Discuss the Role of One or More Factors That Influence Attitudes to Food (4 Marks + 8 Marks)

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By psociology
Words 1090
Pages 5
Discuss the role of one or more factors that influence attitudes to food
(4 marks + 8 marks)

Social learning theory emphasises the impact that observing other people has on our own attitudes and behaviour. One way children acquire their attitudes to food is observing and imitating their peers. Birch et al. carried out an experiment finding that children would try a vegetable they disliked if their peers were eating said vegetable. This supports the view that peer modelling is significant in a child’s preference for vegetables since they shifted their preference for several weeks after the study was carried out, suggesting that effects are long lasting rather than temporary. This study strengthens social learning as a factor affecting attitudes to food as it provides evidence to suggest that children’s peers can influence their eating habits..

Further supporting evidence for the theory would be that of Meyer and Gast (2008). They carried out a survey which involved 10-12 year old boys and girls. They found a positive correlation between peer influence and eating disorder. The more the children liked their peers, the more of an influence they had on their eating habits. This supports social learning theory as it suggests that we imitate the eating behaviour of others, especially those who we view as role models or people we like e.g. friends.

The research has practical real world implications. This is because the findings suggest that our eating habits are affected by those around us and the messages they give to us through their behaviour. As a result, they can be used to help both advertisers, who want to influence more people to buy their food, and therapists, in deciding what the cause of an eating disorder is and how to solve or treat this. For example, to promote food, a company may release an advert showing a happy family enjoying their meal. Also a…...

Similar Documents

Factor Influence Non Muslim to Purchase Hala Food

...Factors Influencing Non – Muslims to Purchase Halal Food in Malaysia Chapter 1: Introduction The word Halal refers to the term permissible or allowed to eat in Arabic (ehow.com). It is an important way of life lived by the Muslims and it isn’t only consisted on food but other products too. It doesn’t only matter what kind of food it is, but the preparation method of the food is considered very important as well. The Halal food guarantees safety, hygiene, healthy eating lifestyle and wholesomeness. Halal is all about the place and the process used for slaughtering the animals and the condition those animals are kept in. Halal is now being recognized all over the world not only by the Muslims but also the Non-Muslims community. An example of how other countries around the world are adapting to Halal food is shown in Moscow, Russia. In Moscow the sales were $45 in 2004 and then increased to $70 million in 2006 and then to $100 million in 2008 (Muhammad, 2007). The growth is due to consumer’s perception of human animal treatment concerns. Russians purchased Halal food because they thought the products were fresh, safe and infection free and also believed that the Muslims won’t cheat them. In the Philippines the population looks for the Halal logo on the products so that they can purchase them easily. Malaysia consists of 3 different races which are the Malaya, Chinese, and Indians. 62% of the Malays are Muslim, 24% Chinese are either Buddhist or Traditional Chinese religions...

Words: 2313 - Pages: 10

Marks & Spencer

...Instructor’s Manual CASE TEACHING NOTES Marks & Spencer Nardine Collier and Gerry Johnson 1. Introduction This case study is about why one of the world’s most famous retails, Marks & Spencer, ran into trouble at the end of the 1990s and how it attempted to manage a programme of change to overcome those problems. It is therefore useful to explore issues concerned with organisational culture, strategic drift, strategic choice and the management of change. The case covers both the history of Marks & Spencer throughout the last century and, in more detail, from 1998 to 2004, the period when it moved from a position of market dominance to one in which it was deemed to be a take-over target. The case charts the attempts by its different chief executives to address the problems during this time and, therefore, the various change initiatives that were mounted. 2. Position of the case The case study relates, in particular, to the problems and means of managing strategic change in Marks & Spencer. So it is particularly related to the coverage of strategic inertia and strategic drift in chapter 1 and programmatic design and change in chapter 10. With this in mind it might be taught at the end of the strategy course. However, it could also be used as a case to require students to analyse the reasons for the problems of Marks & Spencer, not only in terms of organisational culture, but also in terms of the market and competitive position of the firm. In this sense it could......

