and input performances of the proposed adaptive
TSM controller as well as the controllers designed by Feng et al. for the two-link robotic manipulator are tabulated in Table
1.2. It is noted that the proposed adaptive TSM controller offers comparable tracking performance by applying a smoother control input having minimal total variation as compared to the controllers designed by Feng et al. Moreover, the overall control energy spent in the case of the proposed adaptive TSM controller is not more than those in the other methods. Table 1.1: Comparison of controller performance
Controller Performance
Types Of Controller

Feng et al.

Proposed adaptive
TSM controller

Joint
1
Joint
2
Joint
1
Joint
2

IAE

Total
Variation

2-norm of input 14.8
5

205.01

72.22

7.22

127.92

207.79

7.01

114.29

114.61

4.05

74.02

140.03

4. Conclusion
An adaptive terminal sliding mode (TSM) controller is proposed where the nonsingular terminal sliding manifold guarantees fast and finite time convergence. The proposed adaptive TSM controller is successfully applied for stabilization. Trajectory tracking of a two-link robotic

Paper ID: J2013152

[1] V. I. Utkin, J. Guldner, and J. Shi, Sliding Mode Control in Electromechanical Systems. Taylor & Francis, London,
UK, 1999.
[2] Y. Feng, X. Yu, and Z. Man, “Non-singular terminal sliding mode control of rigid manipulators,” Automatica, vol. 38, pp. 2159 –2167, 2002.
[3] V. I. Utkin, “Variable structure systems with sliding modes,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 22
(2), pp. 212–222, 1977.
[4] K. K. Young, Variable Structure Control for Robotics and
Aerospace Systems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands, 1993
[5] G. Bartolini, A. Ferrara, and E. Punta, “Multi-input second-order sliding-mode hybrid control of constrained manipulators,” Dynamics and Control, vol. 10, (3), pp.
277–296, 2000.
[6] V. I. Utkin, Sliding Modes in Control and Optimization.
Springer, Berlin, 1992.
[7] W. Gao and J. C. Hung, “Variable structure control of nonlinear systems: A new approach,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 40, (1), pp. 45–50, 1993.
[8] I. Boiko, L. Fridman, and M. I. Castellanos, “Analysis of second-order sliding-mode algorithms in the frequency domain,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol.
49, (6), pp. 946–950, 2004.
[9] K. D. Young, V. I. Utkin, and ¨Umit ¨Ozg¨uner, “A control engineer’s guide to sliding mode control,” IEEE
Transactions on Control System Technology, vol. 7, (3), pp. 328–342, 1999.
[10] Z. Qu and D.M Dawson, Robust Tracking Control Of
Robot Manipulators. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1996.
[11] M.W. Spong, “On the robust control of robot manipulators”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control,
Vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1/82-1/86, 1992
[12] Harashima, F., H. Hashimoto and K. Maruyama, 1986.
Practical robust control of robot arm using variable structure system. IEEE Conference, pp: 532-539.
[13] Slotine, J.J.E. and S.S. Sastry, 1983. Tracking control of nonlinear systems using sliding surfaces, with application to robot manipulators. Int. J. Control, 38 (2): 465-492.
[14] Curk, B. and K. Jezernik, 2001. Sliding mode control with

