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Global Positioning System and Tracking

2nd Semester B.S. (SE) 2014

Submitted By:
Name: Hafsa Ameer Enrolment number: 2014/comp/BS(S.E)/16869 Submitted to: Hina Qaiser Khan

14 -November,2014

Department of Computer Science and Information Technology
Jinnah University for Women 5-C Nazimabad, Karachi 74600

ABSTRACT Where am I? Where am I going? Where are you? What is the best way to get there? When will I get there? In this paper GPS technology can answer all these questions. GPS satellite can show you exact position on the earth any time, in any weather, no matter where you are. GPS technology has made an impact on navigation and positioning needs with the use of satellites and ground stations the ability to track aircrafts, cars, cell phones, boats and even individuals has become a reality. A system of satellites, receivers that is able to determine the latitude and longitude of a receiver on Earth by calculating the distance. System (GPS) is a worldwide radio-navigation system formed from constellation of 24 satellites. Navigation system is made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles, and for hand carrying by individuals. Surveying, telecommunications facilities, and mapping, tracking etc is another use of GPS.
Also in this paper feasibility is, to introduce tracking system in Jinnah University, that monitor students’progress until they have seen an academic advising resources and helps students graduate on time.

1.1 Background 1
1.2 What Is Tracking? 2
1.3 Tracking Devices 2
1.3.1 Mechanical Tracking Devices: 3
1.3.2 Optical Tracking Devices: 3
1.3.3 Electromagnetic Tracking Devices: 4
1.3.4 Acoustic Tracking Devices: 4
1.3.5 Motorcycle Travels Tracking Device 4
1.4 What is GPS? 4
1.5 Why Use Of GPS? 5
1.5.1 Advantages 5
1.6 Why not GPS? 6
1.6.1 GPS Accuracy Limitations 7
1.7 GPS Tracker 8
1.8 Summary 7 Chapter 2GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Architecture and Design 9
2.2.1 Space Segment 11
2.2.2 User Segment 12
2.2.3Control Segment 12
2.3 How GPS Works 13
2.4 GPS Applications 15
2.4.1 Location 15
2.4.2 Navigation 16
2.4.3 Timing 16
2.4.4 Mapping 16
2.4.5 Tracking 16
2.5 Common Applications 17
2.6 Summary 19
3.1 Introduction 20
3.2 The Future of GPS Tracking Systems 20
3.2.1 Increased Business Use 21
3.2.2 Business Opportunities 21
3.2.3 Advancements in Software 21
3.2.4 Personal Safety 21
3.2.5 Privacy concerns 22 3.2.6 Widespread Usage 22
3.2.7 Smaller Size, Longer Life 22
3.2.8 Affordable Prices 23
3.3 Future Developments in GPS Technology 24
3.3.1 What benefits will GPS III bring? 25
3.3.2 The Need for GPS III 26
3.3.3 GPS III Design Overview 27 3.3.4 GPS III Processing Facility 27
3.4 Summary 28
4.1 Introduction 29
4.2 Implementation Strategies 29
4.2.1 Implementation purpose 30 track student interventions. 30 To continue aligning with previous interventions. 30 To track student’s progress. 30
4.2.2 Training 31
4.2.3 Before and after Comparison 31
4.2.4 Implementation Cost 32
4.3 Benefits 32
4.3.1 Main aspects 33
4.4 Comparison with other Universities 33
4.5 Limitations 34
4.6 Conclusion and Recommendation 35
References 36

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1:Mechanical tracking device 3 Figure 1.2:Optical tracking device 3 Figure 1.3:Electromagnetic tracking device 4 Figure 1.4:Oldest model of acoustic tacking device 4
Figure 1.5 Motorcycle Tracking device………………………………………………………5 Figure 1.6:GPS 5
Figure 1.8 BATTERY VEHICLE TRACKER GPS………………………………………………...9
Figure 1.9 gps tracker magnet…………………………………………………………..9
Figure 1.10 Personal GPS………………………………………………………….…9
Figure 1.11 Car Tracking Device Spy……………………………………………9
Figure 1.12 Spy GPS Tracker………………………………….....…………………10 Figure 2.1:GPS Network 10 Figure 2.2:GPS space navigation network 11 Figure 2.3:GPS receives signal 12 Figure 2.4:GPS control station network 13 Figure 2.5:GPS work by measuring distance 14 Figure 2.6:GPS work using satellite 14 Figure 2.7:GPS works with two satellites 15 Figure 2.8:GPS works with three satellites 15 Figure 2.9:GPS technology used in airfield 17 Figure 2.10: GPS use for transportation 18 Figure 2.11: Weather forecast update using GPS 18 Figure 2.12: Tracker in Vehicle 19 Figure 3.1:GPS Tracking 20 Figure 3.2:Privacy concern 22
Figure 3.3:...…………………...…………………………………………………………….22
Figure 3.4:...…………………...…………………………………………………………….23
Figure 3.5:…...………………...…………………………………………………………….23
Figure 3.6:…...………………...…………………………………………………………….23 Figure 3.7:Future of technology-GPS III 24
Figure 3.8Need for GPS……………………………………………………………………..25
Figure 3.9 Design overview………………………………………………………26
Figure 3.10 facility………………………………………………………………………..…27

LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1: GPS usage in business 5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I extend my sincere gratitude towardsour course incharge ‘Information Technology and Computer science ‘department, for giving her invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance. The knowledge acquired during the preparation of the report would definitely help in future ventures. I express my thanks to all the other faculty members for their kind cooperation and for preparing and presenting thisproject. I also thank all my friends for their help and support.

