Premium Essay

Collapse of the Ussr

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Cecilia92666
Words 1039
Pages 5
Why factor that cause the collapse of the USSR?

On Christmas Day on 1991,Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as the president of USSR and announced that USSR from then on was not going to existed anymore. Except the US president Reagan, very few people predict the collapse would happened. Evidences prove that the break-up of the USSR was intended and also out of Gorbachev’s expectations. After
Brezhnev died. There were lots of problems left to Gorbachev. There were mainly two problems: Economy crippling and severe relationship with the US and eastern European countries.Gorbachev actually had a specific goal to improve USSR’s development by using
Perestroika and Glasnost.However, those two police actually accelerated the coming of the fall. with an unintended consequences.However,there are also historian argues conversely that actually it is an intended result that the long-term economics crippling and stagnation caused the financial sustainability of USSR which directly influence people’s life situation and the
USSR development.

One of the Gorbachev’s policy Perestroika which was reconstruction on economy was one of the factor leads to fall of USSR which wasn't seen as a stimulant of the collapse by Gorbachev.
By that time USSR saw its economic crippling. Gorbachev set up goals for ending the economic stagnation and improving the economy in USSR.Perestroika allowed more independent actions from various ministries and introduced market autonomy reforms.The goal of the perestroika was not to end the communism but rather to make socialism work more efficiently to better meet the needs of Soviet consumers and made the people’s living condition improved. That was Gorbachev’s goal. However,what he didn't realized was this kind of economic autonomy made the central government had virtually lost control for the local government of the republics. The new law of…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Glasnost': the Decimation of the Ussr

...Glasnost': The Decimation of the USSR April 16, 2002 I) Since the beginning of mankind the world has been under various ruling powers with only one goal in mind. A) This led to the rise of monarchies with their kings and queens, the socialists with their presidents, and the communists with their tsarist rulers. B) In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev brought upon the world the idea of Glasnost', which led to the changing of the largest ruling power in the world to a new power benefiting everyone. II) The Former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics before Glasnost'. C) Different styles of Soviet government from the early 1900s up to 1985. 1) Leninism to Stalinism to Khrushchev to Brezhnev. D) Coups and the Great Purge III) What lead to Glasnost' and what it is. E) In 1986, Gorbachev dismayed at the slow process of reform being conducted in the country proposed to the citizens of the USSR and the entire world a two new ideas to help bring reform to the country in a much more radical direction. F) Gorbachev called for a glasnost’ (openness or candor) in the media and culture. IV) Changes within Russia and Foreign changes. G) Banned works and speaking out are no longer dangerous crimes against the state. 2) Criticizing the government led to the formation of a large number of independent nationalistic movements in the USSR. 3) Scholars and scientists are allowed to share their findings with......

Words: 2288 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Collapse of Sensemaking

...The Collapse of Sensemaking in Organizations: The Mann Gulch Disaster Karl E. Weick . Reprinted from The Collapse of Sensemaking in Organizations: The Mann Gulch Disaster by Karl E. Weick published in Administrative Science Quarterly Volume 38 (1993): 628652 by permission of Administrative Science Quarterly. © 1993 by Cornell University 00018392/93/3804-0628. This is a revised version of the Katz- Newcomb lecture presented at the University of Michigan, April 23-24, 1993. The 1993 lecture celebrated the life of Rensis Likert, the founding director of the Institute for Social Relations. All three people honored at the lecture-Dan Katz, Ted Newcomb, and Ren Likert-were born in 1903, which meant this lecture also celebrated their 90th birthdays. I am grateful to Lance Sandelands, Debra Meyerson, Robert Sutton, Doug Cowherd, and Karen Weick for their help in revising early drafts of this material. I also want to thank John Van Maanen, J. Richard Hackman, Linda Pike, and the anonymous ASQ reviewers for their he lp with later drafts. The death of 13 men in the Mann Gulch fire disaster, made famous in Norman Maclean's Young Men and Fire, is analyzed as the interactive disintegration of role structure and sensemaking in a minimal organization. Four potential sources of resilience that make groups less vulnerable to disruptions of sensemaking are proposed to forestall disintegration, including improvisation, virtual role systems, the attitude of wisdom, and norms of respectful......

