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Child Day Care

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Shamshad
Words 4495
Pages 18
| DAY CARE CENTERS | | | | |

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Table of Contents Executive Summary 2 Introduction: 2 Thesis Statement: 4 Child Care Business 4 For-profit day care 5 Non-profit day care 5 Social Effects: 6 Developmental Skills: 7 Physical Skills: 8 Educational and Behavioral Effects: 8 Social problems and resolve: 9 Staff 9 Quality 10 Data 12 Pros and Cons Compared in Different Child Care Setup 16 Conclusion: 19 Works Cited 21

Executive Summary
Many of the children in America and other economically developed nations are taken care by individuals who are neither their legal guardians nor their school instructors. Such organizations play a very important role in the overall development of the child, firstly they allow the parents to earn money for child’s future or in case of a single parent it allows the opportunity of employment to the parent, secondly it also helps in the development of the children by intervening in his normal course of study in his early years of studies, this mostly helps the children who are differently abled. This report brings out what is good for the development of the children, what a child care is all about and what is the viability of such an institutions? The basic motive of this paper is to bring out the positive and negative aspects of child care centres. Here, we give an outline of the quantity of kids being taken as subjects for our study; portray hypothesis and proof about the private's way kid consideration advertise; and examine hypothesis and confirmation about government policies in the child care business sector. Our synopsis proposes that extra research is important to highlight the ways that administration projects and business furnished kid consideration interface with one another.
Introduction:
The life becomes difficult for families who have children. Fathers and mothers, both of whom are working, should work to support their children to have a good life. However, the big worries facing parents are where they can put their children. Is this place effective in improving their children’s skills and safe to save their children’s health? There are many places where parents can put their children. For example, they can bring babysitter to take care for their children or take them to the daycare. Indeed, the daycares have become popular among families. 60% of the children around the world go to the centers caring for children, such as daycares according to some studies (Loop, n.d, 1).
Nonetheless, according to many researches, the daycares should have good specifications, such as having teachers knowing well about children’s needs, such as how to improve their skills (Rabin, 2008, 8). This is important because the daycares have important impacts on the children in their behaviors and growth (Loop, n.d, 1). Some parents are worried about learning some bad action or words from other children. However, according to Peg Burchinal, if parents go to choose daycare for their children, they should observe how daycares’ staff deals with children (as cited inRabin, 2008, 13). As a result, daycares don’t only care for children until parents finish their jobs, but it has social, developmental, and educational and behavioral effects on the children.
With the very beginning of the entry of women in the field of work in 1960, there has been a marked growth in the child care sector and proportionate number of young people taking care of them. Similar is the case with Denmark, where most of the children spend their early years of life in such child care centres.
Currently there have been heated discussions about the quality of the day care facilities in the Denmark, particularly worried with the falling student – staff ratio in such institutions. Recent reports from SFI analyses various studies on the topic and brings out the qualitative report on this with guidelines. (Lauges, Katharina , & Sørensen, 2015)
Child care is the facility of providing care to a child for some specific time of the day, by the people who are not the legal guardians of the children or anyway near to their family or a part of their extended family. This is a service which is provided to the children mostly for the amount of time their parents are out for work. There are various names for this service in different parts of the world, such as child care in U.K. and Australia, crèche in Ireland and New Zealand, and day care in North America. (Erel, Yirmiya, & Oberman, 2000)