Chapter 1

1.1 Background
Throughout time people have developed a variety of ways to figure out their position on earth and to navigate from one place to another. Early mariners relied on angular measurements to celestial bodies like sun and stars to calculate their location. The 1920s witnessed the introduction of more advanced technique radio navigation based at first on radios that allowed navigators to locate direction of shore-based transmitters when in range. Later, the development of artificial satellites made possible the transmission of more-precise, line-of-sight radio navigation signals and sparked a new era in navigation technology. Satellites were first used in position-finding in a simple but reliable two dimensional Navy system called Transit. This laid groundwork for a system that would later revolutionize navigation forever the Global Positioning System. [1] It was originally developed for military use, with the intention to help route guided missiles, however for exact precision it was necessary to know the starting point of the missile which is not always possible – for example when the missile is fired from a submarine. The GPS technology was originally conceived during a U.S. military program started in 1958 (one year after the launch of the first satellite). The idea was to obtain the position of somewhere on earth using radio emissions from a satellite. In 1960 the U.S. Navy engineers improved GPS further when they developed the Transit system. This was based on the “Doppler Effect” (used by radars) and was able to position a fixed point very precisely. The Challenger shuttle explosion in January 1986 interrupted the project launch for civilian usage procedure, which led to a questioning of the project and the decision to use a specific launcher (DELTA 2) for other satellites. New satellite launches were blocked from 1989 to 1994.

However, once the system was made publically available, it soon became extremely popular for consumer applications. One of the first companies to take advantage of the technology was Garmin who started to develop in-car portable navigation devices (or sat naves). Nowadays, GPS navigation is included on smart phones and the technology has a Wide range of uses from Tsunami detection in the Pacific Ocean to tracking sports men and women and their fitness. [2]
1.2 What is tracking? The purpose of a tracking is to determine the location or direction of a target on a near-continuous basis. An ideal tracking system would maintain contact and constantly update the target's bearing, range and elevation. The output of the tracking system can be sent to a control system, which stores the information and derives the target's motion and therefore its future position. A variety of different tracking techniques are used in Virtual reality systems (An artificial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment.) that make use of different technologies. Each system is characterized by a different working discipline, different measured parameters and thus different advantages and disadvantages. Tracking system is used for the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of respective location data to a model. Tracking is useful because it enables a central tracking center to monitor the position of several vehicles or people, in real time, without them needing to relay that information explicitly. This can include children, criminals, police and emergency vehicles, military applications, and many others. [3]
1.3 Tracking Devices Tracking devices, also called 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) devices, work by measuring the position (x, y, and z coordinates), and the orientation (yaw, pitch, and roll) with respect to a reference point or state. In terms of hardware, the following three components are in general required a source that generates a signal, a sensor that receives the signal, and a control box that processes the signal and communicates with the computer. Depending on the ethnology used, either the source or the sensor is attached to the body, with

the other placed at a fixed spot in the environment, serving as a reference point. Current tracking devices are based on electromagnetic, acoustic, mechanical, or optical technology. [4]
1.3.1 Mechanical tracking devices These devices measure position and orientation by using a direct mechanical connection between a reference point and the target. Typically, a light-weight arm connects a control box to a headband, and encoders placed at the joints of the arm measure the change in position and orientation with respect to the reference point.

Figure 1.1Mechanical tracking device
1.3.2 Optical tracking devices Most optical tracking devices currently used in virtual environments are for tracking head position and orientation. Basically, they come in two variants. In the first one, one or several cameras are mounted on top of the HMD, and a set of infrared LEDs is placed above the head at fixed locations in the environment.

Figure 1.2Optical tracking device

1.3.3 Electromagnetic Tracking Devices Electromagnetic tracking devices function by measuring the strength of the magnetic fields generated by sending current through three small wire coils, oriented perpendicular to one another. These three coils are embedded in a small unit that is attached to whatever the system needs to track - typically, the user.

Figure 1.3Electromagnetic tracking device

1.3.4 Acoustic Tracking Devices Acoustic tracking devices use ultrasonic (high-frequency) sound waves form measuring the position and orientation of the target object. There are two ways of doing this: so-called time-of-flight tracking and phase-coherence tracking.

Figure 1.4Oldest model of acoustic tacking device
1.3.5 Motorcycle Travels Tracking Device Every year across America motorcyclists will throw on their leather jackets and hit the open road for charity. Some riders will get on their bikes and travel for organizations such as the Wounded Warrior Project, or other charities that support Autism awareness, cancer research or heart disease prevention. Raising money for charitable organizations is always a noble cause and riding a motorcycle to contribute to that effort is something many motorcycle riders enjoy being a part of.

Figure 1.5 Motorcycle Tracking device

1.4 What is GPS? The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information. Global Positioning System (GPS) devices can be found everywhere - they're used in cars, boats, airplanes, and even in cellular phones. Handheld GPS receivers are carried by hikers, surveyors, map makers, and others who need to know where they are. The first satellite navigation system, Transit, used by the United States Navy, was first successfully tested in 1960. It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. [5]

Figure 1.6GPS
1.5 Why Use Of GPS The simple answer is: increase your profit by eliminating wastes you can’t measure or control without GPS tracking. Today’s competitive business environment does not allow waste of time, equipment or materials lost to ineffective fleet routing, improper use of equipment, loss or theft of equipment and personal time use that isn’t adding to the bottom-line. By tracking your fleet vehicles, equipment or personnel, you’ll profit from eliminating wasted time or improper use of your equipment, however it happens. [6]
1.5.1 Advantages * How does GPS tracking Benefits your Business GPS of Texas saves your company time and money by keeping track of your drivers. With our Watchdog tracking devices, you will be able to view the exact routes your drivers take with access to their complete route history. Here are just a few of the benefits our GPS tracking system provides: Your Drives | Your Customers | Management | Sales Representatives | Proof of services | Faster service | Fewer accidents | Navigational aid | Increased security | Reliable service | Better management | Protects the driver | Protects the driver | Accurate service | More appointments | Increased security | Navigational aid | Efficient service | Increases revenue | | Rewards hard work | Affordable service | win new business | |

