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Common Elements Between Greek & Roman Societies

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Introducción Cuando hablamos de las sociedades griega y romana, tenemos que estudiar la relación que existió entre ambas, ya que mucho de lo que Roma representa en la historia de la humanidad es gracias a la influencia recibida de la cultura griega. Grecia influyó sobre Roma, como resultado de la decadencia ocurrida, sobre todo luego de la guerra del Peloponeso. Es por esto que esta relación inmediata entre una y otra convierte a la historia de la sociedad romana, en cierto modo, en el resultado de los diferentes aspectos “heredados” de la cultura de los griegos. Claro está, Roma contribuyó al desarrollo mayor de muchas de estas cosas, al tomar lo que adoptaron de la cultura griega y hacerlo suyo, mejorándolo. En este trabajo señalaremos varios elementos comunes entre ambas sociedades, como por ejemplo: política, religión y arquitectura entre otros.

Cuando leemos sobre el aspecto político en la sociedad griega y en la romana, encontramos los orígenes de las ciudades – estado en Grecia. Esta sociedad estaba dividida, políticamente, en muchos reinados pequeños. En éstos, los nobles y los reyes eran los responsables de la toma de decisiones. Los artesanos, al igual que los campesinos, eran personas libres. Posteriormente, dichos reinados se desarrollaron en las llamadas polis o ciudades – estado. Estas ciudades se convirtieron en centro de comercio, al igual que de actividades sociales y políticas. En ellas, se construían grandes templos a los dioses griegos. Además, el rey y sus soldados protegían a los residentes cercanos de la acrópolis, colina donde vivía el primero. En estas polis el poder y la autoridad estaban concentrados en una sola figura. Atenas llegó a convertirse en la potencia naval más importante, gracias a expediciones que contribuyeron a una expansión que enfocó en Grecia la mayor parte de las transacciones de comercio en el Mediterráneo. Su gobierno era democrático, es decir, donde el pueblo escoge mediante votos a un candidato. En él, existían tres clases sociales: los espartacos, quienes eran los militares de la clase alta; los periecos, clase media compuesta por agricultores y comerciantes y finalmente, los ilotas o esclavos de guerra. Por otro lado, Roma, estaba bajo el mando de los patriarcas, dueños de terrenos y ricos. La parte más importante de su gobierno era el senado, formado por un grupo de patriarcas. Los plebeyos no tenían prácticamente influencia o poder en el aspecto político. Con el paso del tiempo, Roma fue ganando guerras sangrientas, internas y externas, que ocasionaron su expansión hasta el este del Mediterráneo, donde se encontraba el centro de la cultura helenística. Ésta ya se encontraba “debilitada” luego del triunfo de Esparta en la Guerra del Peloponeso, lo que ocasionó que Atenas perdiera su prosperidad. Esta es una de las razones por las que se dice que el surgimiento de la historia de Roma es una consecuencia de la historia de Grecia. En cuanto al rol de la mujer en Grecia y Roma, encontramos que dentro de la misma Grecia existía una marcada diferencia entre las mujeres atenienses y las espartanas. Las primeras tenían una escasa o ninguna educación, aprendida de su madre. Vivían, por lo general, encerradas en sus casas y se encargaban de la crianza de los hijos (hasta los siete años) y de las hijas hasta que se casaban. En Esparta, las mujeres disfrutaban de bastante libertad comparadas con las atenienses, incluso participando entre competencias atléticas de varones. En contraste, en Roma la mujer podía llevar negocios, trabajar como vendedora e incluso asistir a espectáculos públicos. Además, aunque las leyes las trataban como seres inferiores, hubo algunas que pudieron obtener altos niveles de educación y llegaron a estar muy instruidas en artes, ciencias y otras materias. En el aspecto de la arquitectura, encontramos la arquitectura griega, con sus columnas, dinteles e impresionantes obras tales como templos, estadios y las famosas acrópolis. Las diferentes formas y tipos de columnas originaron los estilos arquitectónicos griegos: el corintio el dórico y el jónico. A diferencia de Grecia, Roma no persiguió un fin estético en sí mismo, sino que tomaron como referencia los modelos de la época helenística. De este modo, desarrollaron un programa constructivo que llegará a extenderse por todo el imperio romano. La bóveda y el arco de medio punto se destacaron en la concepción de la arquitectura romana y duran hasta nuestros días. Al compartir estilos, en la actualidad se les conoce, juntas, como la arquitectura clásica. En cuanto a la literatura y artes, cuando Roma conquistó a Grecia, las manifestaciones romanas en arte y literatura eran escasas, ya que Roma se había dedicado más a las guerras y luchas entre plebeyos y patricios. Grecia y Roma desarrollaron una representación común de creencias (instituciones) como lo fueron el aislamiento, en donde consideraban a los extranjeros como enemigos; y la esclavitud. En el aspecto de la religión y mitología, los griegos y romanos ambos eran politeístas, es decir que creían en la existencia de numerosos dioses. Claro está, al conquistar Grecia, Roma “adopta” como suyos muchos de los dioses griegos. Estos dioses griegos, que vivían en el Monte Olimpo, tenían apariencia humana y sentimientos, pero eran considerados inmortales y con poderes sobrenaturales. Zeus, el dios principal, junto a otros, se encargaba de analizar los asuntos de los mortales. Los griegos también rendían culto a héroes, mortales considerados como semidioses que realizaban grandes hazañas. En cuanto a los romanos, rindieron también cultos secundarios, en las casas y altares domésticos. Un aspecto importante, es que los romanos rendían culto al Emperador, haciendo sacrificios por su bienestar. Entre los dioses romanos procedentes del mundo griego, encontramos a los siguientes: * Júpiter / Zeus – Dios del cielo. * Neptuno / Poseidón – Dios del mar y de las aguas. * Plutón / Hades – Dios de los muertos. * Marte / Ares – Dios de la guerra. * Diana / Artemisa – Diosa de los bosques y la caza. * Apolo / Apolo – Dios de la música y del sol. * Mercurio / Hermes – Mensajero de los Dioses. * Venus / Afrodita – Diosa de la belleza y del amor. * Minerva / Atenea – Diosa de la sabiduría, las artes y las ciencias.

Conclusión Esta es solamente una pequeña muestra de los muchos elementos comunes que existieron entre estas dos grandes civilizaciones. Ambas contribuyen a la historia de la humanidad, y en la actualidad contamos con muchos de estos elementos. Ciertamente, mientras más conocemos de las civilizaciones de la antigüedad, más orgullosos debemos sentirnos de conocer esta historia. En mi opinión, esta tarea me ha servido para crecer como persona, y a comprender en cierta medida por todo lo que otros tuvieron que pasar y luchar para que la humanidad hoy día esté en donde está. Lástima que nos empeñemos en echar todo eso por la borda en muchas ocasiones…

Bibliografía
Comparación entre Grecia y Roma. Recuperado de http:// http://clubensayos.com/Historia/Comparacion-Entre-Grecia-Y-Roma/1467.html el 15 de febrero de 2013.
Evolución y desarrollo desde los inicios del pueblo romano. Recuperado de http://www.portalplanetasedna.com.ar/asp/roma_antigua1.html el 15 de febrero de 2013.
Las características generales de la civilización griega y romana. Recuperado de www. webscolar.com/las-caracteristicas-generales-de-la-civilizacion-griega-y-romana el 14 de febrero de 2013.
Religión y Arte Grecorromano. Recuperado de www.colegioinfantes.com/ciencias/grecorromano.pdf el 14 de febrero de 2013.…...

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