Discuss the Extent to Which Anthropology Is a Science

In: Science

Submitted By juddyk
Words 1196
Pages 5

The study of anthropology concerns itself with the understanding of various societies and cultures within our world. It focuses on revealing the spectrum of connections and relationships that serve as the foundation to society and culture. Ethnography, which involves one immersing themselves in a foreign culture serves as the main form of research for anthropologists’. However the interpersonal and subjective nature of this form of study undermines the scientific nature of Anthropology in regards to the natural sciences. In order to understand the extent to which anthropology is a science, I will explore arguments which reiterate the validity and academic value of anthropological import, this will be achieved through the analysis of the ‘modified sociological realism’, intersubjective pattern recognition’ as well as ‘human patterns’.
Science considers itself totally absent from interpersonal subjectiveness however this notion should be scrutinized and evaluated in order to ensure that the study of Anthropology is not made to be redundant In contrast to the natural sciences. This form of scientific understanding can be referred to as the ‘modified sociological realism and is supported by the commentaries of Ziman (1978), Hacking (1982,1983), Taylor (1982) and Harre (1986). Science is a human activity and human nature should be considered as an element in producing empirical import. The work of scientists within the natural sciences is not limited to impersonal and objective reproduction of evidence; evidence is produced also through the social mediums of debate, argument, speculation as well as representation. The idea of truth is fundamental to the practices and integrity of scientific. Hacking claims, “When there is a final truth to the matter, then what we say is brief and it is either true or false. It…...

Similar Documents

Discuss the Extent to Which Judges Do Create and Develop the Law.

...Discuss the extent to which judges do create and develop the law. Nowadays, law is not strange with all people. Similarly, almost people know the importance of judges. However not at all people can understand clearly how judge impact on creating and develop law. The purpose of this essay is providing some clear information and helping some people recognize the role of judges. To understand the role of judge, people should know who judges are or what they do. Firstly, judges are people who supervise a court of law. Exactly, the role of a judge depends on what country that judge works in, and what kind of court they preside over. Judges must be fair and honest. They must make decisions and give guidance based on the most authentic to the law, even if he or she does not personally agree. Because of this, the job of a judge is very important (Kagan, 2010). Next topic is the role of judges in creating law. With the assumption that the positive law has limits and sometimes the judges are supposed to expand its borders, people must understand what a positive law is, why it has limits and why and how a judge can change the and expand the law when it is necessary. The positive law mean the law that is sanctioned by the Parliament and Legislature, produced by legitimate and democratically elected representatives, systematized and accepted by the society. In democratic societies and countries, this law is a result of the work of elected officials and it reflects the political......

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Family Planning Programmes Are Obsolete and Alternatives Must Be Derived in Amelioration of High Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Discuss the Extent to Which You Agree with the Statement.

...contraceptives. In the developing world, 137 million women who don't want to get pregnant are not practicing contraception (United Nations, 2007). The key cause of this unmet need for contraception is that contraception is often quite costly to individuals in terms of commodities (pills, condoms, Intrauterine devices (IUDs) etc.), transportation, and provider fees for contraceptives and health care services, even when subsidies are provided by the government. Therefore, this paper seeks to discuss whether family planning programmes are obsolete and alternative programmes must be derived in amelioration of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. It will start by defining key terms that will be used in the discussion, and discuss possible reviews of family planning programmes from countries that have effectively implemented and observed the changes thereof. It will also outline the alternatives to family planning programmes and other possible solutions. Then it will state the extent to which the author agrees to the statement that family planning programmes are obsolete, and thereafter draws a conclusion. According to Lynn (2011), the term "family planning" generally refers to methods undertaken that allow women to control when they get pregnant. Frequently, family planning refers to hormonal birth control, such as the pill, injectable birth control, birth control patches and implants. Condoms, contraceptive sponges, diaphragms and spermicide are also frequently used as......

Words: 1765 - Pages: 8

Discuss the Statement: the Extent to Which Earthquakes Present a Hazard Depends on Where They Are Experienced.