Thesis Statement:
This paper is going to examine the areas of development and other social as well as behavioral aspects of the day care centers that help in the social developmental and educational growth of the children being the early education centers.
Child Care Business
Child care services are an extension to the natural parenting, in forms of large and managed institutions. However most of the childcare is done by the parents themselves or with some makeshift arrangements with their families or relatives, sometimes with the help of nannies. We can take an example of Canada, where among two parent families in which at least one is working, 62% of parents prefer to handle the child on their own, 32% prefer other methods such as hiring nannies, or taking help of relatives, neighbors or friends, only 6.5% prefer to go for an official child care center. (Clemens, Emes, & Pelt, 2015)
For-profit day care
Family day care centers can be run by an individual out of his home. This can be a parent staying at home who is in search of some supplemental salary while taking care of their own children. There are various families who have now taken it as a profession and are earning profits through providing care to children along with their own kids. Government and local policies control the number and periods of kids permitted per family youngster care home. Family childcare may be less costly than focus based consideration as a result of the lower overhead in family childcare.
Revenue driven day care organizations frequently exist where the business sector is adequately expansive or there are government sponsorships. Exploration demonstrates that not-for-benefits are substantially more prone to create the brilliant situations in which kids flourish." Local governments, regularly regions, may work non-benefit day consideration focuses. For all suppliers, the biggest cost is work. Neighborhood enactment may direct the operation of day consideration focuses, influencing staffing necessities. In Canada, the workforce is dominatingly female (95%) and low paid, averaging just 60% of normal workforce wage. A few locales oblige permitting or affirmation.
Non-profit day care
Non-profit organizations in the field of child care services have an upper hand to the organizations who earn profit through this service in terms of earning monetary aids, especially if they are affiliated to some educational society or with some school having surplus space. Being associated with school provides an extra advantage of co-ordinated activities, and also provides a nodal point to parents with children of older school age.
Parents are primarily the legitimate proprietors of the non-benefit day cares and will routinely give counselling administrations in territories in which they are professionally qualified (for instance book-keeping, lawful guidance, or HR) for free. Non-benefits have favourable position in gathering monetary aids, as a great many people won't give to a revenue driven childcare association. Non-benefits, notwithstanding, are regularly restricted in size to a solitary area, as the guardian proprietors have no inspiration to oversee different areas where their kids are not present.
Social Effects:
First, the daycare can make changes on children’s social lives. Since the children were born, they have had strong bonds with their parents, and they have always seen that their parents are society. In the first year, when the most of the children go to their school, they begin crying and even don’t want to stay without their parents in the school because they haven’t faced social life alone. However, the daycare gives the children high level of social relationships (“Benefits”, n.d, 4).
For example, the children in daycare find themselves surrounded by many other children. In the beginning, they feel scared, but day after day they can make friends and also they have fun with them. They will also interact with their teacher and friends actively. Also, if the daycare has good specifications, it can help children who suffer from lacking in social communication to make many relationships with many different children from many varied areas (“Benefits”, n.d,4).
In addition to making good relationships with others, facing the real social life can be easy for the children. When the children attend daycare, they learn to integrate in groups and interact with other children (Loop, n.d, 2). They will learn how to talk with other people, and they can share their ideas with others easily. The communication with their friends in daycare can make them open when they are found with other people in one group. Clearly, children’s communication can be changed by attending daycare for a long time (“Children”, 2013, 5).Thus, daycare can give children good skills in social life.
Developmental Skills:
Not only can daycare build social skills, but also it contributes to improving the development skills in the children. Daycare can help children to learn language skills in the hours that children spend in the daycare. They will properly use different words being got from friends. Not only do they get their words from their friends, but also their teacher can teach them new words that use in different situations (Loop, n.d, 4).
For example, children may come from different environments or even speak other languages, and they use words that others don’t know. As a result, children can use words from other language or other culture and use them in their speech. Listening skills also improve in the children because of the daycare. When their teacher reads stories to them, she will get their attention, so that can help them in listening well and understanding what they listen. To improve the children’s language, the parents should look for a good daycare having programs that help in improvement the children’s language (Loop, n.d, 4).
Physical Skills: Likewise, daycare helps children improve their physical skills. It teaches them to use their body similarly to using their minds. For example, daycare helps children’s skills in controlling and using their hands in many ways, such as drawing and building shapes by hand (Loop, n.d, ¶5). Also, children in daycare have many outdoor activities. For instance, they can play soccer, race by bicycles, and swim in small pools (Loop, n.d, 5). These activities can improve good skills in the future, such as doing exercises. The more days in daycare can give children strong physical foundations.
Educational and Behavioral Effects: The important effect of the daycare is educational and behavioral effects. The children’s families’ education doesn’t have the strong impact like the education that children get from daycare (“Children”, 2013, 5). Even if the mother or the other siblings of the child are smart, they don’t completely affect their child’s education because they don’t have enough skills to know the needs of him in this age. The children can learn faster and easier when they are with other children. In the daycare, children learn about letters and numbers. Also, they learn about the colors and the names of the objects. This knowledge received by children from the daycare can be kept with them in later years of the school (Loop, n.d, 3). For example, children who attended daycare can like studying in their schools and find it interesting for them due to the fact that a lot of information is familiar to them, and they will feel confidence. Therefore, that can help them to pass all grades successfully. The preparing for school and getting several skills is one positive effect of daycare (Rabin, 2008, 4).
Social problems and resolve: Not only does daycare affect children’s education, but also it has impacts on their behavior. The behavior being acquired by children continues with them the length of their lives, so children should be taught ethical behavior at the hands of the good teachers. For instance, when there is problem between children, a good teacher knows when to let them solve their problem, and when to help in solving it (Broatch, n.d, 7). As a result, this method can help children to solve their problems by themselves. Also, if any child violates or insults his friend by words or actions, the teacher can kindly explain that this action is wrong (Broatch, n.d, 7). That leads children to learn respect for each other, and it can even reduce the aggression between children. Many effects shape the children’s lives even if they are small, and these effects are permanent for their entire lives (Rabin, 2008, 15).
Staff
Every child care provider spends the biggest chunk of his money on the staffing. According to a survey carried out in Canada by 1999 the industry had an average expenditure of 63% over the staff and had a total profit margin of 5.3%. (Doorways to Care, 2012) As this job is staff oriented only, hence very little or we could say marginal difference in the economy is visible among small and large organizations in this market.