Words: 13718 - Pages: 55

Premium Essay

Fall of the Ussr

...Causes and Origins of the Collapse of the Former Soviet Union An Honors Research Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Graduation ―with Honors Research Distinction in Russian Economic Studies‖ in the Undergraduate Colleges of the Ohio State University by Erik Lauritzen The Ohio State University June 2011 Project Advisors: Professor Jason Blevins, Department of Economics Professor Jennifer Suchland, Department of Russian Table of Contents Abstract.................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 3 1. Macroeconomic Planning in the Soviet Union ................................................................. 5 1.1 The Early Policies of Period One ................................................................................................... 5 1.1.1 War Communism .......................................................................................................................... 5 1.1.2 The New Economic Policy (NEP) ............................................................................................... 9 1.1.3 Democratic Centralism ............................................................................................................... 11 1.2 The Significance of......

Words: 15222 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Reasons for Collapse of Ussr

...The collapse of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the disintegration of the USSR is undoubtedly the most significant development in world politics since the Second World War. In immediate terms, it has provoked widespread ideological confusion and demoralisation within the international workers' movement, and on the other side, gloating by the capitalist rulers and their apologists. The latter have used this event to step up their efforts to discredit socialism by identifying it with the bureaucratic dictatorship that has ruled over the Soviet Union since Stalin's rise to power in the 1920s. This, of course, is not something new. The capitalist rulers in the West have always argued that the totalitarian regime created by Stalin and maintained by his heirs was the inevitable consequence of the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The capitalists were greatly assisted in this task by the Stalinists' claim to represent the tradition of Marx and Lenin. The capitalists cynically accepted the Stalinists' description of their hideous police regimes as representing "socialism" in order to prejudice the workers of the West against socialism by identifying it with the denial of democratic freedoms, and to promote the idea that bourgeois parliamentary democracy is the highest embodiment of human freedom. While this bourgeois propaganda campaign certainly succeeded in discrediting Marxism and Leninism among large sections of working people in the imperialist democracies......

Words: 657 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Collapse- book is about a history topic about how societies choose to fail or survive. The main characters are historical people and unknown kings of Mayan cities or Easter Island villages. Jared Diamond tells the story of the Viking explorer Erik the Red, who discovered Greeland and Vinland (Terranova, in Canada). Another character is captain Olafsson, a norse sailor who wrote the last news about Greenland in 1410. Another main character is Christopher Columbus, who arrived at Hispaniola in 1492, but now this island is two countries, the Dominican Republic and the Haiti. Diamond studied the politics of two presidents. the dominican Rafael Trujillo, who protected the enviroment and the dictator François, Papa Doc, Duvalier, who decided on politics of deforestatation of his country, Haiti. The author considered the bad politics of another main character, king George II, who was interested in sending merinosheeps from Spain to Australia, an idea which was succesful from 1820 to 1950 but then the farmers understood their lands lost fertility. Another main character is Tokuwaga Jeayasu, a shogun of Japan in 1600, who prohibited Christianity in 1600 and protected his country againt deforestation.  The book takes us to a lot of places around the globe: Mayan cities, Rwanda, Viking colonies of Vinland or Greenland, Haiti and Dominican Republic, Easter Island and Polynesian colonies in Pacific, and the Chaco villages in New Mexico (United States). The time period was from 800......