22 of 23

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878
Volume 2 Issue 3, March 2014 perturbation estimation: Application on DD Robot
Mechanism, Robotica, pp: 641-648.
[15] Hsu, F.Y. and L.C. Fu., 1995. Nonlinear control of robot manipulators using adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control.
IEEE Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp:
156-161.
[16] Yu, W., A.S. Poznyak and E.N. Sanchez, 1999. Neural adaptive control of two link manipulator with sliding mode compensation. IEEE Conference on Robotics and
Automation, pp: 3122-3127.
[17] Lu, X., 2007. An investigation of adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control for robotic manipulators, M.S. Thesis,
Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario.
[18] Sharma, R. and M. Gopal, 2008. A Markov game-adaptive fuzzy controller for robot manipulators. IEEE Trans. On
Fuzzy Systems, 16 (1): 171-186.
[19] J. J. Slotine and S. S. Sastry, “Tracking control of nonlinear systems using sliding surfaces with application to robot manipulators,” International Journal of Control, vol. 38, pp. 465 – 492, 1983.
[20] R.-J. Wai and L.-J. Chang, “Adaptive stabilizing and tracking control for a nonlinear inverted-pendulum system via sliding-mode technique,” IEEE Transactions on
Industrial Electronics, vol. 53(2), pp. 674–692, 2006.
[21] Y. J. Huang, T.-C. Kuo, and S.-H. Chang, “Adaptive sliding-mode control for nonlinear systems with uncertain parameters,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, And
Cybernetics-Part B:Cybernetics, vol. 38, (2), pp. 534–539,
2008
[22] P. Li and Z.-Q. Zheng, “Robust adaptive second-order sliding-mode control with fast transient performance,” IET
Control Theory and Applications, vol. 6, (2), pp. 305–312,
2012.
[23] Y. Feng, X. Han, Y. Wang, and X. Yu, “Second-order terminal sliding mode control of uncertain multivariable systems,” International Journal of Control, vol. 80, (6), pp.
856 – 862, 2007.
[24] H. Sira-Ramirez, “Non-linear discrete variable structure system in quasisliding mode,” International Journal of
Control, vol. 54, (5), pp. 1171–1187, 1991.
[25] F. Plestan, Y. Shtessel, V. Bregeault, and A. Poznyak,
“New methodologies for adaptive sliding mode control,”
International Journal of Control, vol. 83, (9), pp. 1907–
1919, 2010.

Author Profile
Saurav Chanda is pursuing 3rd Year B.Tech in Electronics &
Communication Engineering from Dibrugarh University
Institute of Engineering & Technology, Dibrugarh University,
Assam. He is quite interested in the field of Robotics & Non
Linear Control from the very outset.
Pranjal Gogoi is pursuing 3rd Year B.Tech in Electronics &
Communication Engineering from Dibrugarh University
Institute of Engineering & Technology, Dibrugarh University,
Assam. He is quite interested in the field of Automatic Control
System & Stochastic Control from the very beginning.

Paper ID: J2013152

23 of 23…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Nanogene Technologies

...since acquisition n Took company from pre-IPO to acquisition n Received every award and form of merit compensation given n Youngest senior executive in the company Manufacturing Analyst/Internal Consultant 1995–1996 n Projects included: Manufacturing, Marketing, Finance, Corporate/Engineering, Customer Service, Facilities n Highlights: Led Company-wide team in the creation and implementation of New Product Development process; Top Grossing Sales Person for 1996; Performed “turnaround” of stockroom operations 1993 Research Project Consultant Intel Corporation Washington, DC 1989–1992 Bayside Tennis Center Sausalito, CA Operations Manager: Grew company into one of the premier tennis centers on the West Coast. E DUCATION 1993–1995 Harvard Business School n Masters, Business Administration 1983–1989 University of California, Los Angeles n Bachelor of Science, Business Administration 10 Boston, MA Los Angeles, CA NanoGene Technologies, Inc. Exhibit 2 803-117 NanoGene Capitalization Table, Assuming Venture Capital Financing Founding / incorporation 12/01 # shares % Tompkins 333,000 20.00% Rupert 333,000 20.00% Masterson 333,000 20.00% Rhoota 333,000 20.00% Garfield 333,000 20.00% Angel Round 6/02 # shares % 333,000 14.70% 333,000 14.70% 333,000 14.70% 333,000 14.70% 333,000 14.70% IP Deal 8/02 #......

Words: 5828 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Poverty in Latin America

...still consistently account for the highest and “stickiest” poverty rates in the region” (1). An indigenous person can be described as one who “share[s] certain characteristics, such as distinct language, culture, and the attachment to land – all stemming from the fact that [his/her] ancestry can be traced o the original, pre-Colombian inhabitants of the region” (Hall, Patrinos 1). As Hall and Patrinos explain, indigenous people of Latin America experience discrimination in the labor market, education, and health services as a result of inequality. As a result of defining yourself as an indigenous person, a lifetime of discrimination, poverty, poor education, and lack of job opportunities is expected. Hall and Patrinos explain that, “[e]ducation is one of the main factors that propel people out of poverty, yet indigenous peoples continue to have fewer years of education than non-indigenous people” (2). With a poor education, it is very unlikely that a good paying job will be obtained. In addition to a poor education, discrimination within the labor market is evident. Hall and Patrinos state that, “while about half of the earning differential can be influenced by improvements in human capital, another half may result from discriminatory labor market practices or other factors over which the indigenous people have little control” (2). Federico Breve, Michelle Garcia, and Sonja Wolf agree that Central America’s crime problem is related to poverty, underdevelopment, lack of......