Table 1 retrieved from: (Korjenevitch & Dunifon , 2010)
In Canada, the workforce is dominantly female (95%) and low paid, averaging just 60% of normal workforce wage. Numerous workers are at nearby the lowest pay permitted by law and are ordinarily paid by the hour instead of salaried. In the United States, "kid care laborer" is the fifth most female-overwhelmed occupation (95.5% female in 1999). (Weinberg, 2004)
Quality
A central issue in guaranteeing quality child care facility is the estimation of the funds available and expenditure. Modern analysts frequently see the controlled 'auxiliary quality' variables like the training level of guardians or youngster to staff proportions as determinants of tyke consideration quality as opposed to measures of it. (Blau, 1997) A child’s development is instead hypothesized to be affected by the more abstract ‘process quality’ measures. (Howes, et al., 2008)
A later estimation of the quality of the process of the child care in the Netherlands is being done inside of the Pre-Cool task, which concentrates on youngsters aged 2. Not at all like the past activities by NCKO, Pre-Cool gathers information on qualitative and quantitative nature of both day care focuses and playgroups, taking into account a more finish photo of the general nature of formal youngster consideration administrations in the Netherlands. For our investigation, the first set of this study gathered in 2010 and 2011 is utilized. The procedure quality is measured utilizing the CLASS (Classroom Assessment Scoring System) through numerous 20 to 30-point perceptions of classrooms. There are a few gatherings measured in an aggregate of 164 formal kid consideration administrations in the present set. Among these 164, 93 are playgroups and 70 are day consideration focuses. Every measurement is measured through various elements on a scale from 1 to 7. Estimations of 6 and 7 are thought to be high, the range in between 3 to 5 is normal and beneath 3 poor. (Akgündüz & Plantenga, 2012)
Table 2 shows the means and standard deviations for all the available process quality measures for day care centers and playgroups.

The mean measures in table 2 appear to be equal to or in some cases higher than those found for the United States, (Howes, et al., 2008) although this is not very encouraging given the concerns about the possible adverse effects on child development of using child care in the U.S. (Herbst & Teken, 2010)
Data
Aside from information on child care quality, the Pre-Cool dataset incorporates information on parents attributes of kids more than the age of 2, gathered from an overview survey sent to them. The child's determination care foundations are not totally irregular but rather will be fairly illustrative crosswise over locales. Kids were chosen in light of the playgroups and daycare facilities in focus. There is a few inclinations towards kids from minority foundations and playgroups to guarantee their adequate representation. The dataset on kids in day consideration focuses and playgroups is supplemented by a partner of kids who don't get care from a formal kid consideration administration or make utilization of child care benefits that are not watched for procedure quality. So, the full example is comprised of two subsamples; one complete and the other in part saw without procedure quality or kid improvement data. It is important that the information on youngsters in the in part watched subsample incorporate some missing qualities since it is taking into account the parental polls as opposed to focus studies. (Akgündüz & Plantenga, 2012)

Table 3 provides information on the sample make-up. We confine the investigation to parents who are right now dwelling with a partner. Choice making procedure for single folks is more compelled since one parent staying at home to deal with the kid is impossible. 77 youngsters go to both day care and playgroup in the full specimen, and for 34 of the 77 there is no child improvement or quality data.

