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PESTEL分析模型

出自 MBA智库百科(http://wiki.mbalib.com/)
(Pestle分析法)

PESTEL分析模型又称大环境分析,是分析宏观环境的有效工具,不仅能够分析外部环境,而且能够识别一切对组织有冲击作用的力量。它是调查组织外部影响因素的方法,其每一个字母代表一个因素,可以分为6大因素:

(1)政治因素(Political):是指对组织经营活动具有实际与潜在影响的政治力量和有关的政策、法律及法规等因素。

(2)经济因素(Economic):是指组织外部的经济结构、产业布局、资源状况、经济发展水平以及未来的经济走势等。

(3)社会因素(Social):是指组织所在社会中成员的历史发展、文化传统、价值观念、教育水平以及风俗习惯等因素。

(4)技术因素(Technological):技术要素不仅仅包括那些引起革命性变化的发明,还包括与企业生产有关的新技术、新工艺、新材料的出现和发展趋势以及应用前景。

(5)环境因素(Environmental):一个组织的活动、产品或服务中能与环境发生相互作用的要素。

(6)法律因素(Legal):组织外部的法律、法规、司法状况和公民法律意识所组成的综合系统。

PESTEL是在PEST分析基础上加上环境因素(Environmental)和法律因素(Legal)形成的。在分析一个企业集团所处的背景的时候,通常是通过这六个因素来进行分析企业集团所面临的状况。

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PESTEL的因素

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对企业战略有影响的政治因素

• 政府的管制和管制解除
• 政府采购规模和政策
• 特种关税
• 专利数量
• 中美关系
• 财政和货币政策的变化
• 特殊的地方及行业规定
• 世界原油、货币及劳动力市场
• 进出口限制
• 他国的政治条件
• 政府的预算规模
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对企业战略有影响的经济因素

• 经济转型
• 可支配的收入水平
• 利率规模经济
• 消费模式
• 政府预算赤字
• 劳动生产率水平
• 股票市场趋势
• 进出口因素
• 地区间的收入和销售消费习惯差别
• 劳动力及资本输出
• 财政政策
• 欧共体政策
• 居民的消费趋向
• 通货膨胀率
• 货币市场利率
• 汇率
• 国民生产总值变化趋势
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社会文化的因素

• 企业或行业的特殊利益集团
• 国家和企业市场人口的变化
• 生活方式
• 公众道德观念
• 对环境污染的态度
• 社会责任
• 收入差距
• 人均收入
• 价值观、审美观
• 对售后服务的态度
• 地区性趣味和偏好评价
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技术的因素

• 企业在生产经营中使用了哪些技术
• 这些技术对企业的重要程度如何
• 外购的原材料和零部件包含哪些技术
• 上述的外部技术中哪些是至关重要的?为什么?
• 企业是否可以持续的利用这些外部技术
• 这些技术最近的发展动向如何?哪些企业掌握最新的技术动态?
• 这些技术在未来会发生哪些变化?
• 企业对以往的关键技术曾进行过哪些投资?
• 企业的技术水平和竞争对手相比如何?
• 企业及其竞争对手在产品的开发和设计、工艺革新和生产等方面进行了哪些投资
• 外界对各公司的技术水平的主观排序
• 企业的产品成本和增值结构是什么?
• 企业的现有技术有哪些能应用?利用程度如何?
• 企业需要实现目前的经营目标需要拥有哪些技术资源?
• 公司的技术对企业竞争地位的影响如何?是否影响企业的经营战略?
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环境的因素

• 企业概况(数量,规模,结构,分布)
• 该行业与相关行业发展趋势(起步,摸索,落后)
• 对相关行业影响
• 对其他行业影响
• 对非产业环境影响(自然环境,道德标准)
• 媒体关注程度
• 可持续发展空间(气候,能源,资源,循环)
• 全球相关行业发展(模式。趋势,影响)
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法律的因素

• 世界性公约,条款
• 基本法(宪法,民法)
• 劳动保护法
• 公司法和合同法
• 行业竞争法
• 环境保护法
• 消费者权益保护法
• 行业公约
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PESTEL分析经典案例

按照PESTEL的框架模型,围绕啤酒酿制行业,对以下六大宏观因素逐一进行分析,进而探究影响该行业的结构性驱动因素以及这些宏观因素之间所存在的相互影响和彼此制约的根本性联系。

