Case Study for Clinical Microbiology

In: Science

Submitted By hunterbowen
Words 857
Pages 4
Hunter Bowen

Clinical Practicum 3: Microbiology

Case Study Number 1:

1. What is the common term for “decubitis ulcer”? * Bedsores or pressure ulcers 2. What does the term “tachycardia” mean? * Abnormally fast resting heart beat, usually at least a 100 beats per minute 3. What does “hypokalemia” mean? * A condition of below normal levels of potassium in serum levels 4. What is the significance of the fact the larger decubitis on the left hip is necrotic and exuding pus? * Necrotic tissue is the ideal place for bacterial growth, which can greatly compromise the healing process for that wound. * Surgical excision of black necrotic tissue may be necessary to reduce infection and smell. Pain in a deep pressure sore is unusual and suggests pus under a necrotic slough, which can be painlessly excised without local anesthetic to release the pus. * Pus contains that person’s dead or dying white blood cells, and the fact that they there are in such abundance leads one to believe that they are indeed fighting an infection. 5. Does the fact numerous pus cells seen on the Gram stain support your conclusion? * Yes, there are many white blood cells (pus cells) to help fight of that person’s infection. 6. What type of white blood cells are “pus cells” usually, especially considering the fact that bacterium were also seen? * Pus is mostly made up of neutrophils 7. What microscopic morphtype on the Gram stain is consistent with a finding of Enterococcus faecalis on the culture results of the left hip decubitis? * The typical microscopic morphology of Enteroccoccus species is that of gram-positive cocci in chains that resemble streptococci. * Enterococcus species grow .5-1 mm gray white colonies, and may be alpha hemolytic or non-hemolytic, rarely are they…...

Similar Documents

Case Study

...Case Study Simon Olivarria Hum/114 March 28, 2012 Philip Reynolds Case Study Helen, in this case study, is a third year student at a leading University who was sexually harassed twice, by the same person. Her University has a policy which clearly states that any incident of alleged sexual harassment must be reported to the University so they can investigate, remedy, and resolve the problem. Helen did not want to report to her University that she was sexually harassed. Instead she disclosed her victimization to a clinical psychologist issued by her University. The clinical psychologists are employees of the University and bound by all of the University’s policies. At the same time, clients who are treated by these campus psychologists are also protected by a client-patient privilege of confidentiality. Should the clinical psychologists report the incident to the University? Helen chose to report her sexual harassment issue to a clinical psychologist issued by her University because she did not want to disclose this information to the University. Client-patient privilege of confidentiality is the principle that an institution or individual should not reveal information about their clients to a third party without the consent of the client or a clear legal reason. Even though the University’s policy says that all staff and students should report sexual harassment, students who consult these school psychologists should have their disclosures respected because it is......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Comorehensive Clinical Study

...Chapter I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Respiration is a vital process in the human body. The intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide are the primary functions of the respiratory system (Microsoft Encarta, 2009). Supporting this complex process is the nasopharynx which functions to remove the dust, microorganisms, and mucus that come with the air through the presence of cilia within its walls. Conditions that may damage or affect the structure of the nasopharynx have detrimental effects to people. Malignancies can also arise from this structure, the most common disease that afflicts the area. Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by the genetic mutation of the cellular DNA. A phenomenon known as metastasis occurs when these cells infiltrate the surrounding tissues and gain access to other areas of the body. The scope, responsibilities, and goals of cancer nursing are as diverse and complex as those of any nursing specialty (Smeltzer and Bare, 2004). The extensive physical, emotional, social, cultural and spiritual effects defeat the human spirit more than the actual source, more than the disease. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) of the US National Institutes of Health defines nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) as “a cancer that forms in tissues of the nasopharynx. It is believed that nearly all nasopharyngeal cancers are considered squamous cell carcinomas due to its identified origin in flat cells lining the......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

