Free Essay

Culture and Movements

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Spooks
Words 1753
Pages 8
Culture is everywhere and people can find pieces of culture anywhere they look! People learn their culture by being taught it from older generations. Culture is expressed in many different ways; from the clothing people wear, the food people eat, the music people listen to, peoples’ actions, and peoples’ beliefs. In other words, culture is who people are. People live their lives the way they do because of their culture. Culture is part of their identity, it makes them, them. Culture is more than identity and it has the ability to be very powerful, so powerful it can influence and actually start a movement. Culture is important for the development of movements. “Culture implies our striving – it is our striving.” (Keita, 12) Not only does culture thrive for striving, but it helps fight for freedom. “By culture, we understand all… behaviors and attitudes accumulated by the People both through and by virtue of its struggle for freedom from the hold and domain of Nature, and also through and by virtue of its effort to destroy deviationist politics – social systems of domination and exploitation… process of its life.” (Keita, 12) For short, culture can bring people together to fight for freedom and for other reasons.
Some ethnicities’ culture is stronger than others. African-Americans are a prime example of an ethnicity whose culture is extremely strong. They hold their culture close to their hearts and they express their culture vibrantly. They stand tall behind their culture and speak proudly of it. African-Americans used their culture to make a change; their culture brought them together to fight together. Their culture is what made them so strong and powerful.
There are two important movements the African-Americans were involved in: The Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement. Through these movements, the African-Americans were able to accomplish important goals they were fighting for. The culture of the African-Americans can be easily seen through the upbringing of the movement, through their actions throughout the movement and the movements themselves. If the African-Americans didn’t stand so strong to their culture, they would’ve never pushed themselves through the circumstances they did, but they knew that they deserved better. They knew that if they wanted change, they had to become that change. That is exactly what they did. Their need and want for change was the foundation to The Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement.
The Civil Rights Movement is a famous social movement. It is, without a doubt, an important part in history today. The Civil Rights Movement dates back to 1954. It ended in 1968. The initial start of this movement was the reaction of others due to one woman’s action. That one woman was Rosa Parks. Parks was an African-American woman riding a public bus. On December 1, 1955 Parks refused to give up her seat to another bus rider who was white. This was in Montgomery, Alabama, which meant by her doing that, she was defying a practice that demanded African-Americans to sit in the back of the bus and if the white section of the bus got full, they needed to give their seats to the whites. This act got Parks arrested. Now, Parks was a well-known worker in her community so when the word about her getting arrested spread, it only started controversy. This was the last straw the African-Americans had with racially discriminatory laws. The African-Americans in the community began to boycott the buses in that city. This particular boycott lasted longer than a year. That boycott alone shows how dedicated and how strong the African-Americans stand behind their actions. Their actions spoke louder than words.
Long before this event occurred, African-Americans were not being treated equally. Through the hard times, they stood strong to what they knew: their culture. They would sing songs to calm them and to remind them where they came from. Singing songs were especially popular with enslaved African-Americans. While they worked in the field, or wherever they were told to work, they would sing songs. Songs were their getaway from reality. They kept their loved ones close to them, they would pray and they held themselves together. They didn’t want to be seen as weak even though people thought they were. Wherever they went, they never lost their culture.
Over time they began to get fed up with being treated unfairly, so instead of creating violent chaos, they went about making change in a nonviolent way. This was surprising considering that people were used to violence when something wasn’t right. The African-Americans were looked at as weaklings that couldn’t (physically) fight for what they wanted, but they were perfectly capable of handling guns and breaking out in violence if they had wished to do so, but that is not their nature. “For years it had been though that black people would not literally fight for their lives.” (Hamilton and Ture, 52) They knew violence wasn’t the answer. If they wanted people to listen to what they wanted to say, they had to do it in a new way – a better way! “Humanity is waiting for something other than blind imitation of the past. If we want truly to advance a step further, if we want to turn over a new leaf and really set a new man afoot, we must begin to turn mankind away from the long and desolate night of violence.” (“Black Power,” 332) Throughout this movement, the whites reacted in different ways.