Table 1.1GPS usage in business

Our GPS Tracking devices are also perfect for personal tracking. Do you need to do some private investigating, or need to track a family member with Our PTX-5 tracking device is small enough to be hidden under a seat or in a purse, but powerful enough to provide location updates every 10 seconds. Click here to see all of our GPS products. [7] * Ease Of Navigation GPS is extremely easy to navigate as it tells you to the direction for each turn you take or you have to take to reach to your destination and give you the exact latitude and longitude. * Search Nearby Area Allow you to search the local area for nearby amenities, It also helps you to search the nearby restaurants, hotels and gas stations and is very useful for a new place. * Weather Information Determine the atmosphere’s water content to improving the accuracy of weather forecasts. GPS works in all-weather so you need not to worry of the climate as in other navigating devices. * Affordable The GPS costs you very low in comparison other navigation systems. Due to its low cost, it is very easy to integrate into other technologies like cell phone. * Coverage The most attractive feature of this system is its100% coverage on the planet. This is the best navigating system in water as in larger water bodies we are often misled due to lack of proper directions. [8]
1.6 Why not GPS Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) tracking systems were originally designed and utilized by the military for a variety of purposes, but generally to provide location and/or velocity information of objects or individuals around the world. GPS has been used in the last decade by civilians to effectively track vehicles, inventory, Alzheimer’s patients, migrating animals, and even pets. In community corrections, GPS tracking is a form of intensive supervision used most commonly to monitor higher-risk individuals under community supervision. Offenders are tracked by a portable GPS receiver that is carried or worn. In order to provide accurate location information, a receiver must be in clear sight of at least three satellites. In most normal situations, a human being is likely in view of between five and eight satellites; however there are basic limitations in GPS technology that inhibit or block transmissions for brieforextendedperiodso time.
1.6.1 GPS Accuracy Limitations GPS is proven to be a very valuable tool for the purposes of Surveying and Navigation however its users must be aware of its characteristics and cautious of its limitations.
Common Factors affecting the accuracy of GPS: * GPS Technique employed (i.e.: Autonomous, WADGPS, DGPS, RTK, etc.) * Surrounding conditions (satellite visibility and multipath) * Number of satellites in view * Satellite Geometry (HDOP, GDOP, PDOP etc.) * Distance from Reference Receiver(s) * Ionosphere conditions * Quality of GPS receiver * Signal Delay caused by the Ionosphere * Signal Delay caused by the Troposphere * Orbit Errors (GPS satellite position inaccuracy) * Receiver Noise. [9]
1.7 GPS Tracker Different GPS Tracking System are as follows



Figure 1.9 gps tracker magnet

Figure 1.10 Personal GPS

Figure 1.11 Car Tracking Device Spy

Figure 1.12 Spy GPS Tracker
1.8 Summary Tracking is an electronic security system which allows you to monitor the physical location of a person or object. The system which is used for tracking purpose is GPS the Global Positioning System is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information. Roger L. Easton, of Vermont, is widely credited as the man who invented GPS tracking as a practical technique used for military purposes. Developed by Department of Defense as a military navigational tool. Systems birth was in the early 1970’s.
Satellites orbiting at high altitudes (11,000miles), First Satellite launched in 1978. Became fully operational in April 1995.Useful night & day – rain or shine and using radio waves. Accuracy depends on unit; some are accurate to a centimeter. GPS is extremely easy to navigate as it tells you to the direction for each turns you take or you have to take to reach to your destination. GPS works in all-weather so you need not to worry of the climate as in other navigating devices. The GPS costs you very low in comparison other navigation systems. The most attractive feature of this system is its100% coverage on the planet. It also helps you to search the nearby restaurants, hotels and gas stations and is very useful for a new place. Due to its low cost, it is very easy to integrate into other technologies like cell phone. The system is updated regularly by the US government and hence is very advance. This is the best navigating system in water as in larger water bodies we are often misled due to lack of proper directions. Sometimes the GPS may fail due to certain reasons and in that case you need to carry a backup map and directions. If you are using GPS on a battery operated device, there may be a battery failure and you may need an external power supply which is not always possible. Sometimes the GPS signals are not accurate due to some obstacles to the signals such as buildings, trees and sometimes by extreme atmospheric conditions such as geomagnetic storms.

Chapter 2

2.1 Introduction GPS (Global positioning system) is a system of positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services made up of three segments: space navigation, a control segment, and a user segment. A GPS receiver, which can be in a smartphone, navigation device, etc., needs signals from at least four satellites (although three are considered acceptable if a fourth is unavailable), and from these signals the receiver determines the times sent, and the satellite positions corresponding to these times sent. This information is used to pinpoint the receiver’s exact location on the globe in relation to the location of the satellites. The system is currently owned and operated by the U.S. Air Force. GPS is used every day by consumers in a variety of different ways, for example in-car navigation being the most popular and common use of the technology. Now it is even possible to use GPS navigation on a smart phone, or track people or property using GPS tracking devices. But how did GPS come to exist? Read on for an overview of the history of GPS and how it all started. The principle of GPS is the measurement of distance between the receiver and the satellites. The satellites also tell us exactly where they are in their orbit above the earth. The receiver knows our exact distance from satellite, knows the distance between satellites. GPS receivers have mathematical method by computer to compute exactly where the GPS receiver could be located. [10]
2.2 Architecture And Design GPS (Global Positioning System) is the only system today able to show you where you’re exactly position on the earth at any time and any weather condition. 24 satellites are all orbit around the earth at 11,000 nautical miles or approximately 20,200 mms, above the

earth. The satellites are placed into six different orbital planes and 55 degree inclination. They are continuously monitored by ground stations located worldwide.
We can divide GPS system into three segments. * Space Segmen * User Segment * Control Segment. [11]

Figure 2.1GPS Network

2.2.1 Space Segment The space segment comprises a network of satellites. The complete GPS space system includes 24 satellites, 11,000 nautical miles above the earth; take 12 hours each to go around the earth once or one orbit. They are orbit in six different planes and 55 degrees inclination. These positions of satellites, we can receive signals from six of them nearly of the time at any point on earth. Satellites are equipped with very precise clocks that keep accurate time to within three nanoseconds (0.000000003 of a second or 3e-9).

