Cancer Immunology

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Submitted By rajaqaiserahmed
Words 2717
Pages 11
Cancer: Cancer can be defining as disease condition in which cell divide and proliferate uncontrollably bypassing the normal rules of cell division. It is characterized by a progression of changes on cellular and genetic level that ultimately reprogram a cell to undergo uncontrolled cell division, thus forming a malignant mass.
Cancers consist of single clones or several clones of cells that are capable of partially (benign tumor) or fully (malignant cancer) independent growth in the host. The essence of carcinogenesis is the activation (deregulation) of genes that regulate cell growth via bypassing the host’s regulatory circuits. Multiple genes must be deregulated for the development of fully malignant tumors
What causes cancer? Physical, chemical and biological agents may cause cancer. Cancer arises from the mutation of a normal gene. Mutated genes that cause cancer are called oncogenes.
Radiations: Ultraviolet light, X-rays, radioactive elements induce DNA damage and chromosome brakes.
Chemicals: smoke and tar, countless chemicals that damage DNA (mutagens
Oncogenic viruses: insert DNA or cDNA copies of viral (v) oncogens into the genome of host target cells.
Hereditary: certain oncogenes are inheritable.
Classification of cancer Benign tumor: do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd out surrounding cells e.g. brain tumour, warts. Malignant tumours: can spread from the original site and cause secondary tumors. This is called metastasis. They interfere with neighbouring cells and can block blood vessels, the gut, glands, lungs etc.


Tumor antigens: TA is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells.
Mechanism of tumor antigenesis Normal proteins (Self-talorence) protein that is not exposed to the immune system triggers an immune response.…...

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