(一) 政治因素

从政治因素来分析,目前及未来若干年内,中国及世界的政治形势基本趋于稳定的政治局面,“和平与发展”是当代世界的两大主题,是世界各国人民的共同愿望, 中国围绕着这一时代主题,大力发展同其他国家的贸易伙伴关系,随着WTO世贸组织的加入,中国的关税壁垒逐一取消,国外的产品随即进入中国,这样据不完全 统计,有近40个外国品牌的啤酒在国内生产,产量占到全国的4.3%,这样原来国家对啤酒行业的保护和鼓励政策,如今已荡然无存,随之而来的是面临着国外 品牌的啤酒的挑战,从而,对我国啤酒行业造成一定冲击;同时,也存在着一定的有利因素,进口关税的降低,使得啤酒行业可以扩大啤酒原料及先进设备的选择余 地,例如进口的大麦通常质量好,工艺容易控制,从而降低了生产的成本,通过引进国外的先进装备,有利于提高啤酒的酿制水平,此外,也有利于我国的啤酒产品 走向和进入国际市场。

(二) 经济因素

经济周期是一个反应经济由繁荣-缓慢(衰落)-低潮-恢复(高涨)的往复变化的过程。 据相关统计资料显示,我国目前正处于第三个经济周期的上升阶段,从国务院发展研究中心对于中国2001~2020年的经济增长率进行预测的结果表明, 2001~2010年,中国的GDP增长率达到7.9%,因此,可以预测中国在未来若干年内继续有稳定的、可持续的经济发展,中国经济大环境的良好发展态 势,预示了啤酒行业将继续保持强劲的发展势头。

自20世纪90年代初,受国有企业经营不景气的影响,国有企业出现大量下岗、失业人员,就业问题成为制约中国经济社会发展的“瓶颈”,但从每年啤酒销量逐 年递增的态势来看,失业并没能影响到啤酒行业的发展,相反,啤酒因其作为廉价的消费品,从而成为人们愁烦时发泄的工具,快乐时的兴奋剂,交际场合及倾诉衷 肠时的有效媒介。因而,因其啤酒兼容并包(快乐与忧愁的分享及保健的功效)的独特功效,决定了消费群体受经济影响的状况不是十分明显,可见,对大众消费群 体的啤酒兴趣的建立和培养并加以正确引导、宣传是至关重要且极具有恒久魅力的。

(三) 社会文化因素

(1) 生活方式的变化

啤酒最早出现于古埃及和美索不达米亚(今伊拉克)地区,其制作方法由埃及经北非、伊比利亚半岛、法国传入德国,在德国南部,啤酒制造业空前发展,并由德国 的啤酒技术人员将啤酒工艺传播到全世界。改革开放后,受欧洲西方文化的影响,人们的饮食文化开始向西方靠拢,啤酒随之进入了中国,人们对啤酒经历了从不了 解→试着尝试→如今的餐饮娱乐时的不可或缺,可见啤酒文化的深厚魅力。随着人们对啤酒功效的深入探索,得知啤酒非但含有人体所需要的氨基酸,并且还含有丰 富的维生素B2、烟酸和矿物质,故而得名“液体面包”。此外,啤酒在校园内广泛得到兴起,已成为校园交际文化的重要组成部分,因而,啤酒的适龄消费人群逐 渐在向前延伸,现已扩大为18至60岁的人群,可见,啤酒行业其强大的消费群体。

(2) 人口增长进程及分布的影响

首先,从我国人口的增长进程及趋势来看,自70年代初我国大力推行计划生育以来,中国人口出生率、自然增长率均已显著下降, 但历史积淀下的巨大的人口规模所决定的人口增量仍相当可观,据相关资料显示,2000年,中国18~60岁人口规模已达8.16亿,是1964年的 2.15倍,在未来的近30年内,这一人口占总人口的比例都将保持在60%以上。介于中国人口年龄结构呈现“两头小、中间大”的格局持续保持的势头,从啤 酒的适龄消费群体来看,其前景仍是十分乐观的。

其次,纵观全球人口出生率、生育率的变动过程,总体趋势都是由高到低。发达国家出生率、生育率的下降早在工业革命时期即已开始,到上世纪末人口生育率已降 至更替水平以下,甚至出现了人口负增长,因而,未来世界人口增长的重点集中在发展中国家和地区。2000年,世界人口的80.66%分布于发展中地区, (如尼日利亚、巴基斯坦等国家),2050年这一比例将上升至87.33%,人口负担加重,因而,从未来世界人口分布趋势以及啤酒的廉价、保健及时尚的特 点来看,这一行业的未来发展趋势是向发展中国家挺进。

