Cross Cultural

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kiwilau423
Words 1105
Pages 5
Culture of China

China exists over many centuries and the culture of China is one of the oldest and most complex cultures in the world. To explore and understand the culture of China, people can have a look on its architecture, Feng Shui, cuisine, language, etc.


The history of Chinese architecture has been built over many centuries. Its distinctive and special structural features have significantly influenced on the architectural styles of the East Asia countries such as Korea, Japan and Vietnam.

In Chinese architecture, bilateral symmetry and the articulations of buildings are mainly concerned. These features did not only apply for the palaces, but also apply for the humble farmhouses. Apart from the main buildings, the open courtyard and/or the “sky well” can be easily found within the building complexes. Open courtyard and the “sky well” is an empty space surrounded by buildings that connected one building to another one building either directly. Chinese Siheyuan in Beijing is a very good example showing the symmetry, use of open courtyard and “sky well”.

Another important feature of Chinese architecture is that Chinese architecture emphasizes on width, in contrast, Western architecture emphasizes on height. The wide halls of Forbidden City and castles in Western countries are very good examples in respect of Chinese and Western architectures. In relation to the structural materials, bricks, stones and wooden timber (frame and roof) are frequently used. Chinese architecture was well developed since ancient times, timber frames are mainly constructed by dowel, it is seldom to use glue or nails.

Feng Shui

Feng Shui is an ancient art related to the environment and the power of nature. It’s a systematic study based on the elements of astronomy, astrology, geology, physics, mathematics, psychology and intuition. It is mainly…...

Similar Documents

Cross Cultural

...contain beef and pork. Other Products do not contain eggs and are 100% vegetarian. The Indianized products have been so well Received that we even export McAloo Tikki burger and Veg. Pizza McPuff™ to the Middle East."However the company did not escape food criticism in the country. For instance, it hurt the religious sentiments of Indians by using beef flavoring for its "Vegetarian" French Fries. Cross Cultural Analysis: The McDonald’s is American fast food company did his job and they understand Indian cultural by knowing India’s Norms and Values they build trust in Indian market. They use logo like McDonald’s is family restaurant and not contain any animal food and they build Trust and civil society is necessary in order to create trust between people and state. Recommendation: In India many religions are living together and McDonalds also understand cultural by not using beef and poke in food in India in cultural not allowed and strike to not eat beef and poke. They create Trust in customer in their food is not contain beef or poke. My point of view they maintain cultural rules and trust in Indian market for business....

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Cross Cultural

...6.0 Culture and Marketing 6.1 Marketing in a cross-cultural environment As the largest Western European country, France is a nation that takes immense pride in its history and prominent culture. Such cultural identities play a crucial role in French business culture, where appropriate conduct, mutual trust and understanding are the key to an organizations success. There are some problem to adapt the product and marketing with the people in France. That is why some intercultural marketing approach is needed. Culture Culture Management Management Organizations Organizations Communication Communication Marketer within Cross-Border Market Marketer within Cross-Border Market Figure 6.1: Marketing in a cross-cultural environment Source: Browaeys & Price, 2011 (page 229) In a company, marketing is one of important things to make sure the production’s activities are always proceeding. In a textbook written by Browaeys & Price (2011) had stated that, Wall and Rees (2004) divide marketing activities as follows: 1. Market analysis with at least three elements, which are environment analysis, buyer behavior and market research 2. Marketing strategy. Once a market has been scanned using the above tools, the company has to develop a strategy to give meaning and direction to its marketing activities. The strategies that often used are market segmentation and marketing mix. However, these approaches are no longer......

Words: 2498 - Pages: 10

Cross Cultural Psychology

...Introduction to cross-cultural psychology In each society there are different beliefs, when it comes to psychological disorders many cultural believe that disorders can be caused by demons that have taken over there mind and body. To obtain a better understanding of how different cultural view psychology this paper will define cultural and cross-cultural beliefs. The next step will be to analyze the relationship between cultural and cross cultural psychology this leads to the discussion of the role of critical thinking in cross- cultural psychology. Last the paper will discuss the methodology associated with cross-cultural research. Define cultural and cross-cultural psychology Each human does not get to choice the cultural that they will be placed in. From birth to adulthood the culture that we learn and live in is chosen for us by our caregivers. Culture is defined as a set of behaviors, symbols, and attitudes that are shared among a large group of people and this is usually been passed down from one generation to the next (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). The behaviors that are learned can be customs, traditions, habits, and fashions. Symbols are a form of material objects (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Attitudes are beliefs that include political, religious, moral views and can include opinions, superstitions, and stereotypes (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Although some cultures may have some attributes that are similar there are no two cultures that are the same. This is why it is......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Reflecting on Cross Cultural Negotiaions

