Csr - Literature Review

In: Business and Management

Submitted By yogeshpatel
Words 12892
Pages 52
2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE & ANALYSIS OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH

The concept of social responsibility is not new. Although the idea was considered in the early part of the twentieth century, the modern discussion of social responsibility got a major impetus with the book "Social Responsibilities of the Businessman" by Howard R. Bowen. Bowen suggested that business should consider the social implications of their decisions.

Fortune magazine annually assess America's most Admired Corporations and does so by evaluating over 300 organisations against 8 criteria, one of the eight used is "Community and Environmental Responsibility". Firms such as Merck, Rubber maid, Procter and Gamble, Wal-mart, Pepsico, Coca-cola and 3 M have received consistently high overall ratings.

The presence of strong social values such as social responsibility has a powerful impact on organisations and their actions. It leads them to use a socio-economic model of decision making in which both social costs and benefits are considered along with the traditional economic and technical values. “Corporate social responsibility in the form of corporate philanthropy, or donating to charities, has been practiced since early 1800 at least in the US (Sethi, 1977). It was legitimate in so far that it directly benefited the shareholders, and corporate donations were mostly on the agenda of those companies that could afford it. Today’s concept of corporate social responsibility was developed primarily during the 1960s in the USA with the notion that corporations have responsibilities that go beyond their legal obligations.

Different schools of thought on CSR oscillate between two extremes: the free market concept (classical economic theory) (Friedman, 1970) and the socially-oriented approach (Freeman, 1984; Wood, 1991; Smith 1994).

Enderle & Tavis (1998) define corporate social…...

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