African-Americans were physically and verbally attacked by whites. Throughout all the hard lash the African-Americans received from the whites, they kept their cool. Of course they fought back if they got attacked, but they never began the fighting. They put on a strong shield to block out what the whites were yelling at them. Other ways their culture could be seen throughout the Civil Rights Movement is by them sticking together. Their culture unified them as one strong group. Another movement where they unified together was for the Black Power Movement.
The Black Power Movement was created trailing after the Civil Rights Movement. Both movements were created for the same goal – improving the lives of African-Americans. The Black Power Movement began in the 1960s. Many African-Americans, especially the younger ones, refused to follow the nonviolent actions shown by leaders during the Civil Rights Movement. An influential leader during the Black Power Movement was Stokely Carmichael. He was for and promoted armed self defense. This was liked by the younger African-Americans because it broke away from what was advocated by Martin Luther King, Jr. and other leaders during the Civil Rights Movement.
Black Power was a big aspect of this particular movement. Black Power was not fighting for oppression over whites, but for strength for a better lifestyle. “Black Power therefore calls for black people to consolidate behind their own, so that they can bargain from a position of strength. But while we… this does not mean that black people should strive for the same kind of rewards (i.e., end results) obtained by the white society. The ultimate values and goals are not domination or exploitation of other groups, but rather an effective share in total power of the society.” (Hamilton and Ture, 47) The strength they were fighting for during this movement was not to dominate the whites; the African-Americans just wanted to be able to live the life they wanted. They knew that what was being done to them wasn’t fair and that’s why they continued to fight for a better life. Their goal was not to oppress the whites; all they wanted was their freedom and to use the rights they were supposed to have. Some violence was used to gain power by the African-Americans through this movement.
During the Black Power Movement, a group named the Black Panther Party arose. The Black Panther Party wanted to achieve socialism and they used violence to help them gain it. Overtime this movement grew more and more violent. The reason for this was because the African-Americans knew that they had to try something else from what they used in the Civil Rights Movement if they wanted to see change. They also knew that people of the law would not protect them. “Here is a group which realized that the ‘law’ and law enforcement agencies would not protect people, so they had to do it themselves. If a nation fails to protect its citizens, then that nation cannot condemn those who take up the task themselves.” (Hamilton and Ture, 52-53) They went from a nonviolent movement to a very violent movement. Black Power eventually led to the creation, or idea, of Black Supremacy. Black Supremacy was only created to overturn the white supremacy the African-Americans faced for so many years. The Black Power Movement became a noticeable group who only continued to grow and grow.
Throughout the Black Power Movement, there were similar names that grew famous: Black Power, Black Panther Party and Black Supremacy. Within all those names, there’s the word “black.” The African-Americans wanted their people to take pride in their heritage. Culture reflects heritage. Culture is developed through one’s heritage, therefore there is a strong connection between the two. Having pride in one’s heritage is important to their culture. They didn’t want their people to feel ashamed of what they were or where they came from. They knew that just because their skin color was different, it didn’t make them any less of a person. They wanted to emphasize their differences and make a change by doing so.
Culture is the backbone to any movement. People unify to achieve something that is believed by their culture. By movements being able to continually grow, it shows how one’s culture can unify many as one to fight, or strive, for their wants. People express their culture in various ways throughout their movements: by slogans, what they are fighting for (their beliefs) or even the name of the movement. Culture and movements go hand-in-hand with each other and its easy to see that from the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement.
Works Cited
"Black Power." The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. (n.d.): 332. Print.
Keita, Mamadi. "Culture, History and Ideology." (n.d.): 12. Print.
Ture, Kwame, and Charles Hamilton. "Black Power: Its Need and Substance." (n.d.): 47. Print.…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Women Movement