Words: 22095 - Pages: 89

Free Essay

Downfall of Ussr Essay Outline

...Which was more responsible for the downfall of the USSR, impersonal economic and social forces or words and actions of key individuals? Command Word: Which Given Factor: impersonal economic and social forces or words and actions of key individuals? Given Event: downfall of the USSR Focus word: more responsible Introduction: * Background Information: The downfall of the USSR in the year 1991 was due to the convergence of many factors, mainly the impersonal economic forces and the words and actions of key individuals. * Definitions: * Downfall of USSR: the collapse of the Soviet union in the year 1991 * Impersonal economic and social forces: Economic and Social forces not in relation to any particular person at all * Words and actions of key individuals: The people in power creating a situation which allowed many bad repercussions to occur * More responsible: had more significance in resulting in the downfall of the USSR. * Argument outline: * 1: Impersonal economic and social forces had more responsibility in the downfall of USSR as they created unforeseen circumstances which could not be averted * 2: Words and Actions of Key individuals in the Soviet Union had more responsibility as they had full control of the economic circumstance in the Soviet Union. * 3: Words and actions of Key individuals in the USSR had more responsibility as they provoked the masses into a social revolution. * Stand: Impersonal......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Back to the Ussr

...Universal School Supply Retailer, Inc (“USSR”) is a retailer of clothing, equipment, supplies, and other products targeted at students from grade school to college level. USSR is offering a promotion during August in which customers who spend a minimum of $100 will receive a $20 gift card that can be applied to their next purchase at USSR. These gift cards expire on November 1 of the current year and cannot be redeemed for cash. The main issues involved in this situation are when to recognize the revenue associated with the gift cards and how to record the transaction. These issues are addressed by multiple sections of GAAP, including the following: * ASC 605-50-20 * ASC 605-50-25 * ASC 405-40-30 * ASC 460-10-25 According to ASC 605-50-25-7, a vendor may offer a customer a rebate or refund or a specified amount of cash consideration that is redeemable only if the customer completes a specified cumulative level of revenue transactions for a specified time period. Cash consideration, as defined in ASC 605-50-20, includes cash payments and credits that the customer can apply against trade amounts owed to the vendor. In this situation, USSR is offering its customers a specified amount of cash consideration in the form of gift cards, which are only redeemable if the customer spends over $100 during the month of August. ASC 605-50-25-7 also specifies that the vendor – USSR – shall recognize the refund obligation as a reduction of revenue based on a......

Words: 1439 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Factors That Led to the Collapse of Communism

...Factors That Culminated In the Eventual Collapse of Communism and the Demise of the Soviet Union Purnea Gillani Author Note This report was prepared for International Relations Practice, BS (Hons) Major in Political Science and Minor in Management, taught by Professor Sajaad Naseer ABSTRACT The collapse of the soviet empire is often heralded in the West as a triumph of capitalism and democracy, as though this event was a direct result of the policies of the Reagan and Thatcher governments. This analysis has little relation to measurable facts, circumstances and internal political dynamics that were the real historical causes of the deterioration of the Soviet empire. The key to understanding the reasons for the demise of the Soviet Union and communism in Eastern Europe is to be found not in the speeches or policies of Western politicians, but in internal Soviet history. Through our report we have attempted to discern the various complex factors that came together and led to the unraveling of the Soviet Union and the end of communism in Europe. This report contains an analysis of how social, political and economic factors culminated in the sudden and unprecedented collapse of the Soviet Union at the perceived height of its power. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank … Contents ABSTRACT 2 ACKNOWLEDGMENT 3 INTRODUCTION 5 LITERATURE......