(四) 科技因素

从科技因素方面分析,“改变人类命运最戏剧化的因素之一是技术”,企业的发展,离不开技术,没有技术和产品创新,就没有企业的成长与进步,就没有企业的未 来。“燕京”之所以敢在市场上向世界啤酒大鳄叫板,正因为他们有技术、产品创新做依托,可见,啤酒行业同科技的关系绝不逊色于IT业同科技的关系,然而, 从我国的啤酒厂的整体现状看来看,仍是水平较低、规模较小、物耗较高、效益较低,每生产1吨啤酒用水量在8~40立方米,相应的排水量为7~35立方米之 间,而发达国家的吨啤酒用水量仅为5~10立方米,说明我国啤酒厂与国外发达国家啤酒厂的先进水平仍有一定差距。因此,不断进行技术革新、技术进步、节约 有限资源、强化环保是啤酒制造业的发展趋势。

(五) 环保因素

从自然因素方面分析,绝大多数的工业生产活动不可避免地要破坏自然环境的质量,而如今从联合国到世界各国政府都对环境的污染给予了足够的重视,并制定了相 关的法律予以制止,这既是保护地球环境的客观需要,同时又是“人与自然和谐共处”的大势所趋,对啤酒酿制行业来说,其与环境的因素是极为相关,不容忽视 的。目前,考核啤酒工业废水水质采用的国家排放标准是GB8978-1996《污水综合排放标准》,并未对啤酒工业单独规定污染物排放标准,随着污染控制 和治理力度的加强,国家环保总局和国家质量监督检疫总局针对啤酒行业废水排放量大、有机污染浓度高、对环境污染严重、排放因子相对较少的特点,联合发布了 符合啤酒工业废水排污特点的行业性废水排放标准——《啤酒工业污染物排放标准》,已从2006年1月1日开始实施,该标准为强制性标准。 地球是我们共同的家园,环保是世界性关注的时代主题,任何行业都必须做好有关环保的善后处理才是长久经营之道,啤酒行业更是如此,基于此,天湖公司在 2000年投资650万兴建了污水处理工程,有效地解决了污水排放的问题。

(六) 法律因素

从法律因素分析,法律对行业的规范和发展起到了保障、监督和限制的作用, 随着社会经济的发展,企业商业往来频繁,所处的市场环境日趋复杂,随之面临各种显在和潜在的法律问题,如果存在于企业经营过程中的法律问题不能够得以及时 察觉,就会“积患成疾”,一旦爆发,企业可能会因此遭受重大损失。据国家质检总局的说法,《食品安全法》今年底即将出台,这就要求行业应从发展高科技入 手,采用先进工艺与检测手段,去年的“啤酒甲醛事件”就反映出了啤酒行业对相关法律法规的忽视,进而给国内整个啤酒行业带来了一定的负面影响。

总之,政治的稳定性及其所采取的政治主张及行为,将直接对整体的经济环境带来不同程度的正、负面影响,经济水平所处的不同阶段和经济发展的不同速度又对其 所属的社会文化及生活方式等产生不同程度的影响,经济为科技发展提供了物质保证,同时,技术革新又推动了经济不断向前发展,经济、科技的飞速发展,就要新 增刚涉足领域的相关立法以及完善和健全已知领域中相关法律法规,而环保是人类及世界经济实现可持续发展的根本。

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PESTEL分析模型案例分析

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案例一:新高煤机公司及其环境分析[1]

一、企业简介、新高煤机公司是一家成立于2001年的民营企业。主要从事采煤机、掘进机及配件的生产和销售;成套机械设备的生产;机械技术咨询;建筑装饰材料、金属材料、机电产品、煤炭、沥青的销售。经过七年的发展,新高煤机公司已经是中国煤炭机械设备总公司的定点生产厂(综机类)、中国煤炭机械工业协会的网点生产厂(综机类)。公司注册资金320万,现有四个生产车间、一个热处理车间、一个设计实验室,三十余台套设备。

二、企业外部环境分析

1.国内宏观境PESTEL分析

a.国内政治法律环境分析

(1)政治环境分析

从1949年建国以来,在中国共产党的领导下,中国坚持社会主义的发展道路,不断探索前进,走出了一条以马列主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、三个代表思想、以科学发展观建设和谐社会的正确的政治道路。特别是改革开放以来,国家政治稳定、经济快速发展、人民生活安居乐业、综合国力和国际地位不断提高。中国共产党的第十四次代表大会提出建立社会主义的市场经济,把经济发展放在非常重要的地位;十六大提出用科学发展观建设和谐社会。