Case Study

...(Bopp, 1990). Functional quality, in contrast, relates to the manner of delivery of health-care services. Numerous studies have shown that provision of high-quality services is directly related to increase in profits, market share, and cost savings (Devlin and Dong, 1994). With competitive pressures and the increasing necessity to deliver patient satisfaction, the elements of quality control, quality of service, and effectiveness of medical treatment have become vitally important (Friedenberg, 1997). Although the published literature contains many references to quality and customer perceptions of the medical profession from a clinical perspective, very little research has been conducted into non-clinical aspects of the quality of medical care. Several studies have proposed that significant variation exists between patient expectation of treatment quality and the perceived service quality of the treatment received, and that this is due to a number of factors related to the service quality of the treatment delivered (Strasser et al., 1995; Butler et al, 1996; Kandampully, 1997). Despite the consensus that patient satisfaction in services is important for quality assurance in medical services and hospitals (Laslett, 1994), there is a dearth of empirical information on consumers’ acceptance of health-care practices. In particular, no comprehensive study of this subject has been conducted in Malaysia. Given the rapid changes in the Malaysian health-care......

Words: 2217 - Pages: 9

Clinical Case Study

...Decision Making Case Study Lauren Williams HCS 514 December 3, 2012 Making a decision is difficult on any level especially one that will affect an entire organization and impact the lives of many. As a manager it is imperative that options and outcomes are thoroughly processed before decisions are made. Unfortunately decision making does not always occur under ideal circumstances and managers often have limited time, resources, and information to make an impacting decision. Under such stressful and limited circumstances it is especially important to utilize all information available. Fortunately, for the managers making those altering decisions there are theories and guidelines to help. One such decision making resource developed by Thomas Rundall and associates is known as the Informed Decision Toolbox (IDT) and is intended to “[provide] tools to help managers effectively perform the six key steps in [the] evidence-informed approach to decision making” (Rundall, 2007, p. 325). This six step process puts emphasis on finding accurate, applicable, and adequate information that can be used to understand the decision that needs to be made. Application of the steps of the IDT when making a decision can have far reaching impacts throughout an organization past the decision itself to create an environment of accountability and access to knowledge that is consistently questioned and discussed. The most practical way to understand the tools within the IDT and how they all......

Words: 1498 - Pages: 6

Clinical Case Study: Combat Ptsd

...Madison Area Technical College Clinical Case Study: Combat PTSD Rachel Dillon Case Study project Abnormal Psychology Professor Dyszelski 24 April 2013 HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS A 30-year-old married, Caucasian female, who served three tours of duty in Iraq, presented to a Veteran’s Administration Medical Center in Madison, Wisconsin. On intake to primary care, she screened positive for PTSD and was referred for specialty services to the posttraumatic stress clinical team for experiencing traumatic symptoms over the duration of 1.5 years. The patient reported that her primary combat duties included driving fuel tankers in a convoy from base to base and performing guard duties to secure the perimeter of the base. In the context of that duty she reported being exposed to multiple life-threatening situations, witnessing dead and mutilated bodies, a near plane crash, daily mortar attacks on the base, making many split-second life-or-death decisions, and the loss of one of her soldiers. After returning to the United States she began to experience at least five distinct intrusive memories and nightmares from these combat experiences. She engaged in avoidance through attempted thought suppression, conversation redirecting, and alcohol abuse. She avoided crowds and social situations and began to fail out of college because she felt unable to focus on her academic duties as a result of her symptoms. She expressed severe nightmares/tremors and had an eradicated sleep......

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Clinical Microbiology Lab Final

... Clinical Microbiology Lab Final December 13, 2013 Table of content Gram Stain Technique……………………………………………………………………………………………… page 1 Culture Transfer Technique……………………………………………………………………………………… page 2 Acid-Fast Stain Technique………………………………………………………………………………………… page 3 The importance of the Gram Stain Technique to a physician……………………………………. page 4 The importance of varying shapes/colonies formation of bacteria……………………………. page 5 Spore Stain Technique………………………………………………………………………………………………. page 6 The Importance of incubation/protocol techniques…………………………………………………... page 7 The importance of various types of media for bacterial growth…………………………………. page 7 The importance of biochemical analysis in the microbial process……………………………… page 8 The importance of studying Clinical Microbiology and how the course will assist me in reaching my professional goals……………………….. page 9 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… page 10 Gram Stain Technique The Gram Stain is one of the most important differential stains used in bacteriology. (Cappuccino and Sherman, Microbiology A Laboratory Manual) Using the gram stain it is possible to determine purple gram-positive cells (S. aureus) from pink gram-negative cells (E. coli). The results of the Gram Stain make it possible to identify microorganisms by their shape, number and morphology. In a clinical setting these results can help in treatment by identifying the type of......