Figure 2.2GPS space navigation network This precision timing is important because the receiver must determine exactly how long it takes for signals to travel from each GPS satellite to receiver. Each satellite contains a supply of fuel and small servo engines so that it can be moved in orbit to correct for positioning errors. Each satellite contains four atomic clocks. These clocks are accurate to a nanosecond .Each satellite emits two separate signals, one for military purposes and one for civilian use.
Some specification of satellite * Weight: 930 kg.(in orbit) * Size: 5.1 m. * Travel Velocity: 4 km/sec * Transmit Signals: 1575.42 MHz and 1227.60 MHz * Receive at 1783.74 MHz * Design life: 7.5 year (later model Blockier 10 years)

2.2.2 User Segment As the pilot fly, the GPS receiver continuously calculates the current position and display the correct position / heading. The GPS unit listens to the satellite's signal and measure the time between the satellites transmission and receipt of the signal. By the process of triangulation among the several satellites being received, the unit computes the location of the GPS receiver. GPS receiver has to see at least four satellites to compute a three dimensional position (it can compute position with only three satellites if know altitude). Not only latitude and Longitude, but altitude as well. There are numerous forms of display among the various manufacturers. No frequency tuning is required, as the frequency of the satellite transmissions are already known by the receiver.

Figure 2.3GPS receives signal
2.2.3 Control Segment The control Segment of GPS consist of the Master Control Station ( one station ): The master control station is responsible for overall management of the remote monitoring and transmission sites. As the center for support operations , It calculates any position or clock errors for each individual satellite from monitor stations and then order the appropriate corrective information back to that satellite and Monitor Stations ( four stations ): Each of monitor stations checks the exact altitude , position , speed , and overall of the orbiting of satellites. A station can track up to 11 satellites at a time. This check-up is performed twice a day by each station as the satellites go around the earth.

Figure 2.4GPS control station network
2.3 HowGPS Works A GPS receiver calculates its position by a technique called satelliteranging, which involves measuring the distance between the GPSreceiver and the GPS satellites it is tracking. The range (the range receiver calculates is actually a pseudo range, or an estimate of range rather than a true range) or distance, is measured as elapsed transit time. The position of each satellite is known, and the satellites transmit their positions as part of the "messages" they send via radio waves. The GPS receiver on the ground is the unknown point, and mustcompute its position based on the information it receives from the satellites. [12] * Measuring Distance to Satellites The first step in measuring the distance between the GPS receiver and satellite requires measuring the time it takes for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver. Once the receiver knows how much time has elapsed, it multiplies the travel time of the signal times the speed of light (because the satellite signals travel at the speed of light, approximately 186,000 miles per second) to compute the distance. Distance measurements to four satellites are required to compute a 3-dimensional (latitude, longitude and altitude) position. In order to measure the travel time of the satellite signal, the receiver has to know when the signal left the satellite and when the signal reached the receiver. Knowing when the signal reaches the receiver is easy; the GPS receiver just "checks" its internal clock when the signal arrives to see what time it is. But how does it "know" when the signal left the satellite?

All GPS receivers are synchronized with the satellites so they generate the same digital code at the same time. When the GPS receiver receives a code from a satellite, it can look back in its memory bank and "remember" when it emitted the same code. This little "trick" allows the GPS receiver to determine when the signal left the satellite. [13]

Figure 2.5GPS work by measuring distance * Using the Distance Measurements to Calculate Position Once the receiver has the distance measurements, it's basically a problem of geometry. If it "knows" where the four satellites are, and how far it is from each satellite, it can compute its location through triangulation. 1. The GPS receiver "locks on" to one satellite and calculates the range to be 12,000 miles. This fact helps narrow the receiver location down, but it only tells us that were somewhere on sphere which is centered on the satellite and has a 12,000miles radius.

Figure 2.6GPS work using satellite

2. Now, consider that the receiver picks up a signal from a second satellite and calculates the range between the receiver and the satellite to be 10,000 miles. That means we are also somewhere on a sphere with a 10,000 mile radius with the second satellite at the center. We must, therefore, be somewhere where these two spheres intersect. When the two spheres intersect, a circle is formed, so we must be somewhere on that circle.

Figure 2.7GPS works with two satellites

3. If the receiver picks up another satellite, say at 11,000 miles away, another sphere is formed, and there are only two points where the three spheres intersect. [14]