Words: 4533 - Pages: 19

Marks and Specner

...Marks and Spencer (M&S) is one of the many well-known British retailers; boasting over 700 stores in UK only and a work force of over 78,000 people world-wide.1 Marks and Spencer manages four (4) major sections, clothing, food, home and financial services. In clothing, marks and Spencer offer women’s wear, lingerie, menswear, children’s wear and footwear. For food, they offer fresh foods, ready meals, food for special occasions and wine. In the home section, they vend designer furniture, for example Autograph. With over 21 million people visiting the stores each week, M&S has become the number one provider of women wear and lingerie in the UK, and are rapidly growing their market share in men wear, kids wear and home.2 The clothing and home ware sales account for 49% of its business whilst 51% is in food i.e. fresh produce, groceries, partly-prepared meals and ready meals.3 In 2007; M&S unveiled the Plan A- a £200m project to become carbon neutral by 2012 as part of a contribution to limit climate change. “Through Plan A we are working with our customers and our suppliers to combat climate change, reduce waste, use sustainable new materials, trade ethically and help our customers to lead healthier lifestyles”4 Business Strengths and Weaknesses: M&S have been known for their brand and its awareness worldwide, which has resulted to be one of their strongest assets 5. M&S is the leading clothes retailer in UK and has managed to offer more choices and......

Words: 1850 - Pages: 8

Mark Scheme

...Mark Scheme (Results) June 2011 GCE Geography 6GE01 Global Challenges Edexcel is one of the leading examining and awarding bodies in the UK and throughout the world. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. Through a network of UK and overseas offices, Edexcel’s centres receive the support they need to help them deliver their education and training programmes to learners. For further information, please call our GCE line on 0844 576 0025, our GCSE team on 0844 576 0027, or visit our website at www.edexcel.com. If you have any subject specific questions about the content of this Mark Scheme that require the help of a subject specialist, you may find our Ask The Expert email service helpful. Ask The Expert can be accessed online at the following link: http://www.edexcel.com/Aboutus/contact-us/ Alternatively, you can contact our Geography Advisor directly by sending an email to Jonathan Wolton on: GeographySubjectAdvisor@edexcelexperts.co.uk. You can also telephone 0844 372 2185 to speak to a member of our subject advisor team. June 2011 Publications Code US027990 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Ltd 2011 General Guidance on Marking All candidates must receive the same treatment. Examiners should look for qualities to reward rather than faults to penalise. This does NOT mean giving credit for incorrect or inadequate answers, but it does mean allowing......

Words: 3966 - Pages: 16

Discuss Psychological Explanations of Two or More Forms of Institutional Aggression (8 +16 Marks)

...Discuss Psychological Explanations of two or more forms of Institutional Aggression (8 +16 marks) Institutional aggression can be defined as aggressive behaviour that occurs within a place of confinement such as prison, and is motivated by social forces, rather than anger or frustration. One psychological explanation of institutional aggression is institutional aggression within groups. This form of aggression can be explained using the importation model which involves interpersonal factors. Research by Irwin and Cressey (1962) suggests that prisoners bring their own social histories and traits with them into prison. This then influences their adaptation to the prison environment. They also argue that prisoners are not simply ‘blank slates’ when they enter prison. Due to this, many of the normative systems developed in the outside world would be ‘imported’ into the prison. Harer and Steffensmeier (2006) offer some research support for the importation model. This particularly applies when evaluating individual factors such as age, education level and race. Their study involved collecting data from 58 US prisons where they found that black inmates had significantly higher rates of violent behaviour. However, these people displayed lower rates of alcohol-related and drug-related misconduct than white inmates. Despite this, there is a problem of sample bias with Harer and Steffensmier’s study. This is because only US prisons took part. This means that the results are not......