Words: 3500 - Pages: 14

Clinical Case of an Isolated Development Hypofibrinogenaemia

...2007;5(Suppl 1):125–131. 7. Sallah S, Wan HY, Hguyen NP, Hanrahan LR, Sigounas G. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors: Clinical and pathologic study. Thromob haemost. 2001;86:828–833. 8. Brennan S, Felowes A, Faed J, George P. Hypofibrinogenemia in an individual with 2 coding (γ82A→G and Bβ235P→ L) and 2 noncoding mutations. Blood. 2000;95:1709–1713. 9. Hirota-Kawadobora M, Ishikawa S, Fujihara N, et al. Analysis of hypofibrinogenemias found on routine coagulation tests and identification of heterozygous dysfibrinogenemia or fibrinogen deficiency. Rinsho Byori. 2007;55:989–995. 10. A. Van Hoof, A.Louwage, A.Criel, A.Z. St. Jan: Hypofibrinogenemia and acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/ J. Clin. Oncol 5:1492-1493, 1987. 11. Weltermnann A, Pabinger I, Geissler K, et al. Hypofibrinogenemia in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia. Incidence, clinical and laboratory characteristic and prognosis. Leukemia. 1998;12:1182–1186. 12. Cvetkovic Z, Cvetkovic B, Celeketic D, Libek V, Perunicic-Pekovic G: Paraneoplastic bleedeing disorder due to isolated hypofibrinogenemia: A case report / Hippokratia 2009, 13, 1:52-54. 13. Solano C, Lopez J, Gomez. N, Fernandez-Ranada J.M.: Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Hypofibrinogenemia with a low incidence of clinical is often found during induction therapy/ Blood 80:xxx 1992. 14. Ribiero R.C., Pui C.: The Clinical and biological correlates of coagulopathy in children with acute leukemia / J. Clin. Oncol. 4:1212-1218, 1986....

Words: 1350 - Pages: 6

Case for Case Studies

...A Case for Case Studies Margo A. Ihde Liberty University Author Note Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Margo A. Ihde, Psychology 255-B05, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Va. 24515. E-mail: A Case for Case Studies Case Studies are utilized across many disciplines including but not limited to medical science, political science, social science and psychology. There is however some confusion as it relates to the use of case studies. The first such confusion that must be clarified is what the definition of a case study is and what constitutes a case study. The second clarification is to identify the reasons for using a case study. A third area is outlining the advantages and disadvantages of using a case study. Lastly, when a researcher concludes a case study would be the best option they then must determine where and in what ways would the data and information be sourced. Identifying the answers for these four areas is imperative to understanding and utilizing a case study. Case Study – Defined The definition for a case study within all many disciplines is very similar. A case study is usually described as an investigation into a real situation involving an individual, a group, an organization, or a society focusing on a single subject or object (Pegram, 2000). To begin, identifying a case studies purpose would contribute to determining what would and should be investigated. The study could focus on the......