...18, 2012 Reflecting on Cross Cultural Negotiations As I reflect on what I have learned regarding Cross Cultural Negotiations, I now possess the knowledge that it is one of many specialized areas within the wider field of cross cultural communications. By taking cross cultural negotiation training, negotiators and sales personnel give themselves an advantage over competitors. There is an argument that proposes that culture is inconsequential to cross cultural negotiation. It maintains that as long as a proposal is financially attractive it will succeed. However, this is a naïve way of approaching international business. Let us look at a brief example of how cross cultural negotiation training can benefit the international business person: There are two negotiators dealing with the same potential client in the Middle East. Both have identical proposals and packages. One ignores the importance of cross cultural negotiation training believing the proposal will speak for itself. The other undertakes some cross cultural training. He/she learns about the culture, values, beliefs, etiquette and approaches to business, meetings and negotiations. Nine times out of ten the latter will succeed over the rival. This is because 1) it is likely they would have endeared themselves more to the host negotiation team and 2) they would be able to tailor their approach to the negotiations in a way that maximizes the potential of a positive outcome. Cross cultural negotiations is about......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2

Cross-Cultural Psychology

...Running head: CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Cross-Cultural Psychology Charlene Marasco PSY/450 Sally Fleming March 28, 2011 Cross-cultural psychology Cultural psychology is an interdisciplinary program of research that explores the relationship between individual minds and the complex environments in which they are deployed. The approach focuses on the contribution that content-rich, complex environments – ranging from workplaces to cultural traditions to nation states – make in shaping basic cognitive processes. The comparative approach, or cross-cultural approach, uses experimental methods to compare and contrast groups in their performance on a range of psychological tasks with the objective of demonstrating cultural difference and commonality on some psychological aspect in the lab and field (Cultural Psychology., n.d). Cross-cultural psychology Cross-cultural psychology is a comparative study of cultural effects on human psychology, from different cultural groups, which looks at the psychological diversity and the underlying reasons for such diversity. Meaning how people in groups relate to the environment and the world around them, like feelings, thoughts, how and where they live, and how cultural groups at one point interact with another group. Cultural psychology is contributing significant insights into......

Words: 1171 - Pages: 5

Cross Cultural

...Cross-cultural communication can be difficult in some countries because what is acceptable in one culture may be unacceptable in another. When people are immersed in an environment where facial expressions such as eye contact and body gestures are alien to their own experience, they may suffer from disorientation and frustration. Therefore, it is significant to learn the body language of different cultures. This essay focuses on the use of nonverbal communication in North America, Thailand, and some other parts of the world. Facial expression is the most important source of nonverbal communication in all cultures. However, sometimes it can be hard to interpret the meaning through facial cues. Since there are many facial expressions, such as those for happiness, sadness, fear, and anger, it may be hard to distinguish which expression the person is trying to convey. According to Carey’s report, “facial expressions [are the most] obvious ones [that] can be very misleading, because most [people] are pretty good at covering a lie” (350). In North America, people pay much attention to facial expressions during interactions because it helps them to understand what the other person is trying to convey. Eye contact is a crucial aspect of communication, and it is a valuable source of information in many cultures. Levin and Adelman state, “[in] a conversation too little eye contact may be seen negatively because it conveys lack of interest,......

Words: 522 - Pages: 3


...Cross-Cultural Communication Matrix University of Phoenix Com/285 December 16, 2010 Cross-Cultural Communication Matrix Cross Cultural Communication Country Preferred communication style Non-verbal communication practices Business communication norms Strategies to increase cross-cultural communication Saudi Arabia South Africa China Saudi Arabia Arab’s communication style is more elaborate, as they make use of various phrases while communicating. Therefore, Arabs are said to be expressive. They are said to be extravagant in exaggerating. Arabs also rely on non direct communication. Silence is used as a non verbal communication practice and it shows thoughful observation. Gestures and facial expressions are important non verbal communication practices as well. Eye contact is also important to the Arab businessmen. If a person maintains eye contact, this shows his sincerity and truthfulness. Business should be in coherence to the culture of the country. It is important to make prior appointments for making business dealings. Thursday and Fridays are off in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, buiness communications should not be done on these days. Face to face interaction is highly favored. (Gorrill, 2007). It is important to understand the particular culture of a country. So, reading about the specific culture and getting information through books or internet will help in increasing the cross cultural communication. Introduction of training......