The control variables of the subject are clear. Two larger amount instruction dolls, school and vocational training institutes (HBO), are utilized for both men and ladies. For ethnic foundation, marker variables are incorporated for Dutch moms, fathers, and families with both parents from the Netherlands a grandmas' nationality. Extra controls are included for family unit attributes like the quantity of more youthful and more established siblings and family income. Mother's wage is not counted or controlled for because of both multi-collinearity and endogeneity issues. Summary statistics of the dependent variables used in the analysis are shown in table 5. (Akgündüz & Plantenga, 2012)

Table 6 presents the results from a probit model for the use of formal child care services in the full sample.

The primary motivation behind the investigation in this area is to see whether all youngsters have admittance to comparable quality kid care. At the point when deciphering the outcomes inside of the two-layered Dutch youngster consideration framework, any contrasts between financial gatherings or ethnicities regarding the nature of consideration can be credited to two unique reasons. To start with, nature of consideration inside of the day consideration market or among playgroups may separate crosswise over financial gatherings because of contrasts in neighborhood’s, data levels or interest for excellent tyke care. Second, any impacts of lower financial or minority statuses may be the consequence of innately lower quality in accessible playgroups which are utilized all the more frequently by lower wage and minority bunches. (Akgündüz & Plantenga, 2012)
Pros and Cons Compared in Different Child Care Setup Child Care Type | Pros | Cons | Relative | * The care is relatively cheaper or consider free instead of paying an unknown baby sitter. * You can be assured that your child is being cared and loved by someone who really wants to care. * Developing with peer group helps to form family like bonds, increasing the emotional attachments of the child, which lasts for a lifetime. | * This could become a free service, but with some constraints. Your opinions about parenting may be ignored. * It becomes extremely difficult to maintain the cordial relationship when the employee is also a relative. * If any problem occurs due to this makeshift arrangement, it will also affect the relations with the person. | Home | * No need to make your child ready for the drop. * For the late sleepers, it is not necessary to wake early, as the option of leaving home once the nanny arrives stays open. * The care ratio is higher. * With fewer amounts of constraints you get the freedom to choose your own set of rules for the parenting of the child. * The child is less exposed to the germ environment of the children group activities, it can be considered as a negative as some early infections help to strengthen the immunity. | * No one to supervise the nanny while you are out at work. * The child will have lesser opportunities to mix and socialize with other persons. * Dependence on the care provider is the biggest problem, if the person quits abruptly or falls sick the whole arrangement falls in jeopardy. * Extra burden of running background checks on the care provider along with the social security schemes and insurance schemes. | Nanny | * No need to make up your kid in the morning, favourable rules and ratio of child care. * Nanny can be hired for an hourly basis if not needed for the whole period; this decreases the financial burden and also provides time with the kid. * Hiring a nanny or an Au Pair is definitely cheaper than sending the child to any day care centre. | * No supervision of the nanny, limited opportunity of socialization and need of a backup support in case the nanny falls sick or leaves the work. * The nanny may herself feel homesick as she is also another kid. * Loss of privacy with the presence of someone at your home all the time or most of the time. | Day Care | * Adequate staff to keep care of your child all the time. * Peer group study model is used for the development of the child. * Even if one of the staff is not available still the child can attend the care service. | * If the child falls sick a backup care is to be managed. * Adult to child ratio will fall as compared to a babysitter. * You’ll not be able to bend the day care rules with your own rules of parenting. | Family | * Least expensive. * Better socialization. * Homely environment. | * Supervised care. * Lower standards of licensing. * Backup required in certain cases. |
Conclusion:
To sum, the daycares have become important parts in families’ live especially working parents. Although many of the parents are worried about the effects of the daycare on their children, they can be more comfortable if they choose appropriate daycare. The daycare can also bring out several effects on their children. It will make them ready for a real life. Daycare can provide them the basic steps to deal with society. For example, children are able to make friends and communicate with other people. Also, it helps them in improving language and physical skills. When children go to the real world, they can read and listen well in early ages. They can also control their bodies and use them to improve their health.
In addition to social and developmental skills, they can acquire benefits in their education and behavior. They can be prepared for school with perfect knowledge. Daycare can help parents in amending their children’s behavior, and it teaches even those new excellent qualities. According to some studies, children in daycare can positively gain good relationships, increase their confidence, and also learn by pleasure (“Benefits”, n.m, 9).
Indeed, it is important that governments be strict with every daycare owner. They should regularly do inspection on the daycares to check whether they are appropriate for children. Daycares must be provided with teachers who studied about children to know what every age of the children needs. Also, daycares have to have the safer conditionsso that the children’s health is in good hands.
One of the most important decision which a parent has to make is the decision of when, where and how to send their child for the day care facility. As this article delineates, a few parents really have decisions in these matters, yet numerous others confront a predetermined number of alternatives that they can truly consider. In spite of the fact that analysts have depicted the childcare courses of action that outcome from parents kid care choices, shockingly little is thought about how these choices are made, the variables that undermine or bolster them, and the results they have for the crew.
This is especially upsetting when various samples exist of arrangements that could adequately secure family monetary prosperity while likewise guaranteeing that youthful youngsters are protected and all around supported. Illustrations incorporate giving family’s sufficient childcare appropriations that fuse motivations to buy higher-quality tyke consideration, giving family leaves that incorporate pay substitution, and focusing on open trusts to enhance the quality and solidness of accessible tyke consideration administrations.
Arrangements that genuinely help folks in their endeavors to settle on the best decisions they can for the consideration, security, and financial backing of their new born children and little children oblige total obligation. Our present reality obliges it—given that a large number of working folks with exceptionally youthful kids now utilize tyke mind consistently to tend to and secure their youngsters.