Words: 4852 - Pages: 20

Free Essay


...Over the years, there have been so many societies that have collapsed. Jared Diamond, a scientist who studies societies and their declines, believes that a collapse results from environmental damage, climate change, hostile neighbors, friendly trade partners, or a societies response to the their problems (11). Diamond wrote about many societies in his engrossing book Collapse, but out of them all, the Greenland Norse seems to be the one that supports his ideas and opinions the most. The Greenland Norse was a landscape where Vikings settled, but unfortunately their civilization came to an end after being severely damaged. As Jared Diamond would say "collapse isn't inevitable but depends on a society's choices" (21). This shows that the actions of the colonist that settled in Greenland were the main prospect of its end. Overall the collapse of Greenland Norse is instructive because it declined from deforestation and soil erosion, colder climates, military issues with their neighbors, cut-off trade with Europe, and their inability to adopt useful methods from their surrounding societies; these problems fall into all of Jared Diamonds factors in his five point framework impeccably proving his theory. Firstly, the Norse caused ecological downfall by all the reckless logging and farming they did, which resulted in soil erosion and deforestation. Due to this, the settlers lost lumber, firewood, and iron (Diamond 250). Lumber and firewood were scarce because there was no trees......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...COLLAPSE ------------------------------------------------- Top of Form In today’s society in America there are groups of people who hate to see corporations make large profits while their employee’s struggle and people are homeless, starving, and without decent medical attention. Karl Marx developed conflict theory or class conflict.  Functional analysis or the idea that pieces and parts come together as a whole to make up the society is similar to conflict theory in the sense that you can say the CEO of a company’s part in society is to be in charge and run the company. The same CEO in conflict theory says that he makes too much money and is bad to society.  Conflict theory and functional analysis differ in that functional analysis is that for a society to work well, each part of the society must all work like a well-oiled machine. When one part fails, like on a car, tires specifically, you can get into car accidents and people get hurt. In conflict theory, if the CEO fails, they can be replaced, if a worker fails, they can be replaced. A third theoretical perspective called symbolic interactionism “is that symbols-things to which we attach meaning-are the key to understanding how we view and communicate with one another.” (Henslin 23) This makes the most sense to understanding society because it doesn’t put specific bias towards a position such as a CEO or an employee.  Individuals choose objects they place value in and then interact with these objects based on the......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


... Collapse University Course Professor’s Name Date of Submission Collapse Turnaround is a state that helps a company or an organization to recover financially that has been performing poorly for a longer period. An example of a company which has once experienced turnaround is The Spring leaf Holdings based in Evansville Indiana. The company deals with credit insurance and consumer lending. The company reported a loss of $1.3 billion during the 2007-2012 global financial crises. The turnaround came in 2013 whereby the company had to strategize on the right direction. It closed over 500 local branches and was forced to retrench 500 positions that included 140 of their Evansville headquarter employees. The company also continued to grow receivables per branch and reached that objective in the financial year 2014.That helped the company to drive Core Earnings up 42% from the previous 2013 financial year. Through gradual improvement, the turnaround was effective, and it improved the company’s profitability by 22 percent in 2014 financial year (Gilson, 2010). Some changes and developments are currently taking place in the field of HR management. HR policy is being defined and implemented to strengthen the performance of the company and develop the skills of employees to hasten its recovery. The purpose of implementing the policy of the HR is to prevent the company from collapsing. Managerial culture is being developed to put in place annual performance reviews, a training program......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Collapse

...“The Collapse” Mark Beasley (30 March 2010) Extract: Bill Wrinkle had it all; he was the leader of one of the most powerful financial institutions in the world, he had the respect (and some might say fear) of his rivals and colleagues and he had the beautiful wife and house. Bill had come from the tough streets of New York armed only with what many competitors called “cunning street smarts” and a propensity to bully and intimidate. He was lauded by the press as a pioneer in the “new economy” expanding his company into new exotic financial products and business lines as well as moving his firm into geographic locations not entered by foreigners before. However, that was all about to change as his life’s work began to crumble and fall all around him in the autumn of 2008. His days of enormous risk-taking and swaggering bravado was about to lead him and some 50,000 employees down a precipitous path to eventual destruction. “How had it come to this?” It was an unseasonably warm evening on the 5th of September 2008 when the lights of Bill Wrinkle’s midnight blue Mercedes lit up the forecourt of his expansive Greenwich, Connecticut home. Of all the palatial mansions that lined the treehugged streets of this part of the world, Bills was by far the most spectacular – a 12 bedroom oasis with tennis court, indoor squash court (which the talented player used almost daily), a 50metre infinity pool, and, enough land to host some of the more grander social gatherings of New......

