Premium Essay

Cognitive Personality

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By rebecca0711
Words 3109
Pages 13
Cognitive Personality Approach
Introduction
Psychology definition is the study of the human mind and human behaviors. It is an theoretical discipline and is applied science in which seeks the understanding of individuals and groups by establishing overall principles, along with researching specific form of cases. There are many different approaches to psychology such as humanist, behavioral, and cognitive. One must understand the cognitive approach before truly understand the cognitive personality approach.
Cognitive psychology “is the scientific investigation of human cognition, that is, all our mental abilities – perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, reasoning, and understanding”(Lu & Dosher, 2007, p. 1). As the term ‘cognition’ comes from the Latin word “cognoscere”. Cognitive psychology is the study in which how people obtain and apply knowledge or information to their everyday lives. It is a modern form that includes a set of new technologies in the field of psychological science. The study of human cognitive is traced back to Aristotle De Memoria in Hothersall in 1984. The overall concept of cognitive psychology began with the cognitive approaches to psychological issues in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s with the work of Wundt, Cattell, and William James. It claimed the first half of the approach during the 20th century with the behaviorism approach in cognitive psychology.
Within this dissertation it will be covering different aspects of cognitive personality approach. Allowing better understanding of the cognitive personality approach; the areas in which will be outlined in this dissertation are: the theoretical perspective of cognitive approach, theorists who have contributed to cognitive approach, the compare and contrast between two theorists perspectives on cognitive approach, identifying and describing the measurements and assessment…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Personalities

...Chapter two titled Theories of Personality, discusses the theories of personalities effectively and in depth. Introduced was the structure and development of personality. The four major theoretical perspectives were explained, which includes psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and biological perspectives. These four approaches help to explain behavior at all levels. The Structure of Personality and the defense mechanisms of Sigmund Freud, as well as the Conditioned Reflex by Ivan Pavlov and Albert Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory, have led me to many questions, but also have led to a greater understanding about how everyone differs in personality and why we humans, are the way we are. Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality is a crucial aspect of psychology and stems from his work with mental patients, by doing this, Freud developed his ideas about the psychoanalytic theory on the basis of which he stated that the personality has three structures; the id, ego and super ego. Freud stated that the id is the unconscious part of personality which has no actual contact with reality. Stated on page 36 of Psychology Applied to Modern Life, the id houses biological urges to eat sleep defecate, and copulate. At first I did not completely understand what this meant to one’s personality, but as the explanation continues, the text states that the id demands immediate gratification. This then made sense in my mind, because we as humans ‘need’ to do these things before we can......

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cognitive

...Discuss the impact of chronic medical conditions on adolescents (12-18yo) and identify ways of promoting resilience or positive development (1300 min-1500 max words). A chronic or long-term illness results in major physical and psychological changes to the individual. The illness requires them to adjust to the burdens of the therapy implicated to treat the condition. There are multiple emotional, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors that are stressed during the ongoing illness that hinders the individuals ability to develop and function healthily within Sigmund Freuds psychodynamic structure. Additional theories according to B.F Skinner, Mccrae & Costa and Carl Rogers compliment the idea that chronic illness will impact the individual’s ability to keep a positive self-esteem and develop socially and autonomously through adolescents. We will look into the specific factors that are impacted by chronic illness’, how exactly they relate to the responses of adolescent individual, how it affects their relationships with families and medical staff, and identify ways in which we can promote positive development despite the burden of a wide range of chronic illness’. For Adolescents and young adults, gaining autonomy is essential which is imposed while enduring management of a chronic illness. Obviously with illness’ such as cancer, Sickle cell disease, Cystic Fibrosis and asthma; the vulnerability involved with daily activities directly affect ones confidence in......

Words: 1753 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Danielle Taliaferro PSY 211 June 5, 2013 Andrea Mc Lellan, MA, MFT Personality The study of personality is one of the major topics of interest within psychology. Each of us, as human beings, influences much that is within us and around us. Each person has many psychological attributes; feelings, thoughts and motivations. It is our personality that orchestrates our psychological qualities. Some individuals cannot help but wonder how the personality works, how it came to be and what it might mean for their future. Some also wonder about the personalities of others; how they are the same or different from them. Although these questions are intriguing, the question that must be answered first is the most basic: “What is personality?” Personality encompasses the many characteristics that arise from within an individual. It is what makes an individual unique. Researchers have developed four different perspectives on personality. Each of these perspectives attempts to describe different patterns in personality, including how these patters form and how people differ on an individual level. Psychoanalytic Perspective emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind. This perspective was created by psychiatrist Sigmund Freud who believed that things hidden in the unconscious could be revealed in a number of different ways, including through dreams, free association and slips of the tongue. Freud’s work shaped the fields of......