Words: 1071 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ancient Chinese Contributions

...achievements in science and technology, simply because they had a prominent position in the exchanges between the East and the West and acted as a powerful dynamic in the development of capitalism in Europe. As a matter of fact, ancient Chinese scored much more than four major inventions: in farming, machinery, astronomy, compass, mathematics, silks, wine making, etc. The numerous inventions and discoveries greatly advanced China’s productive forces and social life. Many are at least as important as the four inventions, and some are even greater than the four. References and website Four great inventions of Ancient China-http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/focus/inventions Great Chinese Inventions – http://www.minesota-china.com/ducation/emscitech/invention List of Chinese inventions from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Humanities: Culture, Continuity and Change-Volume 1-2011 Custom Edition, Chapter 7 Toilet paper -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toilet_paper...

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Poverty in Latin America

...still consistently account for the highest and “stickiest” poverty rates in the region” (1). An indigenous person can be described as one who “share[s] certain characteristics, such as distinct language, culture, and the attachment to land – all stemming from the fact that [his/her] ancestry can be traced o the original, pre-Colombian inhabitants of the region” (Hall, Patrinos 1). As Hall and Patrinos explain, indigenous people of Latin America experience discrimination in the labor market, education, and health services as a result of inequality. As a result of defining yourself as an indigenous person, a lifetime of discrimination, poverty, poor education, and lack of job opportunities is expected. Hall and Patrinos explain that, “[e]ducation is one of the main factors that propel people out of poverty, yet indigenous peoples continue to have fewer years of education than non-indigenous people” (2). With a poor education, it is very unlikely that a good paying job will be obtained. In addition to a poor education, discrimination within the labor market is evident. Hall and Patrinos state that, “while about half of the earning differential can be influenced by improvements in human capital, another half may result from discriminatory labor market practices or other factors over which the indigenous people have little control” (2). Federico Breve, Michelle Garcia, and Sonja Wolf agree that Central America’s crime problem is related to poverty, underdevelopment, lack of......

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Family

...important role in society, but times have changed and now the family is much less important. "Family is not an important thing. It is everything" is Michael's J. Fox phrase. As far as we know some people are sure that the role of the family has become not so important. But some people disagree with this point of view. On the one hand, there are no such big close families as it used to be. That is why the role of the family is not so important in the big society. Secondly, people have become more indepent. Moreover, there are so many institutions to bring up our children: schools, universities which give them not only education but rules of behavour. In addition to htis, the role of friends has increased they help us to find work, to get ducation, to solve problems. On the other hand, the members of the family are always the closers people to help and to do everything for us. Secondly, th efamily gives us example of behaviour in society which is an important moment for adoptation in our life. However, the family brings up children and they become members of society. Taking all these factors into account, I should say that the role of the family is very important nowadays bacause a family is a part of our everyday life for many years. In the family we find the examples for our future behaviour, get acquainted with the world around us and receive our first lessoms of life....

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Essay Formatting

...BUILDING EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTS DEVELOPING CORE PROFICIENCIES ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS / LITERACY UNIT GRADE 7 “Doping can be that last 2 percent.” OD LL DUCATION www.odelleducation.com OD LL DUCATION Page 1 EVIDENCE-BASED ARGUMENTATION Literacy – the integrated abilities to read texts closely, to investigate ideas and deepen understanding through research, to make and evaluate evidence-based claims, and to communicate one’s perspective in a reasoned way – is fundamental to participation in civic life. Thus, the importance of a literate citizenry was understood and expressed by Thomas Jefferson early in the life of our democratic nation. Today, students face the prospect of participating in a civic life that stretches beyond the boundaries of a single nation and has become increasingly contentious, characterized by entrenched polarization in response to complex issues. Citizens have access to a glut of information (some of which is nothing more than opinion passed off as fact) and are often bombarded by bombast rather than engaged in reasoned and civil debate. Learning the skills and habits of mind associated with argumentation – how to conceive and communicate “arguments to support claims, using valid reasoning and sufficient evidence” [CCSS W1] as well as how to “delineate and evaluate the argument[s]” and “the validity of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence” presented by others [CCSS R8] –......