Works Cited
Akgündüz, Y. E., & Plantenga, J. (2012). Equal Access to High Quality Child Care in the Netherlands. Equal Access to Child Care: Providing Quality Early Years Education and Care to Disadvantaged Families. London: Utrecht University School of Economics (USE).
Blau, D. M. (1997). The Production of Quality in Child Care Centres. Journal of Human Resources, 354-387.
Clemens, J., Emes, J., & Pelt, D. N. (2015). Understanding the Increases in Education Spending in Public Schools in Canada. Fraser Institute.
Doorways to Care. (2012, January 22). Retrieved from Doorways to Care: http://www.doorwaystocare.ca/
Erel, O., Yirmiya, N., & Oberman, Y. (2000). In Maternal versus nonmaternal care and seven domains of children's development (pp. 727-47). Psychol Bull.
Herbst, C. M., & Teken, E. (2010). Child care subsidies and child development. Economics of Education Review, 618-638.
Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Pianta, R. C., Bryant , D., Early, D., & Clifford, R. (2008). Ready to learn? Children’s pre-academic achievement in pre-kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, pp. 27-50.
Korjenevitch, M., & Dunifon , R. (2010). Child Care Center Quality and Child Development . Cornell Cooperative Extension .
Lauges, L. L., Katharina , A., & Sørensen, H. (2015, 01). Danish Social Research. Retrieved from SFI - The Danish National Centre for Social Research: http://www.sfi.dk/daycare-15484.aspx
Weinberg, D. H. (2004). Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. U.S. Census Bureau.

Benefits of childcare and early learning. (n.d). Family and Child care Trust. Retrieved from http://www.daycaretrust.org.uk/pages/benefits-of-childcare-and-early-learning.html
Broatch, L. (n.d.). 10 good reasons your child should attend preschool. GreatSchools. Retrieved from http://www.greatschools.org/students/academic-skills/1113-why-preschool.gs
Children who go to daycare may benefit from a wider variety of social situations. (2013). ScienceDaily.
Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130830091739.htm
Loop, E. (n.d.). The impact of daycare centers on child development. Everyday Life. Retrieved from http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/impact-daycare-centers-child-development-2018.html
Rabin, R. (2008). A consensus about day care: quality counts. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/15/health/healthspecial2/15daycare.html?_r=0…...

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