Words: 4999 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

The Collapse of Enron

...The Collapse of Enron Who were the stakeholders involved in, or affected by, the collapse of Enron? How and what degree were they hurt or helped by the actions of Enron management? Some of the stakeholders were directly responsible for Enron’s collapse. The deregulation of the 1980s presented an opportunity to become the “gas bank” reducing market risk. After this success Kenneth Lay, Jeffrey Skilling and Andrew Fallow became the market makers, buying and selling over 1,800 products. These top executives’ unethical practices and their internal control system manipulated the law to keep the company’s reputation but were responsible for the collapse. After the collapse the management continued to lie to employees who invested in Enron stock; the rest of shareholders thought that the company was in great shape. The accounting records and balance sheets information were manipulated to reflect an image of success prior to the collapse to attract and mislead investors, the public and shareholders. Andersen’s accounting consultants responsible for Enron’s accounting records destroyed thousands of documents to manipulate such information. This misleading information allowed Enron to acquire the loans necessary to expand its investment even when the company had a huge debt. After the collapse those banks were sued by shareholders and investors for the bad loans written up. At the end of Enron’s collapse, the employees who invested in the company, investors and stockholders were...

Words: 1122 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Ussr and Us

...overty.   The collapse of the Soviet Union. The breakdown of the Soviet Union, while a long time  coming, was swift and unexpected when it came. Between 1989 and 1991, the Soviet  Empire completely unraveled, and the cold war ended.  • • • • Please answer these for the day of the test: five points each    1. Nikita Khrushchev predicted that eventually people “will give their preference to the  truly free world of communism and turn their back on the so‐called `free world’ of  capitalism.”  What was his definition of “free”?  Could it be argued that in the cold war  the Americans and Soviets ensured that no one was truly free?    2. Discuss the origins of the cold war.  What were the fundamental differences between the  Soviet Union and the United States?  Examine the contrasting ideologies of the  superpowers.    3. Examine the political and social philosophy of Mikhail Gorbachev.  How did he try to  bring about changes in the Soviet Union?  Did he go too far and too fast?  Why do you  think he doesn’t get the credit he deserves?    4. Examine the situations in Korea and Cuba in relation to the cold war competition  between the Soviet Union and the United States.  Who, if anyone, was victorious in these  confrontations?  Compare and contrast the American experiences in Vietnam to that of the Soviet Union  in Afghanistan.  What was the lesson each superpower learned?    Examine the role played by Eastern Europe in the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet ...

Words: 2416 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Some Causes for Collapse of Communism

...Which did more to cause the collapse of the Soviet Communism by 1991, developments inside or outside the USSR? 1991 marks the end of Soviet Communism. Leading to 1991, USSR started to lose support from the Eastern European as USSR was in a situation that provided them with undesirable economic situations, low living standards, political instability and lack of freedom. As a whole, the cause for these situations, thereby leading to the fall of Soviet Communism, can be categorized in two main reasons – developments inside of USSR, and developments outside the USSR. While the external developments such as role of Ronald Reagan & his policies, the Pope’s involvement, rise of non communist movements in Eastern Europe and price of oil and effects on USSR did played a significant role in breaking the Soviet Communism, it is still undeniable that the internal developments, mainly the USSR leaders’ (Brezhnev and Gorbachev) policies, made larger and more tangible impacts that raises the resentment and opposition to Soviet domination, causing it to fall apart. The developments inside the USSR therefore did more to cause the collapse of the Soviet Communism. To begin with, one of the early causes of the fall of communism is due to the stagnation period under Brezhnev where economy did not improve, or rather, declined (which can be seen from USSR’s continuous importing of grain from US). This stagnation was due to expanded military and neglected domestic economy. As a whole, this......

Words: 1718 - Pages: 7