Words: 1036 - Pages: 5

Evaluate the Factors That Can Result in Some Pressure Groups Being More Successful Than Others’ Discuss (25 Marks)

...‘Evaluate the factors that can result in some pressure groups being more successful than others’ Discuss (25 Marks) A pressure group is an organisation that may be causal or sectional whose purpose is to further the interests of a specific section of society or to promote a certain cause; there are many reasons why a pressure group would want to do this. There are various degrees of success with pressure groups, ranging from amending or passing new laws to gaining public support. One thing that can alter a pressure group's success is whether the group is an insider or outsider group, and its relationship with the government, otherwise known as the pressure groups status. An insider group is one that operates within the political system and which normally has support from MP's, they are normally consulted by the government on matters that may affect the group or its members. Insider groups are usually more professional in their organisation and don’t use methods such as direct action to gain publicity. The British Medical Association is an insider group, recently they were included in discussions over the proposed NHS reforms and as a result of those talks the reforms were altered. Insider groups will have regular contact with members of parliament and other decision makers like civil servants and so have more opportunities to influence them and their policies. Because of this, insider groups generally have more support but tend not to hold such radical ideas. The......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Discuss Two or More Methods of Stress Management (12 Marks)

...One method of stress management is the use of drugs. There are two types of drugs the benzodiazepines (BZs) and the betablockers (BBs). The BZs, like Valium work by increasing the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA increases chloride ions into the neurons making it more difficult for neurotransmitters to stimulate them so it slows down the activity of the activity of the central nervous system. This reduces anxiety and leads to a feeling of calm. Bzs work very fast so it makes them suitable for emergency situations, however they are very addictive so can only be prescribed for two weeks at a time. They also have side- effects like for example they lead to memory loss and if an overdose is taken it can lead to respiratory arrest. The Betablockers block the adrenaline receptors which are mainly situated in the heart and the large blood vessels. So when adrenaline is produced by the adrenal medulla as a response to a situation perceived as a stressor the blood pressure does not increase and the heart rate remain stable. The BBs do not cause addiction but if taken for a long period of time they can cause diabetes type 2, they can also make people tired and lead to hallucinations. Lau et al. (1992) carried out a meta-analysis and found that they were effective in reducing blood pressure. However drugs are emotion focused therapies unlike psychological therapies like CBT they do not teach the patients skills to deal with the stressors so when they stop the treatment the...

Words: 343 - Pages: 2

Discuss Factors Relating to Attitudes to Food and Eating Behaviours

...Discuss factors relating to attitudes to food and eating behaviours. (8+16 marks) Sophie Wright Attitudes to food and eating behaviour can be influenced by several factors including culture, mood and health concerns. One explanation of attitudes to food regards the social learning theory and involves the role of parental modelling within our food choices. Social learning theory emphasises the impact that observing other people has on our own attitudes and behaviour. In terms of food choices, parental modelling inevitably affects children because parents control the foods bought and served in the home. Brown and Ogden (2004) reported consistent correlations between parents and their children in terms of snack food intake, eating motivations and body dissatisfactions, reinforcing the idea that children mimic the behaviours of their parents. Not only does social learning apply to the effect of our parents, but also to the effect of the media and peers. MacIntyre et al (1998) studied the impact of the media on eating behaviour and found that the media have an impact both on what people eat, and also their attitudes to certain foods. However, MacIntyre also stated that how much we are influenced is determined by many other factors, for example age, income and background. The findings of Meyer and Gast’s 2006 study on the influence of peers support the idea of social learning theory in relation to eating behaviour. They surveyed 10-12 year olds and found a positive......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4

Discuss the Role and Impacts of Transnational Corporations in the Global Economy (40 Marks) 

...Discuss the Role and Impacts of Transnational Corporations in the Global Economy (40 marks)  Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are companies which are able to co-ordinate and control its production, in more than one country during economic globalisation, examples of which include Nike, McDonalds and IKEA. These companies use differences between a country’s cost of production, natural resources, labour and state incentives to their advantage. This allows them to spread their resources and production between locations globally to minimise cost to the company. In recent decades the increasing wealth of TNCs has led to more dominated roles in the global affairs this has many impacts on the economy, global population and environment both positively and negatively. Transnational corporations have a very large role to play in the global economy. With the economies of developing countries, such as China and Brazil, generally growing due to the exchange of information and goods (globalisation) companies are keener to invest in them to increase their turnovers and overall development. TNCs have globally increased new job opportunities and new tax revenues even for the poorest of countries, by doing so they have contributed in reducing the levels of world poverty and have improved infrastructure for developing countries. TNCs are also incredibly wealthy. Ford and General Motors are two companies which exemplify the wealth of TNCs. Their combined annual income is equal to the GDP of......