Words: 1559 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Casey Hyndman PSY/211 January 21, 2014 Mr. Jerry Mote Personality Personality refers to the total behavior of the individual, but particularly to the relatively enduring and consistent aspect of our personality. Personality is a very vast term, it encompasses a number of factors like - The way you look; The way you dress; The way you talk; The way your listen; The way you act; Your habits; Your philosophy of life; Your versatility; Your willingness to help other etc. Personality defines a person, it makes a person and some people have good personalities and some have bad ones. There are four different perspectives to a personality. First we will look at the Psychoanalytic Perspective. Psychoanalytic Perspective emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind. For example, Michelle was adopted into a loving family when she was five.  However, for years she displayed aggressive behavior towards her adoptive parents and siblings, even though they were incredibly kind to her. The adoption specialists advised the family not to take Michelle’s behavior personally, explaining that her anger was really directed at her birth parents and former foster families for the way she had been treated.  The second perspective is the humanistic perspective and it focuses on psychological growth, free will and personal awareness. For example, a person feels like his or her life is bland and boring. A humanistic perspective would encourage the......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Kristen Lewis PSY/211 April 8, 2014 Dr. Diane H. Taylor Personality The definition of personality is a persons unique and relatively consistent pattern of thinking. There are several factors that play roles in a persons personality the culture they are raised along with the environment also DNA plays an important role. Even though, there are many different theories of personality key influences from many different psychologist play a role in the theories on personality and also the brain structure of personality. The amount of personality theories that are out there is a large number but the number that is normally used is the basic four perspectives. The first perspective is the psychoanalytic perspective that emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. Also there is the humanistic perspective that represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a persons unique potential. The third is the social cognitive perspective this emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self-regulation. Lastly is the trait perspective that emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals. (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2014) Personality development theories are based on the basic four as discussed earlier. The Differences amongst the four are great....

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Our personality requires a mix of characteristic patterns of thinking, feelings and actions. There are four perspectives of personality, and they are psychoanalytical, trait, humanistic and social-cognitive. There are three theories I will describe and compare about personality development. We assess personality through two types of test but with every test comes benefits and issues. The four perspectives of personality attempt to describe different patterns in personality. The psychoanalytical perspective of personality was created by Sigmund Freud. The perspective emphasizes the importance of early childhood familiarity and the unconscious mind. There is some theorist who disagree with some of the aspects of Sigmund Freud theories, but agree with the importance of the unconscious mind. The rest of the theorist have different opinions when it come to the psychoanalytical perspective but share a common understanding that makes up this theory. The trait perspective of personality has a few major theorist that came up with this perspective. The perspective is centered on classifying, describing and assessing the specific traits that makeup human personality. The theorist believes that by understanding these traits they could understand the differences between people. They came up with the dimensions of personality and the personal traits that can measure the difference in personality. These things are the main reason that this perspective is today. The......

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality

...The word “personality” is comes from the Latin word persona meaning mask (B. R Hergenhahn, 2007). Personality has been defined and explained in different ways by various persons hence several theories of personality exists, each highlighting different aspects of human nature that theorist is the most important determinants of one’s personality. Personality refers to those characteristics of a person that accounts for consistent patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving (Lawrence A. Pervin, 2005). Due to the multifaceted nature of human beings, no one paradigm or theory can be said to perfectly or correctly explain personality each may focus on particular aspects and neglect other aspects. All the theories however, agree one thing; that people differ from each other as is the case with Natasha and her brother Akeem. This essay examines Natasha’s personality in light of Social Cognitive theory (STC) as posited by Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel, and the Existential theory of Carl Rogers. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) has its roots in learning theory emphasizing the social origins of behavior, and the importance of cognitive thought processes, in all aspects of human functioning (Pervin & John, 2001). SCT is founded on the thought that humans learn what they observe, whether it be from the consequences of our behaviors or that of others; via direct or vicarious reinforcement or punishment. (B. R Hergenhahn, 2007) The theory identifies human behavior as an......