...Women Movement of 1960s Women Movement of 1960s In this paper I am going to discuss how my own life would be different if one specific event of the 1960s had never occurred. I also would like to discuss how this event influenced my course of study and my choice of career path and how different my life would be if this event had never taken place. The event I am speaking of is The Women’s Movement if the 10960’s. Background       Since the rise of dawn women have been treated as second class citizens and unequal to men. They were not given equal rights regarding their education, health, career and other aspects of their lives. In many civilizations women are treated as slaves and men considered them their property. From the beginning of History women are considered to be inferior to men. Even scholars, learned men and socialists of the early age called women as the greatest source of temptation and evil. Women were treated second-rated not only by the social norms, but also by the religion. Many religions of the world considered women as a species to gratify male hunger and produce his offspring. Civilizations were of the views that as women are physically weaker than men in the same way they have weaker mental abilities and powers. Even Christian Fathers gave humiliated statements about women e.g. St Jerome, Latin Father of Christian Church has said “Women is the gate of Devil, the Path of Wickedness, the Sting of the Serpent, in the......

Words: 1853 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Pakistan Movement

...Pakistan movement Reformation of Educational and Political Context : sadia Khalid bajwa Department of Education Faculty of Social Sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Pakistan movement Reformation of Educational and Political Context The Pakistan Movement refers to the successful historical movement against British and Indian to have an independent Muslim state( Pakistan) created from the separation of the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent. This movement was direct by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, along with other prominent founding fathers of Pakistan together with Allama Iqbal and Liaqat Ali Khan. Movements through which Muslims passed for the demand of Islam/Pakistan 1857 War of Independence 1885 Formation of the Indian National Congress 1906 Founding of the All-India Muslim League 1914-18 World War I 1866 Tahrik-i-Deoband 1892 Nadva-Tul-Ulema 1884 Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam, Lahore Khilafat movement 1919-23 1928 Nehru Report 1929 Fourteen Points of Jinnah 1930 Allama Iqbal Address 1939-45 World War II 1940 Pakistan Resolution 1946 The......

Words: 3299 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Gay Movement

...ayGay Liberation & the African American Civil Rights Movement:  Exploring the Connections  Kelly Arruda Equality  is  a  good  start,  but  it  is  not  sufficient.  Equality  for  queers  inevitably  means  equal  rights  on  straight terms, since they are the ones who determine the existing legal framework. We conform—  albeit equally—with their screwed­up system. That is not liberation. It is capitulation. —Peter Thatchell  Recent developments in same­sex marriage have raised emotions, awareness and many  questions about equality and rights as well as inquires about the benefits of marriage for society in  general. Is the goal to blend into an existing system of rights and privileges or to work toward a new  framework of acceptance? To examine these questions, I invite you to take a journey through the past  sixty years and visit moments of both the African American and Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender  (GLBT) Civil Rights Movements. By examining the African American Civil Rights Movement, I attempt  to survey and assess the advantages and disadvantages of both the assimilationist and liberationist  perspectives of the GLBT Movement. Historical Context  The racist institution of Jim Crow grew out of the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863  which abolished slavery in the United States. Long after slavery was abolished, however, African  Americans continued to suffer cruel injustices  throughout the country. The discriminatory system of  Jim Crow perpetually ...

Words: 4700 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Green Movement

...company in the “Green Approaches” of exhibit 5-4? Organizations that are doing their part in being socially responsible are sometimes known as being “green”. In my past if you were called green it meant something totally different, but in today’s business cultures it now is a good thing to be known as “green”. A lot of organizations are asking the question, to be green, or not to be green? For organizations to answer that question they need to review their own economic performances compared against their current social responsibilities (Coulter & Robbins, 2009). Some organizations have embraced this “green” movement with unmatched fervor. Interface Inc is a flooring company that provides all different types of flooring for its customers and was founded in the United States in 1972 and has recently embraced the “green” movement (Birchfield, 2009). The CEO of Interface Ray Anderson has called his companies endeavor “Mount Sustainability” and Anderson has challenged his employees to be “green” by eliminating waste, reducing energy use, and by redesigning their business operating systems (Birchfield, 2009). Ray Anderson has found the answer to his green question. In summary today’s “green” movement has paved the way for organizations to meet “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs” (Marcus & Fremeth, 2009. p. 18). Using the Profiles in Leadership section listed at the back of your......

