Free Essay

Carbon Sink

In: Science

Submitted By MPs243
Words 637
Pages 3
Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Sink

More than 40 percent of CO2emissions in the US are due to electric power generation. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and sequestration (CCS) technology could reduce these emissions from power plants by 80 to 90 percent. For example, if CCS technology was applied to a 500 MW coal-fired power plant, emitting 3 million tons of C02 per year, the amount of greenhouse gas emissions avoided is equal to:
• Planting more than 62 million trees, and waiting at least 10 years for them to grow
• Avoiding annual electricity-related emissions from more than 300,000 homes
CCS technology would also significantly reduce emissions from other industrial processes such as gas operations and cement facilities (EPA, 20xx).
The world has lost 50 to 70 percent of its original carbon stock. This translates into a huge amount of soil carbon released into the atmosphere. Not long ago, in the 19th century, the US was home to vast tracts of prairie grass with rich, fertile soils. Today only three percent of those prairies are in existence. Current studies on carbon sinks center on soil carbon, how it escaped from the earth and how this process can be reversed. To take the research further, investigators are interested in how this knowledge can be used to slow rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is a known cause global warming. There is hope that carbon can be placed back into the soil in places like the North China Plain, the interior of Australia and the North American prairie (Schwartz, 2014). Without important microbes and carbon, soil can deteriorate into dirt and this process of soil turning into dirt is happening worldwide. Certain agricultural processes can revive the carbon content while reducing atmospheric CO2. These same processes can protect delicate ecosystems from floods and drought while increasing soil productivity. Agroforestry and planting fields year round are viable techniques.
Carbon capture and sequestration complement traditional methods of reducing emissions. The US relies on fossil fuels for more than eighty-five percent of its energy with trillions of dollars spent on maintaining the energy infrastructure. Reducing CO2 emissions is a reasonable option as it allows the current energy system to stay in place so there can be a slow transitioning away from it. CO2 can be removed from the atmosphere by enhancing the uptake in soil and vegetation (afforestation) or in the ocean (iron fertilization). Another option is enhancing natural sinks; however this comes with possible political and social ramifications (international treaties). Emissions avoidance tends to rely on sequestration from large stationary sources and the process usually does not require international climate agreements.
CCS “is currently occurring at over 120 facilities in the United States … and the CO2 is used for a wide range of end uses. End uses of CO2 include enhanced oil recovery (EOR), food and beverage manufacturing, pulp and paper manufacturing, and metal fabrication (Carbon capture, 2016).”
In regards to carbon capture, researchers believe there is a need for a shift in the conversation around global warming, which traditionally has been focused on reducing emissions. Instead, the discussion should include a look at the role of soil carbon and carbon sinks. While reducing emissions is an important piece of the puzzle, soil carbon sequestration is another piece that deserves recognition. Placing carbon back into soils is a solution to the fossil fuel problem and has the added benefit of providing nutrient rich soil, vital in feeding global populations.

Biello, D. (2014, September 8). Can Carbon Capture Technology Be Part of the Climate
Solution? Retrieved from Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. (2016, February 23). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from Schwartz, J. D. (2014, March 4). Soil as carbon storehouse: New weapon in climate fight?…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Carbon Strategies

...Corporate Carbon Strategies Threats and opportunities arising from the new energy imperative Reference Code: BI00036-019 Publication Date: March 2011 1 About the authors Professor Merlin Stone Merlin is Head of Research at The Customer Framework. He is author or co-author of many articles and thirty books and also on the editorial advisory boards of several academic journals. He has a first class honors degree and doctorate in economics from Sussex University, UK. In parallel to his business career, he has also pursued a full academic career, holding senior posts at various universities. He is now a visiting professor at De Montfort, Oxford Brookes and Portsmouth Universities, teaches economics for the Open University and marketing for Exeter University. Jane Fae Ozimek The author is a writer and researcher in the areas of IT, Business and the Law. Jane is currently editor of the Journal of Database Marketing and has previously published works on the use of statistics in business and Marketing Resource Management. Recent research papers include publications on the misuse of security protocols by major corporations, and a re-evaluation of the Loyalty Ladder concept in marketing theory. Jane was also co-author of the recently published Carbon Trading and the Effect of the Copenhagen Agreement (published by Business Insights, 2010). 2 Disclaimer Copyright © 2011 Business Insights Ltd This report is published by Business Insights (the Publisher). This......