Words: 23215 - Pages: 93

Free Essay

Classroom Management

...and what they see. Other modes of learning such working with the hands, demonstrating through gymnastics, and practicing elocution are secondary, perhaps entirely neglected, approaches. Teaching is not only involved in the transfer of knowledge but also serves to focus insight and the self-learning forces within the child—each requiring modification based upon the developmental stage of the child. This assumption is valid only if by education we mean simply the transmission of information. A teacher’s task is not to pour in material but to draw out students’ nascent capacities. Herein lies the fundamental difference between in-struction, which in its etymological origins means to pour stones (Latin structus) into an empty vessel, and e-ducation, which in its origins means to lead or draw (Latin ducere) forth or out (Latin e-). When they instruct, teachers insert what they know into the empty vessel of the student who knows not. By contrast, when they educate, teachers draw forth from a student what he or she in some sense already knows, whether implicitly or explicitly. Like Socrates in Plato’s dialogue Meno,13 the teacher coaxes from the students––with the help of skillful leading questions––responses that help them figure out the lesson for themselves, instead of waiting for the teacher to supply it. In so doing, instead of receiving and retaining someone else’s thoughts, the students create their own. That is, they think. And in thinking students use more than simply their...

Words: 6180 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Prof. Dr.

...right Rese earch wship 200 03-04 with centre of research at the De f epartment o Architec of cture, Fellow Corne Universit New Yo ell ty, ork. The N ehru Trust for Cambr ridge Colle ections, Vic toria Alber Museum, UK had aw arded him research gr rt rant for 20 05-06. His paper “Ga azing into th future of Architectu he f ure; An evo lving profe ession“ was awarded t he Best Fac culty Paper Award in the Gol r i lden Jubile Confere ee ence of Sc hool of A rchitecture and Plann ing Chenna February 2008. He is currently Member B ai, y y Board of St tudies of Sc chool of Ar rchitecture and Plannin Anna U a ng, University a and Univers ity of Cali cut, Membe of er the Ed ditorial Boa of(i) Ed ard ducation and Practice published by IISTE US, (ii) ICFAI Jou d urnal of Arc chitecture, Journal of E J Emerging Tr rends in Edu ucational R esearch an d Policy Stu udies – JET TERAPS, Re viewer, (ii Journal of Architec ii) ctural Engi neering, Am merican So ciety of Civ Engineer (iv) Jou rnal of des vil rs, sign Studie published by IISTE US, and Mem es, d mber of Re eview pane l of Interna ational Con ngress, Pet tronas Univ versity, Ku ala Lumpur He r. worke as the Chairman - Academic Board, IIA Kerala Ch ed C A hapter, Vic ce-Chairman n–IIA Calicu Center, till Februa ut ary 2009. Formerly, he contribu uted as the Head of the e f Depa rtment of Architecture and glad ly built up the Depar A e rtment......

Words: 3739 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Perfomance Management Model

...in mind that the effectiveness and quality of educational services must increase so that our education is com patible with the European system and that the trained workforce in Romania will be able to integr ate easily in the sole labour market. Higher education institutions in our country must b e prepared to operate in a competitive education market, assuming greater managerial auton omy for each of them, a flexible regulatory framework and adequate financing. Today, being comp etitive as an institution of higher education requires more openness and transparency, a review o f services and marketing culture, according to the European realities and values of the European e ducation system, such as cultural diversity and research orientation. 1 Titu Maiorescu University, Bucharest, rodicagherghi na@yahoo.com 2 Titu Maiorescu University, Bucharest, florin_văduva @yahoo.com 3 Titu Maiorescu University, Bucharest, anca_postole@ yahoo.com Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, 11(2), 2009 640 Research looks at how the performance of public ins titutions of higher education level is perceived, and also examine whether the economic cr isis is affecting performance management in these institutions. Identifying the concept of performance Orientation toward performance began in 1982 when i n the United Kingdom within the central administration, the ......

