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Change Management Models

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Submitted By ivanoris
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Organizations are increasingly in a business environment that is characterized by rapid change and increasing performance demands. As a result, organizations face the challenge of accomplishing two, often conflicting objectives: performing well and changing in order to adapt to their business environment. In most cases, the changes they make must be quick, skillfully executed and clearly targeted at implementing an effective business strategy. Change that occurs every few years as part of a special change effort is no longer adequate. It too often is late and disruptive. Change needs to be constant and rapid in order to allow organizations to move at the speed of business. The importance of change in today’s environment virtually guarantees that organizations with do not change will quickly become “corporate dinosaurs”, headed for extinction because they no longer fit the current environment (Lawler and Galbraith, 1994).
Change management models are methods by which the processes of change management are implemented. Change is the vein that keeps an organization alive and change management can make or break the organization. The models have been formulated as a result of the successful application of the methods described in them. I have done the research and I will explain the follows descriptive models:
Force Field Analysis-Kurt Lewin
Kubler-Ross Five Stage Model
Stephen Covey: 7 Habits Model
Kotter’s 8-Step Model

With descriptive models, the role of the Organizational Development practitioner is to illuminate “what is” for the client, and “what could be”. Within descriptive models, contingency theorists would argue that the Organizational Development practitioner facilitates change only, not focus. The client determines the direction of change and the Organizational Development practitioner helps the client get there.
Change management is usually guided by a strong change management model, a framework people can use to understand the process and what is expected of them. The way you go about managing a process of change is an important as the model you choose to guide the process and understand reactions.
If you are considering leading change your ability to communicate effectively and encourage people to accept changes is vital. You need to model positive attitudes towards change and reassure others. Learning how to go about change management is important. But it is even more important to be aware of your attitudes towards others and your attitude towards change.
Understanding your feelings and how these affect your reactions, and learning to manage these, gives you and others confidence in your ability as a leader of change.
What I have found is that other personal skills are important to the change management process, skills such as emotional intelligence, active listening and effective communication. These are some of the basic competencies that we need to lead change, and to cope with change in our own lives.

Central to the change management process in organizations is recognizing when change is needed. Further steps could include: deciding who need the changes (whole organization or one department), selecting a model or framework to guide the process, deciding who is responsible for implementing the changes and knowing your desire outcome.
Change Management Models
Force field analysis-Kurt Lewin
Kurt Lewin wrote “An issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces-those seeking to promote change (driving forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining forces).” Before change to happen the status quo, or equilibrium must be upset-either by adding conditions favorable to the change or by reducing resisting forces. What Kurt Lewin proposes is that whenever driving forces are stronger than restraining forces, the status quo or equilibrium will change. Lewin’s force field analysis is used to distinguish which factors within situation or organization drive a person towards or away a desired state, and which oppose the driving forces. These can be analyzed in order to inform decisions that will make change more acceptable. Forces are more that attitudes to change. Kurt Lewin was aware that there is a lot of emotion underlying people’s attitude to change. To understand what makes people resist or accept change we need to understand the values and experiences of that person or group.

Developing self awareness and emotional intelligence can help to understand these forces that work within us and others. It’s the behavior of others that will alert you to the presence of driving and restraining forces at work.
Kubler-Ross Five Stage Model The five stages of grief Kubler-Ross wrote about are: 1) Denial: is usually a temporary defense that gives us time to absorb news of change before moving on the other stages. It is the initial stage; we don’t want to believe that the change is happening. 2) Anger: when we realize that that change is real and will affect us our denial usually turns to anger. 3) Bargaining: this is a natural reaction of those who are dying. It’s an attempt to postpone what is inevitable. 4) Depression: when we realize that bargaining is not going to work the reality of the change sets in. 5) Acceptance: as people realize that fighting the change is not going to make it go away they move into a stage of acceptance. It is not a happy space, but rather a resigned attitude towards the change, and sense that they must get on with it.
Kubler-Ross said we cycle between these stages. One day you might feel acceptance and while getting coffee at work the next morning you hear news that throws you right back anger. This is normal.

Stephen Covey: 7 Habits Model Stephen covey says “Private Victory precedes Public Victory” which really means that we have to master ourselves before we can enjoy success outside of ourselves and with others. Habit number 7 is about doing the right things to maintain these habits and continue developing.
Habit 1: Be proactive Being proactive is more than just taking action. In this first habit Stephen covey tell us we are responsible for our reactions to people or events. We are Response-able and have response-ability because we have the ability to consciously choose how we respond to any situation. To help you develop proactivity Stephen covey introduces the concept of the circle of Concern and circle of influence. He says proactive people focus their time and energy in the circle of Influence where they work on things they can do something about.
Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind. This is essentially about planning so that we know where we are going all the time instead of being busy with day to day activities that actually take us nowhere. Taking the time to see the bigger picture, to plan where we are heading, leads to personal effectiveness. “Begin With The end in Mind” is based on the principle that all things are created twice. There’s a mental or first creation, and a physical or second creation to all things.