Words: 48747 - Pages: 195

Premium Essay

Carbon Cycle

...Name: Jiaxin Jiang Contemporary Environmental Issues Activity IV – Carbon in the Atmosphere Introduction In this activity, you will use a simulator to explore the carbon cycle and the ways in which humans impact it and how these impacts in turn may impact global climate. The objectives of this activity are as follows. 1. To identify the main components of the carbon cycle and how they interact 2. To identify how increased fossil fuel emissions impact the carbon cycle 3. To gain an understanding of how human factors impact atmospheric CO2 4. To identify the impacts of different inputs to the carbon cycle on atmospheric CO2 concentrations Directions Go to and complete the lessons below. If you are unsure of how to use the simulator or have questions about it at any time, click “Help” on the main page for the lab. Lesson 1. The Carbon Cycle 1. Read the Overview section, then click on The Carbon Cycle. a. Read through the information provided, then click Open Simulator. b. To familiarize yourself with this simulator and its components, click Help on the main page for the lab. Read through the information provided. c. Run the simulation to 2100 with the default settings, and, using the step 1 data table below, record the total carbon levels in each "sink" (terrestrial plants, soil, oil and gas, coal, surface ocean, and deep ocean) at 2050 and......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Carbon Uptake Variability

...Variability of carbon uptake in managed and un-managed forests 1. Background The role of both managed and un-managed forests are clear for the sequestration of human induced increment in carbon dioxide gas. About 1.476 million hectares of the forest area in central Europe as undisturbed forest (FOREST EUROPE, UNECE and FAO 2011) and 0.1 million hectares in Germany as unmanaged and mainly old-growth forests has been reported (NFI 2010 as cited in Krug et al. 2012). Meta-analysis of Luyssaert et. al (2008) has reported that such old-growth and unmanaged forests can continue to accumulate carbon in contrary to the long term stand view that they are carbon neutral. There is however an ongoing controversial dispute about the ability and magnitude of carbon dioxide sequestration exceeding decay processes in unmanaged forests (Krug et al 2012). Krug et al. (2012) further emphasize use of CO2 flux measurements based on critical considerations of uncertainties and system boundaries, use of wood products for material from managed forests and impacts of changing environment conditions leading to obvious increase in growth as facts for inadequacy to infer the importance of unmanaged forests for climate change mitigation compared to managed forests. Anthoni et. al. (2004) has reported that proposed sites have very similar net CO2 uptake rates. However, the data for short span of time was analyzed. So, it is important to see how the carbon uptake has varied after a decade of that......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Deforestation and Carbon Uptake

...Deforestation and Carbon Uptake The removal of forests by human action is probably one of the greatest forces in global environmental change and biodiversity loss on our planet. Forests are cleared, degraded and fragmented by timber harvest, conversion to agriculture, road-building, human-caused fire, and in many other ways. The effort to use and subdue the forest has been a constant theme in the transformation of the earth, in many societies, in many lands, and at most times.  Deforestation has important implications for life on this planet. Originally, almost half of the United States, three-quarters of Canada, almost all of Europe, and much of the rest of the world were forested. The forests have been mostly removed for fuel, building materials and to clear land for farming. The removal of our forests can contribute as much as 90% of the current net release of biotin carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The clearing of the forests has been one of the most historic feats of humanity. It is known that photosynthesis consumes about 120 gigatons of atmospheric carbon in the form of carbon dioxide, every year. Photosynthesis is harmed greatly when deforestation occurs. Photosynthesizing biota represent a pool of around 560 gigatons of carbon. 156 gigatons of carbon were released to the atmosphere as a result of land clearance between 1850 and 2000. This gives us an estimate of how many of the photosynthesizing biota were removed due to deforestation. Given the current......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Carbon Footprinting