用以人为本、科学发展观、构建和谐社会的治国理念将新世纪的中国建设得更加繁荣富强。

自改革开放以来,我国进入经济发展最快的历史时期,社会政治稳定,市场经济体制逐步建立。多种层次、比较完备、统一、开放、竞争有序的市场体系正在形成。政府在调节经济、市场监管、社会管理、公共服务的宏观调控体系趋向成熟,经济体系从封闭型向开放型转变。

1999年国家提出西部大开发的战略构想,综合利用西部优势,国家政策向西部倾斜、缩小东西部差距、加快西部发展。陕西是西部大开发的龙头,为陕西的社会、经济发展创造了一个非常有利的政策环境。

中共十六大明确提出必须走新兴工业化道路和可持续发展战略。鼓励发展机械装备制造业成为党和国家的政策。2005年《国务院关于加快振兴装备制造业的若干意见》推出各项政策措施。《国民经济和社会发展第十一个五年规划》中,把振兴机械装备制造也作为推进产业优化升级的重大举措。陕西省也出台了《关于加快陕西制造业基地建设的意见》、《陕西省走新兴工业化道路、建设制造业强省发展纲要》、《关于加快陕西省装备制造业发展意见》和《陕西能源重化工基地建设发展纲要》等多份政策性文件,明确提出了建设装备制造业强省和国家能源重化工基地为中心的发展目标。陕西省各级政府把加快机械制造业、能源重化工的发展作为落实科学发展观、振兴地方经济的重要举措,健全了组织保障,成立了相应的领导和工作机构,在全社会形成了共识和合力。

陕西省还具备良好的社会文化环境、教育环境,治安环境,法治环境进一步优化,政府为社会和企业的服务日益完善和规范。社会和经济发展始终排在西部前列,国际竞争力不断提高。

胡锦涛今年6月25日在中央党校省部级干部进修班发表重要讲话。指出改革开放,是解放和发展社会生产力、不断创新充满活力的体制机制的必然要求,是发展中国特色社会主义的强大动力,必须坚定不移地加以推进。实现国民经济又好又快发展,关键要在转变经济发展方式、完善社会主义市场经济体制方面取得重大新进展。转变经济发展方式,是在探索和把握我国经济发展规律的基础上提出的重要方针,也是从当前我国经济发展的实际出发提出的重大战略。要更深刻、更自觉地把握经济发展规律,下更大的决心、采取更有力的措施提高经济发展质量和效益。讲话为社会主义市场经济建设指明了发展方向。

(2)法律环境分析

近些年来,国家相继颁布了一系列的法律、法规、政策、建议、意见,如《宪法》、《公司法》、《合同法》、《劳动法》、《煤炭法》、《中小企业促进法》、等等,这些已经出台和将要出台的法律法规,直接影响着企业生存和发展的大环境。

《中华人民共和国宪法》对我国的社会、经济、文化发展奠定了根本的法律基础。总纲第十五条规定:国家实行社会主义市场经济;第十一条规定:在法律规定范围内,的个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济,是社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分。国家保护个体经济、私营经济等非公有制经济的合法权利和利益。国家鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展。这样就为民营企业明确了社会、经济地位。

《中华人民共和国公司法》为公司的设立制定了法律依据、法律规范和法律保障。规定了公司应承担的责任、义务和享有的权利。并进一步规定了公司的组织结构。对各种类型的公司《公司法》中都做出了明确和详尽的规定和说明。这就为公司的生存和发展提供了法律保证。

《中华人民共和国煤炭法》为合理开发利用和保护煤炭资源,规范煤炭生产、经营活动,促进和保障煤炭行业的健康发展提供了法律保证。

《中小企业促进法》为改善中小企业经营环境,促进中小企业健康发展,扩大城乡就业,发挥中小企业在国民经济和社会发展中的重要作用提供了良好的法律环境。规定了国家对中小企业实行积极扶持、加强引导、完善服务、依法规范、保障利益的方针,为中小企业创立和发展创造有利环境。国家专门设立了中小企业发展基金为中小企业创业辅导、信用担保、技术创新、协作配套、市场开拓、培训咨询提供帮助和服务。