Habit 3: Put first things first This is the second creation, the physical creation. Stephen covey recommends identify what is important to do in order to keep you heading towards your destination, and then do them. It’s about managing our time and what we do in that time.
Habit 4: Think win/win This is the habit of always looking for a solution that benefits you and the other person or group. “Win/Win is a belief in the Third Alternative. It’s not your solution or my way; it’s a better way, a higher way”.
Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood This habit is about communicating with others. It’s about developing the habit of listening carefully and really understanding the other person before giving your thoughts.
Habit 6: Synergize This is about the power of effective relationships. As a result of the relationship that exists between people or groups the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts. We can achieve so much more when we engage in effective relationships with others than if we acted alone.
Habit 7: Sharpen the saw Habit 7 is about looking after you. You are the greatest asset you have and have to learn to take time to look after ourselves.

Kotter’s 8 – Step Model Kotter introduced his eight-step change process in his 1995 book, “Leading Change”.
Step One: Create Urgency For change to happen, it helps if the whole company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving.
Step Two: form a powerful Coalition Convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key people within your organization. Managing change is not enough you have to lead it.
Step Three: Create a Vision for Change A clear vision can help everyone understand why you are asking them to do something. When people see for themselves what you are trying to achieve, then the directives they are given tend to make more sense.
Step Four: Communicate the Vision What you do with your vision after you create it will determine your success. You need communicate it frequently and powerfully, and embed it within everything that you do.

Step Five: Remove Obstacles Put in place the structure for change, and continually check for barriers to it. Removing obstacles can empower the people you need to execute you vision, and it can help the change move forward.
Step Six: Create Short-term Wins Nothing motivates more than success. Give your company a taste of victory early in the change process. Within a short time frame, you will want to have results that your staff can see.
Step Seven: Build on the Change Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change.
Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in corporate Culture Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of your organization. Your culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind your vision must show in day to day work.
Personal Model
In my opinion the most useful way to think about the features of an organization interrelationship to organizational capability and core competencies is designing organizations that have structures, communication processes, and human resource management practices that

are designed to change, and that encourage organizations to continuously and rapidly change. In order to accomplish this personal Model could have four points:
It needs to define the kind of organizational performance that is need the types of organizational capabilities and competencies that are needed and how an organization intends to respond to its business environment.
That is how people are grouped together, who reports to whom, how tasks are assigned, and the nature of the jobs within the organization.
Management processes are the systems that an organization puts into place to help control, mange, inform, and direct its members’ behavior, both individually and collectively, so that they focus on the correct strategic actions.
Human resources: Individual performance is critical to an organization’s functioning effectively. In order to ensure it, organizations must have individuals with the right skills and knowledge who are motive to perform effectively.

Comparing models: The force field analysis integrates with Lewin’s three stage theory of change as you work towards unfreezing the existing equilibrium, moving towards the desired change, and then freezing the change at the new level so that a new equilibrium exists that resists further change.
I found that the Hubler-Ross model is just useful to identify and understand how other people are dealing with change. For me, it is too simplistic and don’t adequately describe the wide range of situations organizations experience during change. The Seven Habits Model has strong links to concepts of Emotional Intelligence and emphasizes the importance of self awareness before successful engagement with others. I think it Model is a powerful tool containing effective principles for leading change in organizations.
I like Kotter’ model, because when you plan carefully and build the proper foundation, implementing change can be much easier, and you will improve the chances of success. If you are too impatient, and if you expect too many results too soon, your plans for change are more likely to fail. I consider that my model helps leaders ensure that change initiatives are driven by a strategy, or a set of strategic business objectives. In addition, it dictates that all elements of an organization (structure, processes and human resources) are addressed and linked to the strategy.

Conclusions Models of change attempt to help leaders and managers understand change and guide their organizations through the process. The literature revels numerous models designed to clarify phases of change, individual acceptance rates, and steps for implementation. An effective diagnostic model allows identifying reliable data to help clients better understand their company’s strengths, deficiencies, and opportunities for improvement, to later articulate a targeted intervention and measurement strategy. To effectively improve organizational performance, as well as individual and group development, Organizational development (OD) practitioners must be knowledgeable of quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as, the different diagnosis models to choose the most appropriate, given the intervention’s objectives, resources, and organizational culture and context.
Organizational theorist and consultants have developed a wide variety of models identifying important organizational elements and their interrelationships. Each is predicated on a particular theory/theories or perspectives, and each intended to highlight and bring into focus a broad range of data and experience for purposes of diagnosis and intervention.
Most of the models suggest interaction or interrelationships among all the selected variables.
Many of same variables are contained in all models, although not necessarily in the same way or with same emphasis.

Each model leave out variable that another thought might include or emphasize.
Choosing the right change management model for you organization is an important part of the change process. The right model can make the difference between a transition that is smooth and easy and one that causes a great deal of strife and conflict within your organization. In general, you want to consider the needs of your organization and the other people you work with to determine what type of model or change system will work best for everyone involved. The best change management model is usually the one you can customize to fit your needs and addresses the specific concerns of the various people within your organization.…...

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