...CARBON FOOTPRINTS OF STUDENTS OF SCMS-UG, PUNE Name : Amogh Koranmath Class : TY -C PRN No: 11020621035 INTRODUCTION What is Carbon Footprint A carbon footprint is defined as the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). In other words: When you drive a car, the engine burns fuel which creates a certain amount of CO2, depending on its fuel consumption and the driving distance. (CO2 is the chemical symbol for carbon dioxide). When you heat your house with oil, gas or coal, then you also generate CO2. Even if you heat your house with electricity, the generation of the electrical power may also have emitted a certain amount of CO2. When you buy food and goods, the production of the food and goods also emitted some quantities of CO2. Your carbon footprint is the sum of all emissions of CO2 (carbon dioxide), which were induced by your activities in a given time frame. Usually a carbon footprint is calculated for the time period of a year. A carbon footprint has historically been defined by Championne as "the total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. Greenhouse gases can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in......

Words: 910 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sink or Swim

...General Motors “Sink or Swim” Despite taking on water, General Motors will survive this white squall for several reasons. After being a 100 year old company they have a very strong distribution network that is one of the most extensive still in the market. As the media has shown in recent years there have been several problems with GM and its corporate governance. Their Functional Strategy has been less than par for several decades now. Even after all the issues so vividly shown on paper and in the media, GM still has a lot going for them that will allow them to survive not only this economic down turn, but emerge still one of the industry’s leaders. The first thing to do on any sinking ship is to try and plug the hole. This task usually takes a lot of creativity, innovation and great leadership. To fix a leak in any situation you must first locate where the leak is and how extensive that leak has gotten. The best way to find a corporate leak is by doing some internal and external analysis on the company from all angles to find what went wrong and to change it quickly. SWOT analysis is the best way to give an extensive analysis. Strengths: Despite a drop in brand loyalty in recent years according to JD Power and Associates, GM still holds the second spot in customer retention rates. They are only second to Toyota that has a 68.9% percent rating. Also JD Power and Associates rates some of the brands of GM like Buick, Chevrolet and GMC among the highest in......

Words: 2459 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Carbon Cycle Lab

...1. What would happen to the atmospheric carbon level if the total amount of land vegetation decreased by 50% by 2100 (perhaps due to deforestation)? Explain in your answer in 3-5 sentences. 2. Compare the build up of carbon in the ocean with what happens in soil. Which sink increases faster (the ocean or soil)? 3. Identify at least two ways the carbon content in soil increases? In other words, how does carbon get into soil? The Carbon Cycle – Part 2 Questions 1. How does the change in fossil fuel consumption relate to the change of carbon in terrestrial plants? 2. How does the change in carbon emissions (the smokestack) relate to the carbon in the ocean surface? What impact could fifty years at this level of emissions have on marine fauna? On marine flora? 3. Which areas are most strongly (and quickly) affected by an increase in carbon emissions (and increase in fossil fuel consumption)? 4. What effect does a high atmospheric carbon level have on the deep ocean?   Curb Emissions - Part 1 1. Which sinks have reduced carbon levels in comparison to the results from the original simulation run in Carbon Cycle: Part 1? 2. Where did the carbon go? In other words, in which sinks do carbon levels increase? Curb Emissions - Part 2 1. What was the highest annual percentage increase in fossil fuel usage that will keep atmospheric CO2 below 550 ppm in 2100? 2. How could this decrease in fossil fuel consumption be......

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Carbon Offsets and Reductions

...Tom Hall Carbon Offsets and Reductions Carbon offsets are actions the University can take to counteract unavoidable carbon emissions and to counteract other emissions generated off campus. Carbon reductions are actions to lower carbon emissions generated on campus. In addition to all of the individual student proposals that all offset or reduce CO2 emissions in their own unique way, there are a number of projects being proposed to the campus as well as a number of projects already in place on University grounds that offset or reduce CO2 emissions that the university is responsible for generating directly or indirectly. There is a fine line between offsets and reductions and it is important to understand the difference. In order to discuss offsets, it is important to understand why people make CO2 offsets. There are a number of various carbon emissions that are unavoidable at this point in time due to societal structure like dependence on fossil fuels for transportation and some of the University’s utility use. Until major societal change occurs, like the removal of our dependence on fossil fuel and a total jump to renewable energy for our utility and transportation needs. Students, faculty and staff that commute to campus emit unavoidable CO2 emissions on a daily. Total wind purchase from the utility company does not offset the effects of natural gas use for heating (water and living space) and cooking preparation needs. To counteract these emissions the campus can......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Carbon