Words: 3399 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Cognitive

...Cognitive Dissonance Anna Parks PSY/400 10-13-14 Mrs. Bunke Cognitive Dissonance People can display themselves outwardly in a certain manner although on the inside be completely different. A person’s attitude and behavior can influence each other; a person’s surrounds will also have an impact on how the person is. An example of this can be seen in a person committing a crime such as shoplifting, the person knows this is illegal and not moral but in the right situation the person may forget his or her moral upbringing and commit the crime any way. Influences on the individual can be overpowering, causing the person to behave or act in an attitude different from the person’s normal action and behavior. People tend to suffer from moral hypocrisy, as most people are moral hypocrites. A person who is morally corrupt should not think that he or she can change his or her behavior, when he or she cannot change his or her own attitude. Shoplifting is a crime, but under the right influence a person may be tempted to commit such a crime, moral hypocrisy is one reason a person would act differently than expected, cognitive dissonance is another factor that may persuade the person to forget his or her upbringing. A young woman, Carla, walks into a department store. She has many thoughts going through her mind. She is thinking about the items that she wants but cannot afford on her own because she is not quite old enough for a job and her parents will not buy her the outfit she......

Words: 1722 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Paper Michelle Rine Luna Essentials of Psychology PSY/211 July 9, 2014 Dr. Pierre Edvrard Pharel While people are growing up, they begin to change throughout each different chapter of their lives. This is known as developmental psychology. Some developmental phases would be, prenatal development, development during infancy and childhood and adolescent development. During these phases, something that becomes more pronounced is a person's personality. Personality is known as a unique and relatively consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving. When researchers began to study personality they came up with different perspectives or personality theories, which are attempts to describe and explain the way people feel, think and behave. These perspectives are better known as psychoanalytic, humanistic, social-cognitive and trait perspective. First of all, personality grows while humans begin to grow. Through life experiences and phases the individual is molded. The first phase of life would be the prenatal, which is when a baby is being created inside the womb. This phase is divided into three stages: germinal, the first two weeks, embryonic, begins on week three until week eight and lastly, fetal, which is from week nine until birth. After this phase comes development during infancy and childhood. By this time a baby gains certain reflexes that are triggered, like, for example, when a baby is hungry. Also during this time, the child is developing......

Words: 1171 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Many people hear that they may not get along with someone based on their personality. Sometimes people are “too much” or “not all there,” hence why they are not friends with another person. But there is more to it than just liking or not liking a person. Personality breaks down into characteristics of behavior. There are four basic perspectives of personality: Psychoanalytic, humanistic, trait and social cognitive. Psychoanalytic perspective is Freud’s theory that personality is influenced by childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations. The “Freudian slip” is very common or is at least heard of when things are said by mistake. For example, when an individual says something sexual instead of the actual item they meant. The unconscious are the thoughts and feelings that are outside of awareness. The humanistic perspective is a theory that personality is influenced by the want to be the best person we want to be. Just like plants grow towards the sun, the humanistic perspective emphasizes growth, potential and self-actualization. Trait perspective reflects that someone’s personality has stable characteristics of behavior. It is normal for most individuals to describe someone based on their personality, or use someone’s traits to describe them. A trait could be someone being an extrovert, introvert, open with their feelings or affection, conscientious, etc. While social cognitive perspective is a mix of traits, thoughts and environment that influence......