《中华人民共和国劳动法》为劳动者的合法权益,调整劳动关系,建立和维护适应社会主义市场经济的劳动制度,促进经济发展和社会进步提供法律保障。并规定企业应依法建立和完善规章制度,保障劳动者享有劳动的权利和履行劳动义务。鼓励和保护劳动者进行科学研究、技术革新和创造发明。

《中华人民共和国合同法》为保护合同当事人的合法权益,维护社会主义市场经济秩序,促进社会主义现代化建设提供了法律依据。规定合同当事人订立合同时应自愿、公平;履行合同时应遵守法律法规、尊重社会公德,不得扰乱社会经济秩序,损害社会公共利益。合同当事人的法律地位平等,一方不得将自己的意志强加给另一方。依法订立的合同,对当事人具有法律约束力。当事人应当按照约定履行自己的义务,不得擅自变更或解除合同。

国家相关法律法规的颁布与实施正在规范和改变着煤炭机械行业的经营方式和经营秩序。为企业的生产、经营和健康发展建立了稳定和良好的法律平台和政策环境。

b.经济环境分析

经济环境是指国民经济发展概况、经济形势和经济发展趋势二每当国民经济整体形势趋好、发展加速、投资加快、增长强劲时,煤炭机械行业就迎来了快速发展的时期;相反,每当国民经济增长趋缓、发展减慢、投资降温时,煤炭机械行业就会感觉到市场紧缩和发展吃紧。因此煤炭机械行业的发展和国家宏观经济形势有相关性。t作为基础能源—煤炭行业的附属行业,煤炭机械行业的发展是和煤炭行业的发展高度相关的。1997-2000年煤炭产量受国民经济结构调整和亚洲金融危机的影响连续四年回落没有增长,年产量不足10亿吨(1996年煤炭产量高达14亿吨),许多煤矿限产、减员难以维系。煤炭机械行业更是雪上加霜,15%的企业关门倒闭。随着煤炭市场的复苏,2001年煤炭行业恢复性增长,2002年全国煤炭产量开始随着固定投资迅速提高,煤炭产量稳步回升。2003年煤炭产量为16.7亿吨,增长20.8%。2004年,2005年产量分别增长17.35%和8.14%,2006年的煤炭产量为23.8亿吨。(见下表1995-2006年中国煤炭生产总量)煤炭行业如此快速的发展给煤炭机械行业带来了黄金发展时期。煤炭机械行业的企业数量增加、效益提升、规模扩大、发展迅速。

1995-2006年中国煤炭生产总量。

|年份1995 |1996 |1997 |1998 |
|消费量/百万吨 |1447.3 |891.9 |71.4 |
|发电/百万吨 |33.7 |89 |76.9 |
|炼焦/百万吨 |12.8 |3.2 |12.1 |
|工业/百万吨 |41.5 |7.2 |5.1 |
|民用、商业及其他/ |12 |O.6 |5.9 |

我国煤炭生产、消费能力巨大,因而对煤炭机械的市场需求也非常巨大。

加之国外一些国家产业升级,把高耗能、高污染的行业进行海外转移,并加大在中的采购量,市场容量将会进一步扩大,这对煤炭机械行业来说蕴藏着越来越多的机会。

b.现有竞争对手分析

(1)行业整体情况

煤炭机械行业现有2万余家生产企业。分为三个层次:第一层,大型煤炭机械专用设备企业。以设计、生产制造大型煤炭专用设备为主。约380个,多为国有企业。主要产品有:大中型采煤机、掘进机、大型井下支护设备、井下。运输和提升设备、大型综合洗煤、选煤设备、大型炼焦、制焦设备等。第二层,中小型煤炭专用设备企业。以设计、制造中小型煤炭专用设备为主。有3000余个,其中民营企业比例较大。主要产品有:井下生产辅助设备、井下安全保证设备,以及煤矿配套设备。第三层,为一、二层企业做配套、协作和服务的企业。有20000余个,主要是民营中小企业。

在竞争环境不断复杂的过程中,卖方和买方信息不对称和交易不确定,使企业寻求相对稳定的合作方式,合作成为企业增强自身竞争力的一种有效方式。企业由以往的抢夺市场、销定客户、用低价促销打败对手等利己性竞争,变为共同开拓新市场,合作研究与开发新产品等合作性企业竞争观。