Words: 400 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pakistan Movement

...was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state. The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. The Muslims believed that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are two social orders that produced two distinct cultures. There is no compatibility between the two. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims are not confined to the struggle for political supremacy but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart. The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH). Evolution of ‘Two Nation Theory’ Concept of Muslims as a Nation developed......

Words: 7831 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

The Antiglobalization Movement

...Anti-Globalization Movement “Anti-globalization Movement is a disputed term referring to the international social movement network that gained widespread media attention after protests against the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Seattle, WA in late November and early December 1999. Activists and scholars debate whether it constitutes a single social movement or represents a collection of allied groups, a "movement of movements." (Engler, 2007). The Anti-globalization movement opposes different types of social, economic, and ecological injustices that are believed to be the consequence of globalization which are against globalization. Participants of the Anti-globalization movement oppose political powers of large MNCs, and the powers of trade agreements. Corporations have been accused of seeking to maximize profits at the expense of undermining labor standards, environmental conservation principles and the integrity of national legislative capacity. Activists of the Anti-globalization movement seek global integration that provides better democratic representation, advancement of human rights and more egalitarian states. Anti globalization is argued from several points of view, the environmental aspects of globalization, human rights, nationalism (mostly economics), and heterogeneous. Allowing that many of the groups that anti globalization are single focus groups, the different groups do band together to create interest in their causes. The environmental......

Words: 862 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Social Movements

...Instructor’s Name Course Title Date Social Movement Introduction The concept of participatory democracy entails direct involvement of the people in decisions concerning politics, especially those which impacts their lives. This idea underpinned the activities of most social movements between 1960s and 1970s. Its emergence was mostly characterized by establishing democracy at workplace or industries, a method regarded as useful in allowing workers to participate in decision-making. However, the concept ceased to narrow on democratizing workplace as social scientists modified it to a theory which is applicable in restoring democracy in the society (Bachrach et al. 1). The modified concept focuses on achieving egalitarian redistribution of power in the society, a process which would lead to greater effects on the agenda of democratization. Social media can be cited as one of the achievements of participatory democracy because a lot of information can be gathered and shared across the populations and countries. This article focuses on tracing the influence of participatory democracy on women liberation as well as highlighting its impact on the 21st century social media. The Influence of Participatory Democracy on Women Liberation Officially, women liberation can be traced back to 1960s and should not be confused with the women movement in United States around the same time. In fact, most social scientists regard women movement as a unique branch of women liberation.......

Words: 989 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Women's Movement

...The Women’s Rights Movement The beginning of the fight for women’s suffrage in the United States grew out of a larger women’s rights movement. The reform evolved in the 19th century emphasized a large spectrum of goals before focusing on securing the franchise for women. Women’s rights movements are concerned with making political, social and economic status of women equal to men and establish safeguards against discrimination. Just like any movement there were enemies, but in this case the enemy was not a foreign citizens or different cultures but the enemy was men. Early before 1849 the idea of a women’s rights movement came to the United States and many women decided to take a stand and they stood up against the men of the country to fight for their rights as American Citizens. In 1789, when the United States constitution went into effect only 60% of American citizens could vote. Those voters were wealthy white men that held a large sum of land. “Many white men and most African Americans, Native Americans, and women were excluded” (WB 4). During this time women were not considered equal as citizens and were not given the equal rights they deserved. At the time of this segregated suffrage the idea of women’s suffrage leaders came about. Women’s suffrage leaders would often disagreed about the tactics for their reform efforts and could never agree on how to start the movement. Ultimately, the suffrage movement provided political training for some of the early women......