Words: 316 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Paper Robbin Nehls PSY/211 September 25, 2014 Mark Ammer Four perspectives of personalities are the, psychoanalytic perspective, the humanistic perspective, the social cognitive perspective, and the trait perspective. The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the most importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. It is theory of personality that stresses the influence of unconscious mental processes, the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts, and the enduring effects of early childhood experience on personality. The term unconscious is used to describe thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness. The humanistic perspective emphasizes free will, self-awareness, and psychological growth. A view of personality that emphasizes human potential and such a uniquely human charactistics as self-awareness and free will (Cain, 2002). Humanistic psychologists also differed from psychologists theorists by their focus on the healthy personality rather than on psychologically troubled people. The humanistic psychologists believe that people are motivated by the need to grow psychologically, they contended that he most important factor in personality is the individual’s conscious, subjective perception of his or her self ( Purkey and Stanley, 2002). Three areas of personality development can be the psychosexual stages, the social cognitive perspective, and the trait......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Assessment Paper Chelsea Johnson Psy/203 7/27/2015 Stacie Flynn Personality assessment paper The results from the personality assessment I received were somewhat accurate /inaccurate to me. I am the type of person who like to sometimes sit back and observe things that is going on around me some times. Especially if I don’t know everyone in the room or if I’m new to something like a job or people. When it comes to work I will push myself to work hard and everything has to be perfectionist to me! I received a 4.3 in neuroticism, I am the type of person who don’t handle negativity that well and I will lash out and let my emotions get the best of me. For example (Me and my uncle had a big falling out over how he talks to woman and don’t treat no body with respect but he want to be respected all the time. I feel like why respect some who is disrespectful to any and everybody. Carl Jung developed the concept of introverts and extroverts. Introverts are people who tend to be preoccupied with......

Words: 816 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personality

...theories of personality were dispositional theories - personality made up of various behavioral tendencies, dispositions, or temperaments. Traits present specific ideas about a person’s disposition (the way a person is likely to behave across situations as well as over time). Human behavior and personality traits are placed on a range or organized into a hierarchy. The personality characteristics credited by the dispositional theory are constant such that changes in the environment and occurrence of unexpected do not trigger any modification. The innate traits have been prevalent and present in the individual for long such that at any given situation, they are always in a position to react effectively. As a result, individual’s personality has been equated to dispositional traits as the person has been consistently portraying these traits ever since the early years.  Explain how dispositional theories influence interpersonal relationships. People, have been said to be a work source greatest resource, despite this age old comment some individuals within managerial positions have a tendency to forget this. The influence of dispositional theory on interpersonal relationships can clearly be seen within the work place, especially in avenues such as the perception shared between workers and managers, a workers social identity and finally with trust and cooperation. The importance of dispositional characteristics is “reinforced by ‘Followers’ personality......

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality is a set of psychological attributes of an individual that defines and determines their behavioural patterns. It is mostly a combination of all human attributes which are behavioural, mental, emotional, temperamental etc; i.e. this means that every individual has a set of core traits that are exhibited in certain situations, and this determines the behaviour of the individual. Every person’s behaviour is a product of their personality and this is what differentiates the individual from others. Many scholars have studied personality on an individual bases and therefore devised theories that has helped us understand different personalities. Personality traits are those patterns of behaviour that people display normally. These traits can be noticed in terms of thoughts, emotions etc; and they are constant in every individual which makes them different from every other person. Research conducted on personality has given birth to numerous theories which try to explain the come about of personality traits. The way we act and carry out our different tasks are determined by characteristics of our personality. The reasons behind our behaviour in different ways can be explained with some theories e.g. the nature personality theory which states that we act the way we do due to characteristics inherited genetically. Also there is the nurture theory that states that we behave the way we do because of the environment we find our self in. i.e. these are traits we adopt......

Words: 2867 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality includes those stable psychological characteristics that define each human being as unique. Both children and adults have personality traits (long-term characteristics, such as temperament) and states (changeable characteristics, such as moodiness). While a variety of explanations are possible, most experts agree that whatever the causes, an individual's personality is solidly established by the end of early childhood. According to Freud, the second year of childhood is the anal stage of psychosexual development, when parents face many new challenges while toilet training their children. Fixations at this stage may give rise to characteristic personality traits that fully emerge in adulthood. These personality traits include anal retention (excessive neatness, organization, and withholding) or anal expulsion (messiness and altruism). Personality theorists after Freud have attempted to explain early childhood personality development. Learning theorists claim that personality develops as a result of classical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov's learning by association), operant conditioning (B. F. Skinner's learning by reinforcement and punishment), and observational learning (Albert Bandura's learning by imitation). This latter category involves identification, or internalization, whereby children observe and adopt the values, ideas, and standards of their significant others. Cognitive psychologists speculate that personality arises, in part, from the attitudes and......

Words: 270 - Pages: 2