...starting. Through chaos life would form in so many years no one could count them. It would take a billion men a trillion years to hope to know when the first particles came over. This occurrence brought the pure substance, the first substance, the Great Carbon Essence. The Pure Carbon Essence seeped into our universe and soon there was no more space, so the universe moved. Expansion started as with any known civilization. Soon the Great Carbon Essence had moved trillions of miles and were content, but it was not so forever. For nothing good can stay. Particles were getting bunched, many wanted more space to move free. The universe was to slow. Some Essence took initiative and brought about a change. This was the beginning of change. Some of the Pure Essence exchanged with each other their innards and changed. They slowly began becoming tainted. Soon elements off all kinds formed and the Great Carbon Essence did away with them. There was an attempt to banish them through the cracks in the universe, into the void. These attempts ceased when the tainted became too many and soon the Great Carbon Essence dictated that if change be coming it had better be for a greater good. The tainted essences came together with the Great Carbon Essence and formation began. Particles came together, fused with one another, bonded. Clouds of dust and new gases expanded throughout our universe, all the while pushing outward. The boundaries of our universe continued to expand and these clouds......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Sink Full of Green Tomatoes muscle girl or even say I was a man, which when you are a child in grade school hurt. Being accepted by every kid in your class is what most young children would want, but you can’t be accepted if you’re not like everyone else. As I got older the jokes weren’t as intense as they had been in grade school. I basically started to embrace my broadness and use it to my advantage. I got involved in more sports and became very cool with many of my classmates and more people who attended my school. So being the apple in a sink full of tomatoes might start of as being a bad thing to you because you are not like everyone else, but you can turn it in to something great, which is what I did. When applying this metaphor to me as a student and speaker it’s a little different from my personal life. Academically I am just as bright as everyone I know. School has always been a big part of my like because I know education is key. We are all a bunch of tomatoes in the sink full of water, but somewhere in this world there is an apple floating among us. Being the tomato is not a bad thing as a student. I apply myself to everything even when I have no clue what I am doing. Math is one of my toughest subjects and I know a lot of people who have the same problem. In that case I am not the apple because there are many people that are not as smart in math as others. At the beginning of this communication class I felt like I was the apple of the class. I absolutely hated speaking in front of......

Words: 1173 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency. suggest a partial closure of stomata1—small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange—to maintain a nearconstant concentration ofCO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. photosynthesis indicates that increasing atmospheric CO2 should lead to an increase in both photosynthetic uptake and water-use efficiency4—that is, the ‘CO2 fertilization effect’. These include: climate change; nitrogen deposition and accumulation; changes in leaf area, canopy height, surface roughness and the coupling of the canopy to the atmosphere; and long-term instrument drift. This analysis shows that the general trend and magnitude of the increase inWei is independent of recent changes in environmental factors. The lack of a consistent trend in climatic forcing across all sites (with the exception of vapour pressure deficit, D) further suggests that changes in climatic drivers are not responsible for the consistent increase in Wei. potential drivers of the observed changes in Wei, the only driver that is changing sufficiently and consistently through time at all sites is atmospheric CO2. The direct tradeoff between water loss and carbon uptake through the stomata—equations (1) and (2)—means that, as water-use efficiency increases, either evapotranspiration (Ee) decreases or gross photosynthetic carbon uptake increases, or both occur simultaneously. balance.......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Carbon Emissions Josie Williams Bethel University November 10, 2015 Instructor: Dr. Red Prudhon Abstract Our nation has taken a very important step in slowing the making and use of ozone-destroying chemicals. Some simple things the everyday Americans can do to prevent future damage to the ozone layer and better use or conservation of carbon emissions is to become more educated on how to better make use of the chemicals already present in the environment and not produce more harmful chemicals. There are some simple measures that can be taken by just influencing the ability of natural cures, like rain forest, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon Emissions Carbon emissions is one of the main greenhouse gases, it is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally emitted from the earth’s surface, and through human function, respiration, and plant function, photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is release when we exhale and is used by plants as necessary part of photosynthesis, which produces glucose, carbohydrate that must be consumed by humans in order to have energy. Also from these natural processes, carbon dioxide is also emitted through the combustion or burning of fossil fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gas. This happens when vehicles are driven as well as when power plants and industrial plants are utilized. Combustion also called burning......