Words: 3684 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Essays

...B​ ​RANT AABA G​ 6 Foxglove Ct. • Bolingbrook, IL 60440 • ​ grant.baaba@gmail.com​ • (630) 863-7056  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ E​ DUCATION 2008-2013 D​ ARTMOUTH C​ ​ LLEGE O Bachelor of Arts Degree​ - Sociology Coursework includes: Introduction to Sociology, The Sociological Classics, Quantitative Analysis of Social Data, Single & Multivariable Calculus, Marketing and Business Management, Politics Crises & Ideas, The Culminating Experience in Sociology, Writing in the Workplace Research Topics: Mechanical vs. Conceptual Teaching of Mathematics in American Elementary Schools, 1996 Welfare Reform Act, 2009 Helping Families Save their Homes Act 2004-2008 B​ ​​ ​ HOOL OGAN HIGH S​ C High School Diploma Awards: Gates Millennium Scholar, Daughters of American Revolution Scholar, Academic Decathlon Highest Team Scorer (2006-2008), 3rd​ ​Ranking in Graduating Class ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ E​ XPERIENCE Fall 2011-Spring 2013 D​ ARTMOUTH ​ UDENT ​ CESSIBILITY ​ RVICES S​ T A​ C S​ E Hanover, NH Intern • Edited text to improve student comprehension by using text-to-speech software • Initiated projects to reach goals before deadline • Developed skills in using Adobe and Kurzweil programs Fall 2011-Spring 2013 D​ ARTMOUTH ​......

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Effects of Gadgets

...areonly =ust beginning to reali3e the potential of technology in helping to improve student learningand increase academic performance.'n (alaysia, computers introduced in early 4DD/s whereas Personal Computer PCs inearly 5///. 'nternet development in (alaysia can be traced back to 4D00 when the (alaysian'nstitute of (icroelectronic Systems E('(SF set up the university computer network called(alaysian Computer Network. Now the latest technologies such as broadband, wireless and%luetooth have become a part of the daily life of a student E('(S, 5//DF.The college of +rts and Sciences, Bivision of #ducation, 9niversity 9tara (alaysia isoffers a bachelorGs degree in #ducation with honors. The graduates can choose a speciali3ation inareas such as moral studies, information technology, accounting and mathematics. This studyfocused on student teachers. ne of the domains of %achelor of #ducation programmer ismastery of computer skills. Students are e!pected to use the 'nternet facility independently toaccess vast amount of electronic resources from the university library. This includes electronic books, electronic maga3ines, electronic =ournals and other periodicals. #ven though remarkableefforts have been set into integrating technology especially personal computers into the dailylives of the students the level of technology among education student remains low E:amayah et   al., 5//F. There are many factors contributing to underutilisation. &actors such as cost of......

Words: 5065 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Group Assignment

...pandemic in Malaysia. Alternatively the Malaysia government coordinates the public policies by designing strategies which are best able to motivate individual and complemented by providing better information and education for their better understand of the H1N1 pandemic. WHO is advising countries with tropical climates like M alaysia, where the pandemic virus arrived later than elsewhere, to prepare for a future wave of pandemic spread. To overcome the future wave of pandemic spread of H1N1, it is not only important to focus in prevention strategies but also on the ethical issues as a significant factor with a good quality implementation. Subramanion Jothy was supported by My PhD. fellowship from the M inistry of H igher E ducation, G overnment of Malaysia, Malaysia. Conflict of interest statement References [1] Neumann G, Noda T, Kawaoka Y. Emergence and pandemic potential of swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. Nature 2009; 459: 931-939. [2] W orld H ealth O rganization. I nfluenza A ( H 1 N 1 ) –update 70 . Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009a. [Online] Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_ 10_ 16/en/index.html. [Accessed on 21st November, 2011]. [3] Lamb RA, Krug RM. Orthomyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; 1996, p 1353-1395. [4] Voyles BA. Orthomyxoviruses. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002, p 147. [5] Khanna M, Kumar P, Choudary K, Kumar B. Emerging......