Figure 2.8GPS works with three satellites
2.4 GPS Applications The applications of the Global Positioning System fall into five categories: location, navigation, timing, mapping, and tracking. Each category contains uses for the military, industry, transportation, recreation and science. [15]
2.4.1 Location This category is for position determination and is the most obvious use of the Global Positioning System. GPS is the first system that can give accurate and precise

measurements anytime, anywhere and under any weather conditions. Some examples of applications within this category are: 1. Measuring the movement of volcanoes and glaciers. 2. Measuring the growth of mountains. 3. Measuring the location of icebergs - this is very valuable to ship captains helping them to avoid possible disasters. 4. Storing the location of where you were - most GPS receivers on the market will allow you to record a certain location. This allows you to find it again with minimal effort and would prove useful in a hard to navigate place such as a dense forest. [15]
2.4.2 Navigation Navigation is the process of getting from one location to another. This was the Global Positioning System was designed for. The GPS system allows us to navigate on water, air, or land. It allows planes to land in the middle of mountains and helps medical evacuation helicopters save precious time by taking the best route. [15]
2.4.3 Timing GPS brings precise timing to the us all. Each satellite is equipped with an extremely precise atomic clock. This is why we can all synchronize our watches so well and make sure international events are actually happening at the same time. [15]
2.4.4 Mapping This is used for creating maps by recording a series of locations. The best example is surveying where the DGPS technique is applied but with a twist. Instead of making error corrections in real time, both the stationary and moving receivers calculate their positions using the satellite signals. When the roving receiver is through making measurements, it then takes them back to the ground station which has already calculated the errors for each moment in time. At this time, the accurate measurements are obtained. [15]
2.4.5 Tracking The applications in this category are ways of monitoring people and things such as packages. This has been used along with wireless communications to keep track of some criminals. The suspect agrees to keep a GPS receiver and transmitting device with him at all

times. If he goes where he's not allowed to, the authorities will be notified. This can also be used to track animals. [15]
2.5 Common Applications Many applications use a combination of the above categories. The following is a list of some additional areas where the global positioning service is being applied: * Aviation In commercial aviation, most aircraft now use GPS for enroute navigation and increasingly GPS is being used for initial approach and nonprecision approach to specified airfields. Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADSB) is being developed globally as the preferred future technology for commercial air traffic control; this involves aircraft calculating their position using GPS and broadcasting it to other aircraft. GPS is also widely used for navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for professional applications such as resource mapping and aerial surveying – imaging tasks previous performed by satellites such as NASA’s Landsat. [16]

Figure 2.9GPS technology used in airfield * Shipping & Rail Transport Maritime applications include ocean and inshore navigation, dredging, port approaches, harbor entrance and docking; vessel traffic services (VTS), Automatic Identification System (AIS), hydrography, and cargo handling. Railway applications include the management of rolling stock, passenger information, preventing doors opening until the carriage is alongside the platform, cargo tracking signaling, train integrity and level crossing approach. [17]

Figure 2.10GPS use for transportation * Environment GPS data collection systems complemented with GIS packages provide a means for comprehensive analysis of environmental concerns. Environmental patterns and trends can be efficiently recognized with GPS/GIS data collection systems, and thematic maps can be easily created. GPS data can be quickly analyzed without the preliminary requirement for field data transcription into a digitized form. Accurate tracking of environmental disasters such as fires and oil spills can be conducted more efficiently.
Precise positional data from GPS can assist scientists in crustal and seismic monitoring.
Monitoring and preservation of endangered species can be facilitated through GPS tracking and mapping. [18]

Figure 2.11Weather forecast update using GPS * Roads and Highway Higher levels of safety and mobility for all surface transportation system users.More accurate position determination to provide greater passenger information. More effective monitoring to ensure schedule adherence, creating a transit system more responsive

to transportation user’s needs. Better location information with electronic maps to provide in-vehicle navigation systems for both commercial and private users. Increased efficiencies and reduced costs in surveying roads. [19]

Figure 2.12Tracker in Vehicle
2.6 Summary A network of 24 – 32 satellites orbiting Earth. These satellites continually transmit time-marked radio (microwave) signals back to Earth. A number of tracking stations located around the world. These stations monitor and send corrective data via the satellites. The user segment consists of the people and receivers on the ground. The signal received on the ground from a satellite contains information on that satellite’s position as well as the time the signal was sent. Once a GPS receiver has locked onto the signals from two different satellites it can begin to estimate a position. One on the surface of the earth and one in deep space With three different satellites it can use this information to calculate (trilateration) a position. With the addition of a fourth satellite signal the GPS receiver can calculate a three-dimensional position (3D), including altitude. Measuring the location of icebergs - this is very valuable to ship captains helping them to avoid possible disasters. Each GPS satellite contains multiple atomic clocks that contribute very precise time data to the GPS signals. Navigation is the process of getting from one location to another.

Chapter 3

3.1 Introduction Barring significant new complications due to Selective Availability from DOD, the GPS industry is continue to develop in the civilian community. There are currently more than 50 manufacturers of GPS receivers, with the trend continuing to be towards smaller, less expensive, easily operated devices. Highly accurate, portable (handheld) receivers available, 'wrist watch locators' and navigational guidance systems for automobiles. However, there is one future trend that will be very relevant to the GIS (global information system) is that, community base stations and regional receive networks, as GPS management and technological innovations that will make GPS surveying easier and more accurate. Also Pakistan is set to become the fifth Asian country to use China’s domestic satellite navigation system which was launched as a rival to the US global positioning system. In the future use of this technology, not only in the field of Defense, but also in civilian community as this is not a scientific luxury but is the need of future. [20]
3.2 The Future of GPS Tracking Systems With GPS tracking systems popping up in cell phones, watches, and shoes, there's no doubt that GPS tracking devices are making their way into all walks of daily life. Considering the increased popularity of GPS tracking systems, what can we expect from the next generation of these tracking devices? [21]

Figure 3.1GPS Tracking

3.2.1 Increased Business Use Even as businesses are rapidly turning to GPS tracking systems to help them with daily operations, such as vehicle tracking, employee monitoring, and theft prevention, we can only expect the use of GPS tracking systems to increase in the next few decades. As technology continues to evolve, GPS tracking devices will continue to decrease in size, increase in accuracy, and be utilized by even more businesses as a common, yet powerful tool. [21]
3.2.2 Business Opportunities As more businesses demand the conveniences and fiscal benefits offered by GPS tracking systems, the demand for distributors of GPS tracking equipment and service providers will certainly increase. GPS tracking systems represent an already profitable business opportunity that will only expand as demand continues to rise. [21]
3.2.3 Advancements in Software Already highly-sophisticated, GPS tracking software plays a key role in how businesses use GPS tracking systems to meet their needs. As satellite mapping and computer imagery continue to advance, so will the capabilities and applications for GPS tracking software. [21]
3.2.4 Personal Safety Unfortunately, it seems that violent crimes and abduction are going to be a horrible reality for this and future generations. Personal GPS tracking systems are already being used to enhance the safety of many children and adults, and as GPS tracking systems continue to become more affordable, it's likely that they'll be used even more for this purpose. [21]