...Geography 40 mark EQ question Discuss the statement: The extent to which earthquakes present a hazard depends on where they are experienced. (40 marks) A Hazard is best defined as a situation that’s ‘a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons’. An earthquake is a tectonic event which can be a huge hazard to people- particularly effecting areas of the earth around convergent, divergent and transform plate boundaries: in both MEDC’s and LEDC’s with equally force. Hazards earthquakes cause can be divided into two sub-categories: primary and secondary effects. Primary effects are the problems that are of direct result of the seismic waves, including effects such as liquefaction, tsunamis and landslides. Primary effects then lead to secondary effects; floods, fires, disease and even malnourishment. However a number of factors can dictate whether these effects present a hazard to people or not- location, whether in a MEDC or LEDC, can dictate the severity of the hazard. To start, I want to highlight the difference in the primary effects of an earthquake. Comparing the factors like death and injuries- or social effects- and then the environmental effects in looking at the destruction of infrastructure experienced in varying parts of the world. To highlight this difference of place: using an EQ in a LEDC and one in a MEDC. So looking at deaths and injuries we can see as an overall trend there tends to be more deaths caused form the initial...

Words: 1447 - Pages: 6

Which Came First? Science or Technology?

...Most of them said it was science which came first. And so I browsed the web to acquire more information. I came across so many blogs and articles debating and justifying which really came first. Some says it is science because since when the universe was created, it is already there, just waiting to be discovered while some says it is technology because before science was discovered, the human primates already uses technology back then without them knowing that what they were using were some sort of technology. If we are going to get the meaning of the two, according to Merriam Dictionary, Science is a body of knowledge about or study of the natural world based on facts learned through experiments and observation while Technology is the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to invent useful things or to solve problems. But in my opinion though, technology does not necessarily rely on science all the time. Science is the research of what we do not know while technology is the application of that we know. Science is concerned with "what it is" and technology is concerned with “what it is to be". Technologists would mostly conceptualise possible ideas without depending on any scientific bases or advances. But, they might have to fall back on science for the materialisation of some. They would mostly be using real time data and experimental results for optimisation, rather than theoretical calculations which the scientists on the other hand do. Science and technology......

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Discuss the Extent to Which a Reduction in the Rate of Interest Can Be Effective in Increasing Consumer Expenditure and Investment

...interest rates fall they will effectively have more money because they will not be paying more on top of their mortgage on interest. On the other hand, the reasons for increases of consumer expenditure and investment levels as mentioned above are only all valid if ceteris paribus is assumed. In reality, both factors of aggregate demand can be affected by multiple other external factors for example, consumer expenditure can be affected by the marginal prosperity to consume amongst consumers and therefore if this is very low then a cut in interest will see a minimal change in consumption and investment levels. In terms of consumers and firms if a large cut were to occur it would have a far superior effect in comparison to a small cut which could potentially have no impact. As well as this it can also be affected by the Income Elasticity ofDemand this means the responsiveness of the demand for a good to a change in the income of the people demanding the good so if people are not responsive then they may not see an effect when changing the rate of interest; all of these reasons can reduce the effectiveness of a reduction of interest rates on consumer expenditure. Although this will lead of a rise in employment and economic growth, it does lead to higher rates of inflation and deterioration of balance of payments. A rise in inflation will have a negative adverse effect on consumer spending as well as investment levels because business confidence will be also lowered.......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Discuss the Extent to Which Roman Ideas About Their Gods and the Foundation of Their City Were Influenced by Greek Mythology.

