Discuss Explanations of Gender Dysphoria (8+16 Marks)

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Discuss explanations of Gender Dysphoria (8+16 marks)
Gender Dysphoria is a psychological disorder where individuals experience confusion between their biological sex, their gender identity and gender roles. The Biosocial explanation suggests gender Dysphoria is due to a complex interaction of biological and social factors.

Hare et al (09) studied DNA of 112 male to female transsexuals found a correlation between dysphoria and androgen receptor genes. Maladaptive androgen receptor genes failed to masculinise the brain during prenatal development. However, they also found cases of people with this gene who did not develop gender dysphoria, which demonstrates that a biosocial explanation is needed to explain the social factors that are also involved. Therefore, findings are not absolute and because results are based on a correlational design, no cause and effect into gender dysphoria and androgen receptor genes can be established. However, the research can be credited for high scientific validity because well established, objective, scientific measures such as gene testing were done in a lab to study gender dysphoria.
Moreover, research has found that sex hormones present during pregnancy affect adult sexual behaviour as hormones either masculinise or feminise the brain prenatally.
There are cases of individuals with abnormal genitals due to hormonal imbalance of hormones and they developed conflicting sex and gender identity, potentially leading to gender dsyphoria. This provides further support for biological influence in the biosocial explanation of gender dsyphoria. This research was a meta-analysis and so infers reliable findings and a good population validity as a large amount of data was collected and analysed. However, due to the nature of a meta-analysis, results could be subject to researcher bias, as the researcher may only look for supporting…...

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