3.2.5 Privacy concerns What began as a military application is likely to move more and more into the realm of consumer-grade applications, like social media and games. But as we share more about ourselves online, we also stand to lose privacy, something that’s harder and harder to come by lately. [22]

Figure 3.2Privacy concern

3.2.6 Widespread Usage More and more businesses are turning to GPS technology as an effective way to manage their vehicles, their employees and their assets. Businesses use GPS vehicle tracking to assess driver performance and to keep track of executives while they're traveling. As the devices become smaller and more accurate, it's a safe bet that even more businesses will begin to utilize these powerful tools.[22]

Figure 3.3

3.2.7 Smaller Size, Longer Life When you think about the next generation of tracking devices, you might envision the sort of futuristic gadgets commonly seen in the movies. Real GPS technology hasn't quite caught up to these fictional devices: today's trackers aren't as small as the ones imagined by Hollywood, and they can't be implanted under someone's skin In the past, the effectiveness of a GPS tracking device was hampered by its need for frequent battery charges. Today, the best trackers can go up to 30 days without a recharge; if you need to go even longer between charges, extended battery packs can provide up to 6 months of uninterrupted use.

Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5

3.2.8 Affordable Prices GPS trackers are no longer a luxury reserved for the largest companies and government agencies. As prices have come down, these devices are now within reach for smaller businesses and even individuals. If you've always assumed that GPS vehicle tracking or asset tracking was too pricey for your business, you may want to give this technology a second look: the increased productivity and efficiency usually makes the investment worthwhile.

Figure 3.6

3.3 Future Developments in GPS Technology These days, GPS positioning is a fact of life for many people. GPS receivers are built into everything from phones to tablets to cameras, and standalone GPS devices loaded with maps continue to be popular with travelers (as well as hikers, pilots, and boaters). These days most vehicles come with at least an option for built-in satellite navigation. The idea of going somewhere without satellite positioning and maps at your fingertips or snapping photos without retagging data — can be as alien to people these days as hitching up a wagon for a run to the feed store. It’s an anachronism from another era. But speaking of anachronisms: The GPS system we know today reached its operational goals in mid-1995. In technology terms, that’s kind of just one step up from MS-DOS. But the U.S. government is well underway on a $5.5 billion project to roll out GPS III, with the goal of making GPS more powerful and more accurate than ever. [23]

3.3.1 What benefits will GPS III bring, and when can we expect to use them? The U.S. government started gearing up for GPS III all the way back in 1998, and authorized funding for the effort in 2000 — that means some benefits and improvements have begun rolling out already. As originally deployed for civilian use, the GPS system uses one type of radio signal, called L1 C/A. GPS III will add three new civilian signals to that mix — L2C, L1C, and L5 — while keeping the L1 C/A signal operational for a total of four civilian signals. [23] Figure 3.6 Future of technology-GPS III
GPS III explained: Everything you need to know about the next generation of GPS
These days, GPS positioning is a fact of life for many people. GPS receivers are built into everything from phones to tablets to cameras, and standalone GPS devices loaded with maps continue to be popular with travelers (as well as hikers, pilots, and boaters). These days most vehicles come with at least an optionfor built-in satellite navigation. The idea of going somewhere without satellite positioning and maps at your fingertips — or snapping photos without geotagging data — can be as alien to people these days as hitching up a wagon for a run to the feed store. It’s an anachronism from another era.

Figure 3.7Next Generation of GPS

3.3.2 The Need for GPS III GPS III is required to maintain the GPS constellation and improve PNT services to meet user demand in the future. The GPS III capabilities, with the new L1C signal, higher signal power, greater accuracy, longer SV lifetime, and higher signal availability, will maintain GPS as the “Gold Standard” for worldwide satellite navigation systems.
GPS III will be needed to sustain the constellation (Figure 2) in the near term, following completion of the current GPS Block IIF launch schedule. The 10 remaining GPS IIF SVs will generally replace the 13 older IIA SVs now on orbit, as these satellites are well past their expected life. GPS III will then replace older Block IIR SVs, essential to maintaining the backbone of the constellation for years to come.
The GPS III SVs will be able to use their capability to select higher PRNs (38-63) for active SVs, allowing more than 32 GPS SVs to broadcast in the constellation. This will provide improved accuracy and greater coverage for all users.
GPS III’s expandable capability and active production line will allow it to readily adapt to unforeseen and changing capability requirements to meet the needs of GPS users in the future.
The first GPS III satellites will deliver signals three times more accurate than current GPS spacecraft and provide three times more power for military users. They will also increase the SV design life to 15 years and add a new civil signal designed to be interoperable with international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS).
The new expandable GPS III design is based on the award-winning Lockheed Martin A2100 bus design and its long heritage. Important design elements have also been pulled from the GPS Block IIR and IIR-M SVs and their impressive heritage of almost 150 years of accumulated on-orbit performance. Figure 3.8Need for GPS 4.3.3 GPS III Design Overview We can highlight the basic GPS III SV design by examining its various elements and subsystems: the navigation payload element (NPE), the network communications element (NCE), the hosted payload element (HPE), the antenna subsystem element, and the vehicle bus element with its subsystems. A brief description of each element and subsystem follows.
The NPE includes the payload computer (the mission data unit or MDU), the L-band transmitters (L1, L2, L3, L5), the atomic frequency standards (AFSs), and signal filters. The MDU incorporates the waveform generator functionality first introduced in the modernized IIR-M SV. Each GPS III SV hosts three enhanced rubidium AFSs (“clocks”), which build upon the strong heritage from the GPS IIR/IIR-M SVs. The GPS III SV also includes a fourth slot for enhanced new or experimental frequency standard designs, such as a hydrogen maser.
Significantly, a GPS III has the capability to operate and monitor a backup AFS for stability performance measurement and characterization. This is separate from the operational AFS. Redundant time-keeping system loops allow independent operation of the accurate hardware/software control loops. This capability is not available on any of the previous generations of GPS satellites.