...Discuss the extent to which Roman ideas about their gods and the foundation of their city were influenced by Greek mythology. Ancient Rome is filled with history of great wars and heroes, the mighty and the fallen. They were renowned conquers becoming one of the largest empires of their time. The romans were skilled finding their strengths in the engineering industry as well as the law. Although this ancient civilisation existed millenniums ago, they still effect the times of today. A prime example of this is the language, English. Romans spoke Latin and as they conquered and settled through Europe, “Latin fused with the native languages,” creating the romance languages of today; “Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese… and Catalan.” The vocabulary of English has also largely derived from the Latin language. Although the current times of today have been influenced by the times of the ancients, the Romans however were influenced to an extent by the ancient Greek’s civilisation. By the 2nd century BC, Rome had a very evident impact from the culture of the Greeks. Greeks had begun to settle on the south then later migrating further north of Italy’s peninsula, and occupying the city of Sicily. There is neither exact date nor event that stipulates the cross of two nations however events such as the Macedonian and Carthage wars of Roman conquest would have aided in the direct contact to Greek colonization. The influence of Greece can be seen throughout every aspect of a......

Words: 1929 - Pages: 8

Discuss and Consider the Extent to Which the Land Registration Act 2002 Meets the Principles Referred to in to in the Quotation, Including in Your Answer Discussion of the Extent to Which Pre-Registration Concepts Such

...“One of the aims of the registration is to make title more secure and easily provable. It is supposed to set up a mirror of ownership. The mirror principle – or rather, aspiration – is hostile to interests that do not appear on the registered title. Like many systems registration has it’s own momentum; it tends towards tidiness and completeness and to the elimination, as far as possible, and of interests that a purchaser cannot discover from the register ”. Discuss and consider the extent to which the Land Registration Act 2002 meets the principles referred to in to in the quotation, including in your answer discussion of the extent to which pre-registration concepts such as notice might continue to persist in relation to difficult cases. In the following essay I shall discuss the above quotation. The Land Registration Act 2002 [1] came into force on the 13th October 2003. The Act completely repeals its predecessor the Land Registration Act 1925 [2], and presents a complete volte-face of how to organise the system of registered land in the UK. The LRA 2002 promotes a system of title by registration. The aims of the Act as set out in the Law Commission Report Number 271 are to create a register that is an accurate reflection of the true state of title to a registered estate of land at any time. The Act also aims to implement Electronic - Conveyancing, and to allow the state of title to be investigated with the minimum of additional enquiries and inspection......

Words: 2490 - Pages: 10

Global, Social and Economic Groupings Have Significant Beneficial Effects for Their Members. Discuss to Which Extent You Agree with This Statement.

...Global, Social and Economic Groupings Have Significant Beneficial Effects for Their Members. Discuss to which extent you agree with this statement. Global groupings are where countries, come together in order to attain the same objective, primarily economic growth. Or in the main case peace, that resulted in the formation of the EU post world war two. The European Union is an economic and political grouping of 27 member nations, which are located in Europe. It was first called the EEC that was founded in 1957, but now formally known as the EU which was fully established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force on 1st November 1993. The original objective of the EU was to create such single market, so that there was the free circulation of goods, capital, people and services within it. The integration of the economies was largely thanks to the introduction of the Euro in 1999. Every grouping for the countries can hold consequences both positive and negative. To analyse this in depth, we can use Austria who joined the EU in 1993, with the aim of gaining greater security for its borders by being able to rely on military support . Along with security, quotas would be removed by becoming a member of the EU which is only an added benefit considering the majority of EU’s trade is with EU members and as a result greater access to the prosperous markets of West Germany. By contrast Norway became the first nation to reject membership to the European union in 1994. This result......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4

Seismic and Volcanic Events Are Major Pieces of Evidence Towards Proving That Plate Tectonic Theory Is Valid. Discuss the Extent to Which You Agree with This View. (40)

...Seismic and volcanic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate tectonic theory is valid. Discuss the extent to which you agree with this view. (40) Plate tectonics is the theory that explains the structure and motion of the Earth’s lithosphere. The theory states that the Earth’s crust is split into large sections called tectonic plates, and these move relative to one another creating boundaries at which plates converge, diverge and move past each other. Alfred Wegener pioneered the theory of continental drift in the early 1900s which he supported with multiple pieces of evidence. Perhaps the earliest indicator of the theory was the apparent fit of some of the Earth’s continents; analysis of these coastlines, notably the eastern edge of South America and the western edge of Africa, has shown that they are very similar geologically suggesting that at some point in the Earth’s history the landmasses were joined together. Another indicator that the continents were once distributed differently was geological evidence of glaciation in India – it is unlikely that glaciers could ever reach such low latitudes, but this problem can easily be explained by continental drift. Fossil distribution also provided some of the earliest evidence for plate tectonics – certain land-dwelling fossil species have been found in areas that are now separated by ocean which indicates that those areas were at some point joined together. However at the time of Wegner’s work many of......