Words: 855 - Pages: 4

Case Studies

...SeAnna Brantley Microbiology Case Studies 1.1-1.8 Case 1.1 1. The fertility specialist recommended the rubella vaccine because if the rubella virus is contracted early in pregnancy there is an increased risk of miscarriage or birth defects such as deafness, cataracts, mental retardation, heart defects, liver and spleen damage. There are contraindications related to conceiving within four weeks of receiving the rubella vaccination because it is a “live” vaccine and could still cause complications. 2. In the United States it is recommended that children receive the first dose of the MMR (measles, mumps rubella) vaccination between 12-15 months (not earlier) and then to receive a second dose around 4-6 years of age. 3. The client’s description does not correlate with the rubella virus. Symptoms of the rubella infection typically only last 3 days and are often referred to as the “3 day measles”. 4. In order to check the immune status of the client the test would be checking for IgG antibodies. The absence of IgG rubella antibodies indicates that the person has likely not been exposed to the rubella virus or vaccine. IgG are also the only antibodies that can cross the placenta to protect the fetus. 5. To test for a current rubella infection using only the IgG antibody test the physician should order the initial IgG for a baseline and then perform the test again in 2-3 weeks to check if there was a significant increase (titer) present. An increase would indicate recent or......

Words: 1503 - Pages: 7

Clinical Reasoning Case Study #77 Endocrine Disorders

...Case study 76 Endocrine Disorders 1. Interpret Y.L.'s laboratory results • HbA1C is elevated at 8.8% and the goal for diabetics is to keep that value below 7% Hemoglobin A1c. Her number is concerning because it indicates that her blood sugar has been way too high over the past few months. The A1c is an indication of glycosylation in the body which is damaging to the blood vessels and peripheral nerves. It causes thickening of the basement membrane which will impair oxygen transport to the tissues and carbon dioxide removal. • High BP • Total Cholesterol is elevated at 256mg/dL, normal value is below 200mg/dL • Fasting glucose is high at 184mg/dL, normal value is below 126mg/dL • Triglycerides are elevated at 346 mg/dL, normal levels are below 150mg/dL. Y.L. indicates levels that are high. • LDL levels are elevated at 155mg/dL and ideal values are below 100mg/dL; LDL is the value you want to be the lowest. • HDL levels are low and the HDL levels need to be high, 40-60mg/dL is desired. • Urine Analysis indicates that Y.L. is spilling glucose into her urine. 2. Identify the three methods used to diagnose DM. - Fasting blood glucose of > 126 mg/dl - Random Glucose Level >200 mg/dl (plus presence of other symptoms) - A1C > 6.5% 3. Identify three functions of insulin. • regulates glucose metabolism • stimulates lipogenesis • stimulates growth 4. Describe the major pathophysiologic difference between type 1 and type 2 DM. • Type 1 diabetes,...

Words: 949 - Pages: 4

Case Study

...Running Head: Case Study 1 Case Study #1 Clinical Psychology: Severe Depression Princess Coles ABS 200 Introductions to Applied Behavioral Sciences Instructor Weniger 08/4/2015 Severe depression is one of the many mental illnesses that affect one out of ten Americans. Severe depression involves, extreme or constant feeling of sadness, loss of interest in activities and even relationships. Those suffering from depression might even struggle with the feeling of worthlessness and repeated thoughts of suicide. Therefore the effects are not only psychological but physical as well. According to Kessler author of Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States International Journal Of Methods In Psychiatric Research, (3), 169. About 17% of people are likely to experience some kind of depression at some point in their lives. I have chosen this topic of interest because it is important to help those suffering from depression understand that there is help and that with treatment they can lead a more positive way of thinking. Some mental health problems are caused by dysfunctional ‘ways of thinking’-either about self or the world (e.g. in major depression) and many anxiety disorders are characterized by a bias towards processing threatening or anxiety relevant information. Cognitive behavioral therapy is generally perceived as an evidence based and cost effective form of treatment that can...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Genitourinary Clinical Case