Words: 1164 - Pages: 5

Discuss Explanations of Gender Dysphoria (8+16 Marks)

...Discuss explanations of Gender Dysphoria (8+16 marks) Gender Dysphoria is a psychological disorder where individuals experience confusion between their biological sex, their gender identity and gender roles. The Biosocial explanation suggests gender Dysphoria is due to a complex interaction of biological and social factors. Hare et al (09) studied DNA of 112 male to female transsexuals found a correlation between dysphoria and androgen receptor genes. Maladaptive androgen receptor genes failed to masculinise the brain during prenatal development. However, they also found cases of people with this gene who did not develop gender dysphoria, which demonstrates that a biosocial explanation is needed to explain the social factors that are also involved. Therefore, findings are not absolute and because results are based on a correlational design, no cause and effect into gender dysphoria and androgen receptor genes can be established. However, the research can be credited for high scientific validity because well established, objective, scientific measures such as gene testing were done in a lab to study gender dysphoria. Moreover, research has found that sex hormones present during pregnancy affect adult sexual behaviour as hormones either masculinise or feminise the brain prenatally. There are cases of individuals with abnormal genitals due to hormonal imbalance of hormones and they developed conflicting sex and gender identity, potentially leading to gender dsyphoria.......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Discuss Two or More Psychological Therapies for Schizophrenia (24 Marks)

...Discuss two or more psychological therapies for schizophrenia (24 marks) Psychological therapies in dealing with schizophrenia are Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), Family intervention and Behavioural therapy; token economy. Cognitive- Behavioural therapy is used to treat distorted believes which influences schizophrenic behaviour in maladaptive ways. For example a schizophrenia person may believe that they are being controlled by someone or something else, cognitive therapy is used to treat faulty interpretations of these events. In CBT patients are told to trace the origins of the symptoms to get a better understanding of how it started. Then patients are told to evaluate the content of their symptoms so they are able to test the validity of their faulty believes. Patients are then set behavioural assignments to improve their general levels of functioning. During the therapy the therapists allows the patients to come to their alternatives for dealing with maladaptive behaviour by looking for other explanations and coping strategies that is already present in the patients mind. Research has found that patients that receive cognitive therapy receive CBT experience fewer hallucinations and delusions and have a better recovery than those who receive antipsychotic medication. However Gould et al that found that all seven studies in the meta-analysis reported a statistically significant decrease in the positive symptoms of schizophrenia after treatment. Although most......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Factors Influencing Attitudes to Food

...Discuss factors that influence our attitudes to food (8+16) One factor that influences our attitudes to food is social learning theory which states that through observation of other people eg. role models such as parents , we learn and develop our own attitudes and behaviours to food. Children may learn their attitudes to eating behaviour through observing parents and their preferences and the satisfaction they receive from food and through vicarious leaning, they replicate the behaviour themselves. Brown and Ogden’s research has shown a correlation between parent and child behaviour towards food, including body dissatisfaction, snacking between meals and eating motivations. Social learning may also occur through the media which highlights different attitudes to food that people observe and learn from. However attitudes towards food are a result of more than just social learning. Evolutionary explanations suggest that our preferences to fatty or sweet foods are a direct result of adaptation. There is research support for the social learning theory. Meyer and Gast surveyed 10-12year olds and found a significant positive correlation between peer attitudes and eating patterns and it was found that the ‘likeability’ of peers was an important factor in how influential they were. Fisher et al also found support for how influential the social learning theory is in our attitudes to food, when studying mother and daughter relationships. It was found that the daughters eating......