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Managing Cross-Cultural Teams

...Management of Cross Cultural Teams- Problems and Effective Management of Cross- Cultural Teams VAIBHAV MISRA Management Consultant and Ex- Lecturer Bora Institute of Management Sciences Lucknow INDIA ABSTRACT As the world economy is globalized the companies are expanding their businesses in international markets for business profitability. The teams are recruited by these companies in the international market for the business tasks to be performed. These teams belong to different cultural background and have different values. The author will discuss about the problems faced by these cross- cultural teams. The author had also focused on the strategies to cope up with these problems of cross- cultural teams. The author will act as researcher and will use exploratory research design, i.e. the study will be based on secondary data taken from magazines, journals, internet and reports. These tools will help author to conclude the objectives of the study. The author found that there are problems among the cross-cultural teams regarding their cultural background. The different ways are also suggested to cope up with the problems faced by crosscultural teams. The author had also focused on how to create effective management of multicultural teams. RESEARCH VALUE The research may be valuable for the companies who are looking for expanding the business and also for those companies who are facing the cross- cultural team issue. workplace leads to heightened......

Words: 2614 - Pages: 11

Defining Cross Cultural Psychology

...Cross-Cultural Psychology Stephanie Sorrell Psychology 450 February 24, 2014 Dr. Jenne Meyer Cross-Cultural Psychology Introduction Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior. There are many different branches and fields of psychology. The field of psychology that will be discussed within this paper is called cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology will also be discussed. To begin these types of psychology will be defined and the so the differences and similarities between the two will also be discussed. In order to fully grasp an understanding of cultural and cross-cultural psychology, the role of critical thinking within this scientific study as well as the methodology used in this field of psychology will also be discussed. In the conclusion of this paper, a deep understanding of cultural psychology and cross-cultural psychology should be attained. This is yet another way in which people can attempt to understand why people, specifically groups of people, act the way they act, uphold certain traditions that they uphold and maintain certain customs that each culture has. It is only when a full knowledge of all similarities and differences amongst human beings is attained, that we can learn to work together as one for better of this world that we call home. Cultural Psychology In order to define cultural psychology, a definition of culture must first be stated. Culture is defined by the attitudes, behaviors, and symbols shared among a large group...

Words: 1161 - Pages: 5

Cross Cultural globally and offer an enhanced value proposition to our customers. This exercise has also provided us a staging platform for expansion across the entire oil and gas (“O&G”) development value chain and is creating potential cross-selling business development opportunities across the Group. 53 PERFORMANCE REVIEW World’s 1 OPERATIONAL HIGHLIGHTS The creation of SKD in May 2013 proceeded smoothly with human capital and strategic assets from both Seadrill Limited (“Seadrill”) and SapuraKencana integrated in a seamless manner, managing to fully retain their client base and key employees. The combination of Seadrill’s deep operational expertise, world-class customer access and ongoing transfer of knowledge, have certainly helped propel SapuraKencana’s competitive position and enabled us to take advantage of the positive growth dynamics within the industry. SKD is today a leading offshore drilling services provider globally with multiple No. Tender Rig Owner & Operator growth opportunities and strong value creation potential. The integration has accorded the Group more exposure to the higher margin drilling segment, expanded our reach across the entire value chain in key markets and is providing us the ability to leverage on more cross-selling opportunities. In FY2014, SKD’s existing tender rigs continued to undertake their longterm fixed price contracts for client’s such as Chevron, Royal Dutch Shell plc (“Shell”), PTTEP Thailand, BP plc (“BP”) and......

Words: 70759 - Pages: 284

Cross Cultural

...CROSS-CULTURAL/INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION Photo by: Yuri Arcurs Business is not conducted in an identical fashion from culture to culture. Consequently, business relations are enhanced when managerial, sales, and technical personnel are trained to be aware of areas likely to create communication difficulties and conflict across cultures. Similarly, international communication is even further strengthened when businesspeople can anticipate areas of commonality. Finally, business in general is enhanced when people from different cultures find new approaches to old problems creating solutions by combining cultural perspectives and examining the problem at hand from each other's differing cultural perspectives. ETHNOCENTRISM Problems in business communication conducted across cultures often arise when participants from one culture are unable to understand culturally determined differences in communication practices, traditions, and thought processing. At the most fundamental level, problems may occur when one or more of the people involved clings to an ethnocentric view of how to conduct business. Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own cultural group is somehow innately superior to others. 1 It is easy to say that ethnocentrism only affects the bigoted or those ignorant of other cultures, and so is unlikely to be a major factor in one's own business communication. Yet difficulties due to a misunderstanding of elements in cross-cultural communication may affect...