...Genitourinary Clinical Case Student’s Name Institution Genitourinary Clinical Case Genitourinary diseases or (STDs) are infections that are passed through sexual contacts with infected persons (Gross, 2011), they are also known as venereal diseases. Currently, there are more than twenty types of STDs. These are either caused by viruses, parasites or bacteria. Some of them are; Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Genital Herpes, HIV/AIDS, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis and HPV (Barlow, 2011). Most of these genitourinary diseases affect both genders, but they have been known to cause severe health problems in women than in men. For instance, if an expectant mother catches STDs, this can have serious health implications for the infant (Iannini, 2003). Genitourinary diseases that are caused by parasites or bacteria are treatable by use of antibiotics and other types of medicines. Those that are caused by viruses are untreatable; currently there is no cure for them (Markos, 2003). Drugs sometimes control STDs caused by viruses. Also correct and consistent use of latex condoms significantly reduces chances of contracting an STD even though they are not a hundred percent effective (Pattman, 2010). Initially, most genitourinary infections do not have symptoms. This fact poses a greater risk of infecting others. Some symptoms of these diseases might include; discharges both vaginal and penile, pelvic pain and pimple like ulcers around the genitals (Miller, 2003). In women, STIs......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Case Study

...After reviewing, the case study and identifying some indicators such as by having a more organized health care arrangement, where the organized system of the health care is covered with more than one participate. Where they would participate in more joint activities that will include quality assessment and improvement of activities, in which the treatments are provided by other participating entities on their behalf. A group health plan and the issuer of the insurance have the respect to the health plan but only with the respect to protect the health information that is either created or received by the health insurance that will relate to the individuals who are and who have been the participants of the group health plan. Clarity Medical is the developer of the solutions for monitoring for care and clinical operations. With the company’s experience in medical electronics in developing a high quality medical device that are used in fast growing industries. Another indicator is the lack of involvement, by being involved to the members of the public in decisions about health care services and policy. For example, the services for public involvement of individual patients, in making decisions about his or her own health care. Where public involvement ranges in giving the information to the public and in decision-making. Why is public involvement desirable? This is because of the types of involvement with the public services and they are paid for by the people and......

Words: 562 - Pages: 3

Case Study 1

...Case Study One Common Cause Rebecca is having a vaginal discharge for 3 days without other symptoms and significant clinical findings. According to previous study, approximately 75% women have vulvovaginal candidiasis at least once in their live, while 40-50% of them develop 2 or more than two episodes (1). Another common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge, bacterial vaginosis (BV), also have a considerably high prevalence (1). Since Rebecca was having unprotected vaginal sex with her male partner for 9-months, an un-safe sex preference must be considered in this situation. Which means, Rebecca is likely to have unprotected sex with her casual male partners (e.g. no condoms), and STIs must be considered. Trichomonas vaginalis is a common bacterial cause of abnormal vaginal discharge (1), also the commonest non-viral STI across the world (2), it should be considered in this case. Thus, three most likely conditions of Rebecca may be, * Bacterial vaginosis (BV) * Vulvovaginal candidiasis * Trichomoniasis Testing According to the Australian STI Management Guidelines and the STI Treatment Guideline (2010) provided by US CDC, the tests of each listed possible causes can be performed as, 1. BV a) Point of care tests Generally, BV can be diagnosed using gram stain microscopy and Amstel’s criteria (3,4,5). Direct observation of vaginal discharge (using speculum), vaginal pH test (using pH paper) and whiff test (using 10% KOH) need to be performed......

Words: 1269 - Pages: 6

Case Studies

...Microbiology Section #2 Case study 1: 1- Meningitis, since a gram-negative bacteria and phagocytic cell interaction mediated by complement receptor 3. Since bacteria are in side phagocytic cells, then chemical signals attract phagocytes to places where the pathogen has invaded the body. These chemicals may come from bacteria or from other phagocytes already present. The phagocytes move by a method called chemotaxis. When phagocytes come into contact with bacteria, the receptors on the phagocyte's surface will bind to them. This binding will lead to the engulfing of the bacteria by the phagocyte. 2- Meningitis is an infection of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. The infectious causes of meningitis include bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. mostly in this case the type of agent is bacterium. 3- The patient has not received any childhood vaccinations so, no disease-causing microorganism which is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins was injected in to her body. 4- Cerebrospinal fluid is contained in the ventricles of the brain that act as a shock absorber to protect the brain. The cloudiness on CSF was because of the white cells present and of course white cells do not belong in CSF. This indicates infection. Protein can also cause cloudiness.......

Words: 459 - Pages: 2