Figure 3.9 Design overview

4.3.4 GPS III Processing Facility To ensure the most efficient GPS III production process, Lockheed Martin has invested in the development of a new, multi-capability GPS Processing Facility (GPF) at its Waterton site near Denver. This will be the assembly, integration and test (AI&T) location for the entire GPS III fleet.
Satellite assemblies and elements will come from various locations around the country for final assembly, followed by a thorough battery of tests including thermal vacuum and electro-magnetic interference. Photos accompanying this article show the thermal vacuum (TVAC) chamber, the anechoic chamber, and the “high bay” assembly and test area at the GPF.
Construction of the GPF was completed earlier this year, and the facility checkout and validation is nearly complete.

Figure 3.10 facility

3.4 Summary The future of global positioning system is bright as predictions range from its' increased usage to expansion into new areas of application. It is estimated that there will be 50 million users of the global positioning system by 2010 that perform applications in the following fields: * Ships * Aircrafts * Military systems * Farm vehicles * Automobiles Positional accuracy and reliable calculations are also predicted in the GPS technology. It is hoped that additional civil frequencies and civil codes will be developed to meet the requirements of civilian users. GPS users have also considered the benefits of interoperating the GALILEO and NAVSTAR systems. The advantages of interoperability include improved signal redundancy and more available signals that enable users to access satellites from remote areas. Chapter 4

4.1 Introduction Tracking is a common practice in the United States and Great Britain. Tracking allows a teacher to work with students within the same academic range. Students are placed in certain classrooms by using test scores, teacher evaluations and in cases, parents have a choice. Tracking has been in use for about a century and is used in most schools across the nation. The practice of tracking is entrenched in the philosophy of American education and is practiced in 60 percent of all primary and 80 percent of all high schools in the United States. There are a few ways to track in school, varying from school to universities. Students can be put into different tracks, for example high or low track. All the classes would with the same students of the same ability level. A different way of tracking, was tracking only some classes. There will be a few classes, like reading or mathematics, that will be tracked and the rest of classes will be with the all of the students. [24]
4.2 Implementation Strategies We want to launch a tracking system in Jinnah university, that monitor students’ progress towards degrees , place holds on their ability to register until they have seen an academic advising resources and helps students graduate on time. At the time of admission, we offer a device that connects automated tracking system via signals to manage enroll the students and track student’s progress entire their educational period in university. This system has been in effect long enough to affect student retention and graduation rates and excess hours. This system will track student’s courses and their grades semester by semester. At the end of each fall and spring semester, students receive an email from the registrar’s office advising them to consult their on-line degree audit for their grades and academic progress. The audit includes information such as courses completed, grades received in these courses, courses needed to graduate, and when these courses should

be taken. These automated tracking systems are useful for large institutions that do not have sufficient faculty and professional advisors to frequently meet with their students. [25]
4.2.1 Implementation purpose The purpose of this new system is three-fold: To track student interventions and better analyze results and define next steps. By tracking each student’s interventions individually, it’s easier to analyze the results in order to define your next steps. For instance, teachers often pull together small groups as a way to support struggling students. Over the course of a year, they may come to realize that they are continuing to intervene with the same students, time and time again. Are the small group moments yielding the results students need to progress? Is there a program or curriculum that would better meet the needs of those students? [26] To continue aligning with previous interventions. A teacher may use a specific intervention at one grade level with a student. However, when that student moves on to the next grade, the new teacher may or may not understand what intervention was used, if it was successful, and/or where the student left off at the end of the previous year. By tracking interventions, supporting a student from grade-to-grade can happen more seamlessly. For instance, the tracking system may indicate that a student has used Read Naturally to build reading fluency in 1st and 2nd grade but still reads below grade level at the start of 3rd grade. Armed with this information, the third grade teacher might conclude that this program isn’t working for this student, and that it’s time to try something else. [26] To track student’s progress and provides evidence of student growth and areas of concern. A teacher may have inkling that a student has a learning disability, but he/she lacks evidence to support this supposition. With a tracking system, that teacher would not have to spend an entire year “building a case” for his/her theory. Several years of interventions, outcomes, and progress for that student will exist, making a diagnosis much more straightforward. [26]

4.2.2 Training For how to use this system, we will organize a workshop. The key objectives of this meeting will: * How to use this device system. * How to this system will reduce your time and you will get more time to study. * To show that this system will also help for teachers for analyzing their students activities. * To show how beneficial this system will. * To help in study and achieve good grades.
4.2.3 Before and after Comparison We launched this system for both student’s and teacher’s convenience. This system will include all aspects of tracking system that fulfill their needs. When we don’t have this system, students have various issues troubled us. The topics of classes we missed were problem students’ .The online coordination with teachers will replace this issue, the courses will available online. When we don’t have this system we have visit University to check their result after this system, students will check their grades online. All the activities of students will track in university whether they will present or where will be at that time. This system will track student’s current position.
4.2.4 Implementation Cost The purpose of implementing any tacking system is generally to track at a reasonable cost. Cost will depend on infrastructure, or whether you decide to use an additional system in parallel with your existing one. Other factors include the cost of hardware and software that have to be purchased. This drawback obviously does not apply with tracking system that uses Trax, a tiny and smart GPS tracker.
4.3 Benefits Benefits to pick this system: * Providing an up-to-date status report or degree audit for each student. * Connecting the degree audit system and university registration systems. * Helping students know their course schedules.