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Islamist Movements

...Islamist Movements Throughout the 20th century in Afghanistan, many violent and nonviolent Islamist Movements have emerged. Some of the more violent movements include the Taliban, al-Qa’ida, and the Islamic State. The Taliban originated during the Soviet, US, and Saudi Arabian supported civil war in Afghanistan from the Pakistani-trained, US sponsored mujahidin. This civil war, the bombing at Kabul, and the many massacres of civilians contributed to the emergence of the group. The US got involved in the civil war to help out allies, in which led to a bundle of hatred for the US by the Taliban. The ideology of the Taliban is an innovative form of shari’a, which combines Pashtun tribal codes with radical Deobandi interpretations of Islam and Bid Laden’s extremist jihadism and pan-Islamism. The Taliban is very strict and enforces many rules. They have many prohibitions that includes many day-to-day things that many in the United States take for granted such as satellite dishes, sports for women, education, employment, dancing, drawing, music, and many more. The Taliban is against all other Muslim groups, including Shi’ites and Sufis. The Qur’an states that one should “fight in the cause of God against those who fight you” and “fight against those among the People of the Book who do not believe in God”. The perspectives of the Taliban go with the Qur’an in these verses. The Taliban fights in order to protect and depend. Al-Qa’ida was founded by Osama Bin Laden,......

Words: 1112 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Mormon Movement

...more to the Mormon movement? Joseph Smith or Brigham Young? Firstly what is a Mormon? A member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a religion founded in the US in 1830 by Joseph Smith. Then Brigham Young was the new leader of the Mormons once Joseph Smith died. In this essay I am going to investigate who contributed more to the Mormon movement. Was it Joseph Smith or Brigham Young? Joseph Smith was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism. He was faithful, driven, and a strong speaker, but was easily tempered. When Joseph Smith was 14 he prayed behind his father’s house for guidance. According to Smith, a pillar of light appeared before him. In 1827 he was visited by an angel who told him where the book was to be found and Smith claimed he dug it up on a hillside near Manchester, New York. The book gave a different story from the Bible. According to the book, lost Israeli tribes migrated to America before the birth of Christ. There they fought each other until Christ was born and established his Church. Later, the fighting started again. One of the few survivours was a man called Mormon who spent the rest of his life recording the story of his people on the plates. Smith claimed that no one else was allowed to see the plates. When he was twenty-four, Smith published the Book of Mormon; by the time of his death fourteen years later, he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religion and religious culture that......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Feminist Movement

...Feminist Movement Firstly, we would like to talk about the causes and the beginning of feminist movement. the About two centuries ago, human society has many changes and movements; the occurrence of human right and its acceptability, the attention of the importance of democracy, the change of production to industry, instead of agriculture, and the advance of technology. These changes and movements cause some women getting the chance of education as same as almost men, and make women working outdoor instead of doing household work. These phenomena cause people questioning about the original belief that proposes women are inferior to men, and the difference between men and women is natural matter which is unchangeable. People tried to find the reason why this belief occurred and has still endured for a long time. In addition, there is a social movement which tried to change this belief, including the condition of the inequality between men and women. This social movement is called feminism. This social phenomenon began, in 19th century, in the western side of the world, because women didn’t accept the original culture, their role in society, the inequality of gender, and the oppression of men. However, this contradiction in terms of gender has been argued up to the beginning of 20th century. Feminism has rapidly grown since the last forty years of 20th century. People become awakened to study about women in several measurements, especially in the study of the......

Words: 3199 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Sds Movement

...roaring sixties. Coming out from the World War II, the boom of “togetherness” swept American homes. The enlightenment of the American was under way as new found economic freedom allowed for new roads, cars, housing, and traveling leisures that opened a new world of opportunity to acquire the knowledge ( introduction of television) of what the world had to offer.The growth of Senator Joseph McCarthy, raged the fear of intellectuals, politicians, and society as a whole. The 1960s were a defining period in America’s history and the being of the dismantling of the american education system as that of the German university in the thirties. The election of Hitler caused the collapse of the German University. The 60s gave themselves over the youth movement, historical progress instead of nature, believed in passion instead of the study of science. The university was overturned. The corruption within the university itself, history repeats itself first as tragedy, then as a comedy. Tragedy was in the German university, had the professor tried to withstand the students they would have been killed, the society was fascist. American university the student people became radicalize, not the society. “In the ordinary world, outside the universities, such youngsters would have had no way of gaining attention. They took as their models Mao, Castro and Che Guevara, promoters of equality, if you please, but surely not themselves equal to anyone. They themselves wanted to be the leaders of a......

