Classification Tests for Hydroxyl- and Carbonyl-Containing Compounds

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Classification Tests for Hydroxyl- and Carbonyl-containing Compounds
Miguel, K.D., Moron, R.S.S., Pazon, A.D., Ramirez, C.V., Raquepo, T.M.R., Razon, D.N.A.Jr.
2B-PH, Group No. 6, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Santo Tomas, España Boulevard, 1015 Manila, Philippines

Abstract
In organic chemistry it is very common to see molecules comprised mainly of a carbon backbone with functional groups attached to the chain. The functional group gives the molecule its properties, regardless of what molecule contains it.[1] Examples of functional groups are that of hydroxyl (-OH) which is usually seen in alcohols, and carbonyl (C=0) which is seen in aldehydes and ketones. In this experiment, several tests were conducted to distinguish and differentiate various sample compounds such as ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, n-butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, acetone, acetophenone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetaldehyde. The tests are the following: solubility test of alcohols in water, which gave a soluble result in ethanol, sec-butyl alcohol and tert-butyl alcohol. Next is the Lucas test, which is used to differentiate 1°, 2° & 3° alcohols. In Lucas test, tert-butyl alcohol gave an immediate turbid result; the rate of reaction was noted. Chromic Acid test (Jones Oxidation) which gave a positive result by producing a blue-green solution with the sample n-butyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and isopropyl alcohol. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone (2,4-DNP) was used to detect presence of carbonyl groups. In this test, only acetophenone gave a red-orange precipitate. The tests to identify between aldehydes and ketones are Fehling’s test and Tollen’s Silver Mirror test. In Fehling’s test, it gave a brick-red precipitate in n-butyraldehyde and benzaldehyde; while in the Tollen’s Silver Mirror test it produced silver…...

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