Words: 2785 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Memoire

...de mˆme pour la spatialisation, il faudra prendre de nombreux rep`res e e successifs pour arriver a une repr´sentation spatiale de son environnement. ` e Lorsque les autres sens viennent compenser une vision nulle ou presque, il ne s’agit pas d’une compensation de la nature [22]. La suppl´ance des e sens n’intervient nullement au niveau physique, mais psychologique 5 . Ce ph´nom`ne naˆ de la volont´ des non voyants de continuer a mener une vie e e ıt e ` aussi compl`te que possible. e 3 Certains aveugles racontent mˆme ˆtre parfois voyants dans leurs rˆves. e e e Travail par t´l´phone par exemple ee 5 l’oreille d’un musicien peut paraˆ ıtre plus sensible, mais c’est en fait le fruit d’une culture, d’une ´ducation et/ou d’un travail particulier. Il ne devrait pas y avoir de diff´rence e e mat´rielle entre son oreille et celle d’un non musicien. e 4 Deuxi`me partie e Le domaine sonore 30 Chapitre 6 La reconnaissance dans le domaine sonore 6.1 Reconnaissance de sons Un son est une sensation due ` une vibration [10]. On peut caract´riser a e un son par sa hauteur (grave, aigu), son amplitude (fort, faible) et son timbre (pour les voix et les instruments)1 . Il existe de nombreux types de sons, en voici quelques uns. En dessous de 20 Hertz il s’agit d’infra-sons et au dessus de 20 MHz il s’agit d’ultra-sons, ce sont dans les deux cas des vibrations inaudibles. On peut d´finir comme bruit un son gˆnant. Cette......

Words: 10286 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Indus Valley Civilization

...Indus Valley Civilisation cities, was home to the Great Bath, which was located at the centre of the citadel and was a ritual bathing site. In this city, the Great Granary was also located. Scholars believe that the presence of such a large granary implies the existence of a centralised tax collecting agency. Lothal is the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. At Kalibangan, archaeologists have discovered two platforms with fire altars suggesting the practice of the cult of sacrifice. Polity There is no agreement among scholars on the issue of the type of political system prevalent in the Indus Valley Civilisation. It seems the either the priests or the merchants made up the ruling class. July 2006 25 MBA E ducation & C areers LEARNING CORNER Religion No temples in any of the sites have been found. However, we can arrive at some basic ideas on this issue from the seals found in various IVC sites. The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation practised fire-worship, nature worship, and worshipped Pasupati Mahadeva (chief diety) and Mother Goddess. Script and language The script of the Indus Valley Civilisation was pictographic. The signs and pictures depicted birds, animals, forces of nature, and human figures. Till now, the script has not been deciphered. On the issue of language, there is no unanimity: some scholars say that the language spoken by the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation was Dravidian or near to......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Questionnaire on Entrepreneurship

...Department of International Business s Univ versity of Dh haka BBA 3rd Batch A IB 30 Internat 04: tional Entre epreneurship Study on Entrepre n eneurial A Aptitude fo Interna or ational Bus siness (Part of Course on I International En ntrepreneurship) De emographi Data ic 1. 3. 4. Gender: Marital Status Level of Ed ducation Male (1) Married (1) Female (2) Unmarried (2) Widowed (3) Graduation (2 2) Between Class 5 to 10 (5) No education (8) General (2) Government job (2) Teaching (5) Daily laborer (8) Housewife (11) Migrant work (14) ker Religious (3) R Foreign organiza F ation (3) Skilled worker/c craftsman (6) Student (9) Unemployed (12 U 2) Other (15) O 2. Age: Divorced (4) Sepa arated (5) Masters or abov (1) ve Secondary Cert tificate (4) Some education (7) n Higher Seconda (3) H ary Between class 1 to 4 (6) B 5. 6. Type of Ed ducation Current Pro ofession Technical (1) Private job (1) Self-Employed/ /Business (4) Transport work (7) ker Religious works (10) No job/Professi (13) ion 7. 8. 9. 10 12. Location of Interview: f Economic status s Monthly In ncome: Rich (1) Family: Tk. Solvent ( (2) Personal Tk. Po (3) oor Number of members in f family: Number of brother & sis ster 11. Hou Head use Father (1) Mother (2) 13. Pos sition among brother & sis ster: Checklist f Feeling about Co C for g ontrol 13 14 Do you ofte feel "That's just the way t en things are and there's nothing I can do abo g out it"? When things go right and...

Words: 1093 - Pages: 5