Words: 981 - Pages: 4

With Reference to Either Waste Management in Urban Areas or Transport Management in Urban Areas, Discuss the Extent to Which Sustainability Can Be Achieved.

...With reference to either Waste management in urban areas or Transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability can be achieved. Answer 1 (Transport) Sustainable management in urban areas is a constant theme for urban areas in both LEDCs and MEDCs. This essay will be based on whether transport management can be achieved sustainably and whether or not it is only transport management that can achieve sustainability or other aspects such as improved housing, preventing urban sprawl and protecting the environment also add to the possibility of achieving sustainability. Transport management in urban areas is approached differently in both LEDCs and MEDCs. However the problems as a result of increased congestion in cities are similar. Some of those problems include deliveries being late, causing businesses to slow down and therefore the economy of the area; increased car ownership and therefore congestion releases a lot of pollutants such as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere. These cause problems such as acid rain when sulphur dioxide combines with water vapour forming sulphuric acid and carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas so increased levels add to the greenhouse effect and therefore global warming. Increased car ownership also lacks sustainability in terms of natural resource use so managing this transport in cities is important. In MEDCs the problem of obesity is rife with one in four adults in the UK that are obese and 10% of......

Words: 1356 - Pages: 6

Discuss the Extent to Which Government Control Limits the Effectiveness of Parliament in Performing Its Main Functions (25)

...Discuss the extent to which Government control limits the effectiveness of Parliament in performing its main functions (25) Within British politics, it is generally accepted that the executive branch, dominates the legislative. Some have often argued that especially since 1997, this trend has developed into an ‘elected dictatorship’, so it can therefore often be questioned whether the Government has too much power over Parliament. The system of party whips, Government Majorities, weaknesses and strengths of the lords, free votes/rebellions, and Private Members Bills are all factors that can be used to discuss the extent of the control Government has over Parliament. Firstly, the whipping system within parties can be used to demand loyalty from MPs under a certain party. Whips control membership of committees and the Business of the house, having the power to ‘withdraw the whip’ from Rebel MPs, meaning party membership and privileges are suspended. This means the party in control of the legislation and with a majority can ensure votes from almost every member of their party, through the whip system, therefore, if they have a strong majority, always being able to pass their bills and reject opposition bills. This limits the effectiveness of Parliament in democratically delivering law, as it allows the party in majority to disregard other parties, and their own member’s opinions, and force them to vote one way, the way that they agree with. This can cause major consequences,......

Words: 997 - Pages: 4

Discuss the Extent to Which Economic Growth May Benefit an Economy. (18)

...Discuss the extent to which economic growth may benefit an economy. (18) Economic growth is an increase in the output that an economy produces over time, for the minimum of two consecutive quarters. Economic growth can benefit an economy in a number of ways. Firstly, higher average incomes, this allows consumers to enjoy more goods and services and enjoy better standards of living. This in turn could lead to the ‘Trickle Down’ effect, those who are the highest income earners spending their disposable income on goods and services in the economy, those lower income earners could benefit from this as that money gets filtered through all sections of the economy. Therefore, many people in the economy will benefit from an increase in average income even if it is only the higher income earner who actually receive the increase. Secondly, economic growth can benefit an economy through lower unemployment, as the economy has an increase in real GDP and positive economic growth, firms will be producing more as they will be receiving a greater demand for the good and services they produce. As a result, firms will need to employ more workers in order to meet the new levels of demand. As labour is derived demand, this means that when the demand for goods and services increases, so does the demand for labour, this results in an increase in employment and reducing poverty. Another way in which economic growth can benefit an economy is lower government borrowing. Economic growth generates......