Words: 6025 - Pages: 25

Cross Cultural

...“Cross Cultural Communication” “Everyone has a culture. Americans struggle to understand their own culture which leads to difficulties in learning effectively about cultural differences”-stated by The Cross Cultural Communications for Healthcare Professionals. As a Texan born and raised learning how to cross communicate with others can be challenging but can be done. Today I will be giving you a insight on how cross cultural communication is very important in the healthcare industry and even in our everyday living. To start off, as a nurse assistant communicating with residents that couldn’t speak or even read English was a problem trying to administer medications, take vitals and hold a conversation. But eventually it became easier with dedication and a few mistakes made. I won’t say it is easy but it gets better with time and giving it more than one chance. Often people misjudge others because of their appearance, what they eat or how they sound when they speak. But in reality we all make a first impression on someone or something. Getting to know someone and about their history is pretty interesting and teaching someone about yourself and your background is a great way of communicating. Here are (5) important skills to me to remember when communicating with people of the world. First, Gain Respect, the ability to express respect for others is an important part of effective cross cultural communication.......

Words: 882 - Pages: 4


...Cross-Cultural Country Report Communication varies from state to state and country to country. It just depends on the culture. Business is handled in a different ways all across the world. The way people greet, dress, communicate, and even address each other will vary from country to country. Belize is a country that uses mister, misses, and doctor to address people only if you have earned that title. The way of business in Belize is different from that of the United States. Men and women typically greet each other in the same manor in Belize. Men greet other men with a handshake and if they have previously meet before the men may give each other a pat on the shoulder. Women greet each other with a handshake as well. Women may also give each other a hug, handshake, and/or a slight kiss on the cheek. Men and women greet each other the same as men greet men, and women greet women. Here in the United States we greet each other with a firm handshake and call each other by our last names, such as Mr. James or Ms. or Mrs. Beard. A hug could follow this depending on the relationship of the individuals. Although the way we greet each other in the United States may be somewhat similar to that of Belize, the business wear is more on the relaxed side. Men and women often wear cotton, or khaki long pants. Knit and collared shirts are accepted for both men and women as well. Women are allowed to wear Capri length pants to work. All sandals, except flip flops are accepted for men...

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Cross Cultural Psychology

...Cross Cultural Psychology Christina Williams Psychology 450 Glorivy Arce November 14, 2010 Abstract This paper will attempt to analyze cross-cultural and cultural psychology. It will examine the relationship between both, discuss the role of critical thinking in cross- cultural psychology, and discuss the methodology associated with cross-cultural research. Culture is a full range of behavior patterns (N.A. 2010, p. 1). Culture can be distinguished by a set of beliefs and attitudes from a given generation (Shiraev, & Levy 2010, p. 2). It is a way of life passed down from generation to generation. Cross-cultural psychology deals with the culture and human behavior. In today’s society cross-cultural psychologists investigate how culture affects individuals everywhere. Cross Cultural Psychology Cultural and Cross- Cultural Psychology “Culture is a set of attitudes, behaviors and symbols shared by a large group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next (Shiraev & Levy, 2010p2). Before reaching adulthood individuals learn how to understand their environment according to his parents.” Culture is a full range of learned behavior patterns”(N.A., 2010, p .1). We notice individuals of African, Japanese, Italian descent; individuals are referring to the customs and ideals that their parents used. It has become a way of life passed down from generation to generation. “ in most cases, those who share your culture do so because they acquired......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

Cross Cultural Psychology

...Introduction to Cross Cultural Psychology Patrice Jones PSY/450 May 7, 2010 Joseph Gaines Introduction to Cross Cultural Psychology Cultural and cross cultural psychology is the field or branch of psychology the focuses primarily on culture, and the effects culture has on the mind and behavior. Culture is the symbols, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a group of people and passed on to the next generation. Culture affects how an individual thinks and in turn affects an individual’s behavior. Cultural psychology focuses on how culture affects an individual’s mental processes and behavior within that culture. Cross cultural psychology compares at least two cultures to see how culture affects an individual’s mental processes and behavior. Cross cultural psychology not only focuses on the differences between cultures, but also on the similarities and the reasons for these differences or similarities. Cultural psychology focuses on the effects culture has on an individual’s mental processes and behavior within that culture. Cultural psychologists try to find out as much about a particular culture, and how that culture affects the individual’s that lives there. Cultural psychologists can have a better understanding of a behavior when viewed in its sociocultural context. Cross cultural psychology compares two or more cultures to determine how culture affects an individual’s mental processes and behavior. Cross cultural psychology does not focus on only one......

Words: 1000 - Pages: 4