Words: 682 - Pages: 3

Discuss the Role of Endogenous Pacemakers in the Control of One or More Circadian Rhythms (8+16 Marks)

...Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers in the control of one or more circadian rhythms (8 + 16 marks) Endogenous pacemakers are the internal biological clocks that manage our rhythms. In humans, the main biological clock is the suprachiasmatic nucleus also referred to as the SCN which is a small cluster of neurons located in the hypothalamus in the brain. This is what controls circadian rhythms of sleep- waking, body temperature and feeding patterns, the SNC is located above the optic chiasm therefore when light hits the retina it transfers through the optic nerve to the SCN which stimulates the release of hormones such as cortisol and melatonin in the pineal gland, maintaining our sleep- wake cycle. It’s been suggested from a evolutionary psychologists that endogenous pacemakers have an adaptive value in controlling biological rhythms such as the sleep- wake cycle, therefore suggesting it aids survival. This idea is supported by studies from psychologists such as Decoursey who found that removing the SCN in 30 chipmunks and returning them to their natural habitat, proved costly for their survival. They found that after 80 days significantly more chipmunks had died compared to control group with normal functioning SCN’s. Therefore, this suggests that EP, most importantly the SCN, indeed aids survival, as the absence of this important EP proved detrimental for the survival of the chipmunks. Moreover, another study that supports this idea is the study of free......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Discuss Neural and Hormonal Mechanisms in Human Aggression. (8 Marks + 16 Marks

...This biological explanation proposes that aggression occurs due to physiological causes. It assumes that aggression is located within the biological make-up of the individual through hormonal and neural mechanisms rather than in the environment around them. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that enable impulses within the brain to be transmitted from one area of the brain to another. There is some evidence that at least two of these neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, are linked to aggressive behaviour. Serotonin and dopamine are of particular interest because low levels of serotonin and high levels of dopamine have been associated with aggression in animals and humans. Serotonin is thought to reduce aggression by inhibiting responses to emotional stimuli that would otherwise lead to an aggressive response (e.g. someone pushing past you rudely). It has been found that low levels of serotonin in the brain have been associated with an increase of impulsive behaviour, aggression, and even violent suicide. Some drugs are thought t alter serotonin levels and thus increase aggressive behaviour. Mann et al (1990) gave 35 health subjects dexfenfluramine, which is known to deplete serotonin. They used a questionnaire to assess hostility and aggression levels, they found that dexfenfluramine treatment in males (but not females) was associated with an increase in hostility and aggression scores. Although the link between high levels of dopamine and aggressive behaviour is......

Words: 951 - Pages: 4

Managerial Economics - Discuss Various Factors That Influence Selection Process

...Question paper, contact aravind.banakar@gmail.com www.mbacasestudyanswers.com ARAVIND – 09901366442 – 09902787224 MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS Section – A (Marks – 25) Attempt all questions 1. How is Price Elasticity measured? 2. State and explain the ‘Law of variable proportions’ 3. Define ‘Production Function’. Explain with diagram, the three stages of the Law of Variable Proportions. 4. Define production function. State and explain the ‘Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns’ 5. What is ‘Cost benefit analyses? Justify its use in the implementation of developmental projects. Section – B (Marks – 25) Attempt all questions – 1. What is ‘Segmentation’? Explain Product segmentation and Market segmentation concept. 2. What is ‘Wholesaling’? Discuss various benefits of Wholesaling. 3. Explain different Features of Perfect Competition. 4. Cost Volume Profit Analysis. 5. What is Capital Rationing? Section – C (Marks – 50) Attempt any five questions – 1- Explain in detail the nature and scope of Managerial Economics. How Micro Economics differs from Managerial Economics? 2. What is Empirical Production Function? Explain the optimum combination of inputs with diagrams. 3. What is Cost of Capital? Explain its structure and role in inter- national competitiveness. 4. What is Elasticity of Demand? Explain Price, Cross and Income Elasticity of Demand used in managerial decision making process. 5. What do you mean by......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5