Words: 6425 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Punk Movement

...POPMUS 305 The Punk movement as a reaction to stagnant music scene of the 70s Ivan Stevanovic 3461726 The Punk movement is often seen as a reaction to what was regarded as a blown up and stagnant, self-indulging music scene in the mid-70s. In wider perspective, it is considered not merely as a music genre, but more as a complex mixture of social, cultural, rebellious upheaval of the marginal, disillusioned young white generation, first in the US and UK and then in the rest of the western world. This essay will try to explore these statements and find out whether any of the two can be considered as the only cause for the emergence of punk. MUSIC INFLUENCES AND BACKGROUND One would say that any form of modern music in its initial phase is a protest, by default. That could be supported by numerous examples throughout the music history when rebellious young artists were crossing the boundaries of the conventional music genres and styles and often rejected from the music establishment. The stylistic music origins of punk could be found in second half of the twentieth century. First it was rock’n’roll of the fifties that shook the post war society with its wild rhythms and raw cords played on electric guitars amplified to produce more “noise”. The other influences were R&B, country and rockabilly and in the 60s many sub-genres that emerged on the rock music scene like: garage rock, frat rock, psychedelic rock, pub rock, glam rock, and proto-punk. Although its......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Social Movement

...Theories of Social Movements  Relative Deprivation Theory  Relative deprivation theory, developed by Denton Morrison (1971) is a more general theory about why individuals join social movements. A person experiences relative deprivation when she feels that she is not receiving her “fair share” of what seems to be available. Therefore, the people who are the worst off are not necessarily the ones experiencing relative deprivation. For instance, research in the Civil Rights movement showed that African Americans who were the most active were not most deprived but were fairly well-off, such as college students or religious leaders but they were the ones who felt the most relatively deprived.  Key to the idea of relative deprivation is the notion of expectations, that is, what people think they deserve and want in life. If these expectations are met, people do not experience discontent or relative deprivation. On the other hand, if people compare themselves to their reference groups and find that they have less, they will experience relative deprivation. If an individual feels that everyone else seems to be wealthier or generally seems to have it better, they will experience relative deprivation.  A second key to the idea of relative deprivation is the notion of legitimate expectations. Relative deprivation is not simply the idea that people want what everyone else has. It is the idea that they think they deserve it and have a right to it. Therefore, if they do not get what......

Words: 4562 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

The Feminist Movement

...Assignment: A movement that is changing the world Shadrach Diamond Kaplan University SS 310-06 April 25, 2012 The 1960s was a decade filled with changes that had an effect on the nation and the world like none other. During this period, Civil Rights movements took place, the country was at war, a U.S. president was assassinated, and humans walked on the moon. Music and television were creating a completely different culture. For the first time a presidential election was broadcast on TV giving millions of Americans the ability see this event, and the Beatles were influencing the youth with their magical music and lyrics. The events that occurred in this decade not only touched this planet as a whole, but it also made an impression on my personal life. The city I live in saw a big change during the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s. New Orleans, Louisiana, has a large black population who shared the same dream that Martin Luther King spoke about at the Capital. “On August 28, 1963, more than 250,000 people from across the nation came together in Washington, D.C. to peacefully demonstrate their support for the passage of a meaningful civil rights bill, an end to racial segregation in schools and the creation of jobs for the unemployed” (Hansan, n.d.). Martin Luther King Jr. was a pioneer for the Civil Rights movement who encouraged other people to follow him and help change the country’s laws. Because of the advancements in the Civil Rights......

Words: 1712 - Pages: 7