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

With Reference to the Zimbabwean Context, Discuss the Extent to Which Directors Are Fulfilling Their Duties?

...for the organization’s sound management or its problems. If supervisory negligence is involved a director’s responsibility may extend to personal financial responsibility. Responsibility of directors to supervise he organization’s affairs may not be delegated to active executive officer thou directors may delegate certain authority to the officers.To a greater extent the directors of EconetPvt Ltd have fulfilled their duties as they managed to diversify the business operations of the firm from being a service provider for telecommunication to banking services through ecocash services and econet solar powered lantern lights. To adopt and follow sound policies and objectives Director must provide clear framework of objective and policies within which the chief executive officer must operate and administer the company’s affairs. Such objectives and policies must cover all areas such as investment, loans, asset and liability management, profit planning and budgeting, capital planning and personal policies.To a greater extent,directors of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe fulfilled this duty after its leading mission statement which states maintaining macroeconomic and financial stability through the formulation, implementation and monitoring of credible policies, risk based supervision of banks and facilitation of capital inflows supported by a skilled human resource base and modern integrated ICT system To avoid self-serving policies Self-serving boards weak or strong in other......

Words: 1404 - Pages: 6

Discuss the Extent to Which Distinctive Ecologies Develop Along Route-Ways. (10 Marks)

...Route-ways such as roads and railways provide urban niches for specific and distinctive species of plants and even animals. Firstly, the route-way allows exotic and otherwise non-native species of plants to be introduced due to cars and trains bringing in seeds from different areas; increasing the biodiversity of that particular area, an example being windborne seeds such as the Oxford ragwort being carried to different areas by trains. Cars also have their use in introducing distinctive species; accidents caused by cars, producing road kill, provides food sources for birds of prey, an example being the Red Kite, which is becoming increasingly popular around route-ways due to the roadkill available. Additionally, car fumes provide an abundant amount of Nitrogen rich gases from their fumes, allowing plants to accelerate in growth thus providing habitats for a variety of animals, such as foxes and birds. Furthermore, spreading salt and grit over roads allows halophytic plants to thrive and grow, such as Danish Scurvy grass. However, the vegetation is often managed, meaning that these distinctive ecologies may not appear, as actions such as mowing means that there is a reduction in biodiversity, though other management strategies such as planting trees along the side of route-ways for noise reduction from vehicles can increase the biodiversity as different species of animals are able to create habitats in these planted trees, an example being the London Plane tree. Moreover,...

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Discuss the Extent to Which Macbeth and Shylock Are Victims and Villains

...Discuss the extent to which Macbeth and Shylock are victims and villains The protagonists of each play, Macbeth and Shylock, both fall victim and succumb to villainous natures, however a difference is apparent between the two in representing these traits. Macbeth more so displays villainous behaviours, whereas Shylock is subjected to ordeals which victimise him. That is not to say that Macbeth does not become victimised, and that Shylock does not contain the capability to carry out acts of a villainous essence, such as going against his faith for power, and losing sense of morality and rationality. Different factors such as race and prejudice are integral to the contextual themes of The Merchant of Venice as anti-Semitic views towards Jews are upheld by the Christians in Venice, placing Shylock in a position of submission and awakening his inner villain, which is the ultimate point of differentiation between the two in terms of being either a villain or a victim. Early in Macbeth it becomes apparent that the witches have corrupted Macbeth, thus falling victim to the supernatural. This causes him to conjure questions, "Why do I yield to that suggestion?", which catalyses a rising action. The word 'suggestion' connotes the idea is being fed to him via a supernatural force, and that it is uncontrollable as he 'yields' to it. "My thought, whose murder is fantastical, shakes my state", emphasises how much Macbeth is against the idea of murder, shining light on how these......

Words: 2082 - Pages: 9