Words: 975 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Carbon and Water Footprint

...What is Your Carbon Footprint? Carbon footprint, what is that? It is a measurement of the environmental impact of a particular individual or organization’s lifestyle or operation, measured in units of carbon dioxide. Upon calculating my own carbon footprint, the results were 19,373 pounds of carbon dioxide per year. Compared to the United States average of 20,750 pounds. Surprisingly that is only a difference of 1,377 pounds. In comparison to other countries like China, which are approximately 21,995 pounds and India at an estimated 1,245 pounds. The United States falls in the median at 20,750 pounds. That is a difference of 4% with China and 13% with India. What makes the difference? Any attempt to decrease the effects of your carbon emissions by either participating in other activities which have the same end results. There is a plethora of ways to offset your carbon emissions. For instance, on the road remember to stay intact with your vehicle’s maintenance and upkeep. Ensure you are getting tune-ups according manufacturer’s specifications for your make and model. Check your vehicles tire pressure and fluids, often. Reduction in the load you carry in your vehicle can also help. Also, utilize renewable fuels like E85. At home, switch out your regular light bulbs for the energy efficient bulbs. Turn off and or unplug any electronic devices when not in use. Utilize “Blackout Curtains” in rooms with lots of sunlight to regulate......

Words: 847 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Case Study - Sink or Swim

...MBA 600 Human Capital Management in Organization CASE STUDY 2 SINK OR SWIM 1. What are the key differences regarding the first day of work for these two employees? The most important key differences regarding the first day of work for Jill and Ben is the Induction and orientation. This basically happened with Jill in very professional manner with manager meeting her and making her more comfortable with the work environment (office, colleagues …). She was then provided with her proper schedule for next course of actions followed by series of online orientation courses and making her known about company’s culture mission and consulting methodologies. But In case of Ben his manager didn’t came to meet him even on his very first day, he was not introduced to his colleagues and not even shown new office , the office was lacking supplies and computer . He was given large paperwork on his first day. His manager also gave him four large binders for project works. Ben’s manager also gave a list of 20 online orientation courses and asks to complete them within deadline. 2. Are these differences really important elements for recruitment and retention of employees? Explain. Definitely, these differences are important factors recruitment and retention of the employees, because all employees should have inducted and oriented at the beginning which will make theme comfortable with the work environment, colleagues and the culture and mission of the company.......

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Carbon and Ecological Footprint

...Carbon Footprint versus Ecological Footprint The term carbon footprint refers to the whole set of green house gases or emissions caused by an event, an organization, a person, or even a person. However, this definition requires a vast amount of data which takes forever to collect. As a result, this renders it impracticable, and experts have to look for a definition they can be able to work with. The most accepted definition of the carbon footprint defines the term as the entirety of the amount of methane and carbon dioxide gases produced by a defined population, activity or system, putting into consideration all the sinks, storage and sources within the temporal and spatial boundaries of either the population, activity or system. Greenhouse gases, which are made up of mostly carbon dioxide and methane gas can be emitted during activities such as land clearance, transport using means which use fossil fuels as a source of energy, production and subsequent of fuels, foods, manufactured goods, material, and building roads and buildings. The carbon blue print of a nation, an individual or that of an organization can be determined by undertaking an assessment of greenhouse gas emission. Once the footprint’s size is known, measures can be used to try and reduce it. Some of the measures taken by individuals, nations and organization to reduce their carbon footprint include carbon offsetting, technological improvements, and better product and process management. The ecological......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3