* Improving data communication between universities to facilitate transfer of students * Automatically monitoring student progress and blocking those who are not on track from registering until they see an academic advisor. The study is expected to give further indications on how to enhance the institutional capacity for providing high quality student-centered learning and training to a larger and diversified studentship, and to improve the understanding of the articulation between degrees and employability. By doing so, it would be expected to underpin ongoing educational reforms and to deliver an important contribution. [27]
4.3.1 Main aspects
There are three main aspects of this program: * Data collection from students. * Real time reporting to administrative faculty and staff of individual student progress and of the entire user pool. * Customization of handheld and web-based forms and reports that allows educators and students to tailor the data collected based on the individual and each course. [28]
4.4 Comparison with other Universities Several state universities are developing or have implemented automated systems that monitor student progress toward degrees and, when students are off track, place holds on their ability to register until they have seen an academic advisor. This helps universities target academic advising resources and helps students graduate on time. The University of Florida is using the most highly developed system, which has been effective in increasing the percentage of its students who stay in school and decreasing excess hours. Smaller institutions that effectively use faculty and professional advisors to routinely conduct advising sessions with all students may not need automated tracking systems. In addition, the automated systems are not currently being used to track part-time students, who are a significant portion of the student population in some universities. The University of Florida implemented its student tracking and enrollment management process in 1996. The process was designed to focus academic advising

resources on students who most need assistance. The process helps students to graduate in four years by; * Encouraging students to select majors early in their academic careers. * Specifying the critical courses students need to take and when they need to take these courses in order to remain on track to complete their majors and graduate in a timely manner. * Specifying the grade point averages students need to maintain for their majors * Automatically monitoring student progress and blocking those who are not on track from registering until they see an academic advisor. * Guaranteeing that students will be able to take critical courses in a timely manner. [29]
4.5 Limitations Despite the positive aspects of tracking, we have noted limitations of the system. Tracking often does not work as effectively as it should because of the composition of the tracks. Teachers of the high-track courses were found to be more enthusiastic in teaching, better at providing explanations, and more organized than teachers of low-track courses. Some studies suggest that tracking can influence students' peer groups and attitudes regarding other students. [30]
4.6 Conclusion and Recommendation Society’s increased reliance on GPS technology raises both societal and legal considerations. Many different approaches have been tried to use tracking systems all of which have their own possibilities. It is clear that how the tracking system is good for educational environments they are certainly effective with a large working volume, easy to use, and inexpensive. High accuracy and resolution, and high update rate, that is convenient for the user. A recommendation for the university to implement the system using Trax, a tiny and smart personal GPS tracker that can be located nearly anytime, from almost anywhere. Trax is easy to use, water proof and durable. It has a built in sensor that measure speed and direction, and provides the positions when the GPS signal is lost. Trax alerts when it’s dropped or exceeds a certain speed. Trax utilizes all Satellite systems to ensure the best accuracy and coverage. Using Trax, implementing the automated tracking systems. University, not only achieving the virtual reality goals but also meets with international standard. [31]

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8 [9]
[31] and-pets…...

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...Docx Insomnia I woke up, bathed in sweat. Once again a nightmare disturbed my night´s sleep. It was too early to early to get up, but I was restless. I knew I would not be able to fall asleep again, doesn´t matter how hard I´d try. I hated to get up at an unearthly hour! I rolled out of bed and trudged into the kitchen to have some lemonade. It was still dark outside and the windy weather made the trees outside scratch against my windows. The thought about my nightmare disgusted me. I drank my glass of lemonade at one go. Afterwards I went to the bathroom to get some cold water in my face to refresh up a bit. I looked myself in the eyes in the mirror with dislike, wondering why such nightmares were torturing me night after night. I hated myself for that, but could not help it anyway. All day long at work I was absent and worn out. All I could think about was that I wanted some sleep. I felt like I did not sleep a wink last night. Pictures from the nightmare whirled around in my head like an infinite movie. The whole day was a pure nightmare too, people looked strangely at me like I was a sick person instead of asking how I felt. But on the other hand I would not like to answer if they did anyway. None of their business. That night I lay in my bed and stared around in the room for indefinite time. I felt so tired, but I was afraid of falling asleep to get hunted by nightmares again. I thought about how I could make an end of this riot. I was sick and tired of that......

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...Website: Banking Regulation & Policy Department Bangladesh Bank Head Office Dhaka BRPD Circular No.02 Date: February 27, 2011 ---------------------Falgun 15, 1417 Chief Executives All Scheduled Banks in Bangladesh Policy Guidelines for Green Banking Introduction: We are aware that global warming is an issue that calls for a global response. The rapid change in climate will be too great to allow many eco-systems to suitably adapt, since the change have direct impact on biodiversity, agriculture, forestry, dry land, water resources and human health. Due to unusual weather pattern, rising greenhouse gas, declining air quality etc. society demands that business also take responsibility in safeguarding the planet. Green finance as a part of Green Banking makes great contribution to the transition to resource-efficient and low carbon industries i.e. green industry and green economy in general. Green banking is a component of the global initiative by a group of stakeholders to save environment. The state of environment in Bangladesh is rapidly deteriorating. The key areas of environmental degradation cover air pollution, water pollution and scarcity, encroachment of rivers, improper disposal of industrial medical and house-hold waste, deforestation, loss of open space and loss of biodiversity. In addition, Bangladesh is one of the most climate change vulnerable countries. In line with ...

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