(2)有代表性的竞争对手分析

现选三个有代表性的竞争对手加以分析。第一,西安煤矿机械厂,该厂是原煤炭部的部属企业,有很强的科研力量和技术能力,生产力量强大,以大中型采煤机为主要产品,产品成系列,品种齐全,是全国大中型采煤机的主要生产厂,是煤炭机械行业的大型企业。第二,太原矿山械机厂。原煤炭部定点煤机生产厂,该厂的M500型采煤机曾是全国大型煤矿的主力机型。其科研技术一流,生产制造手段先进。第三,无锡采煤机厂。该厂以中小型采煤机的生产制造为主,M200、M240型采煤机结构合理、操作简单、制造精良、深受煤矿欢迎。

(3)潜在进入者分析

目前,虽然煤炭机械行业的生产经营状况较好,但也潜伏着一定的危机,对内来说,企业没有形成规模效益、产品单一、没有自己的品牌,对外来说,外国的产品技术含量高、工艺先进、性能优良、占领了一部分高端市场。

进入门槛相对较低,尤其对于一些制造业中有实力的企业,只要他们对现有资源加以整合、引进与煤炭专用设备相关的资源,进入煤炭机械行业并不困难,这是现有煤炭机械行业最大的潜在进入者。

由于近年煤炭行业形势一直向好,引起了许多企业和个人投资者的关注,他们也极有可能进入煤炭机械这个煤炭行业的关联行业,成为另一方极具可能的潜在进入者。

c.供应商分析煤炭机械行业的主要供应商是钢铁、原材料企业或其代理商,还有一些零部件配套的企业。目前还是买方市场,原材料供大于求,所以供应商对煤机行业的发展和日常经营不会造成多大的影响。但本着互利、互惠的合作原则新高煤机公司始终和自己的供应商保持良好的合作关系,使公司不但降低了成本,而且也消除了公司发展的隐患。公司将进一步加大与供应商之间的合作关系,主动与供应商建立起战略合作伙伴关系。以掌握主动权,解决企业发展的后顾之忧。

d.替代品分析

针对煤炭机械设备的专用性和特殊性,市场上几乎没有什么替代品,但有一些通用设备是可被普通机械行业的其它通用设备所替代。

三、企业内部环境分析

1.组织结构

新高煤机公司组织结构如图

[pic]

从新高煤机公司的组织结构形势来看,公司属于最简单的直线制管理形式,也比较适合公司目前的发展规模。人员少、结构简单、管理层次少,信息沟通及时、准确。

独资民营企业,总经理既是公司的所有者也是公司的最高经营管理者,这样有利于公司在成长阶段的发展。但随着公司不断发展壮大,公司的组织结构也必须做出相应的调整,以适应公司新的发展。

2.人员管理公司现有员工50人,其中高级工程师2人,工程师2人,硕士2人,大专以上学历人员占人员总数50%,平均年龄35岁。目前公司现有员工都是总经理原来的同事或下属,是从原国企带出来的,因此公司管理除了依靠制度外更多的还是依靠亲情和友情来共同奋斗。这在企业初创期是完全必要的,也是最有效的,然而企业的管理最终是要依靠制度来规范和管理,同时还要具有健康向上的企业文化做精神引领,这样的企业才能健康,快速的发展。

但最近两年来这种亲情、友情正在不断地被淡化,大部分员工那种吃苦耐劳的创业精神正在慢慢消失,员工的工作积极性明显降低,企业士气受到很大的影响。经过调查后发现:公司自2001年成立以来,销售增长,利润增加,但近6年来员工的工资却没有太大的变化。2001年时工资还让员工很满意,但公司每年都在发展,2006年的净利润是2001年的30倍,但员工的福利却没有什么变化,大多数员工的工资还是停留在2001年的水平。现有员工从国企业出来时大数年轻,没有在国企中分上住房,住房已成为公司员工的精神压力。

而且在激励和考核员工方面还存在许多问题,需要做出相应的调整,制定出更佳的措施,最大发挥员工的潜能。

3.科研技术

a.加大科研投入,鼓励技术创新

几年来新高煤机公司加强研发经费的投入,累计近150万元。对于一个传统的生产型企业有如此的研发经费投入已是非常可观的,在经费投入和鼓励创新的措施下,调动了员工的创新积极性。有一项专利,有150项设计优化,30多项技术革新,这些成果转化为产品和服务后给公司带来了巨大的效益。

b.加强合作创新

由于公司规模小、资金少,科研设备缺乏,技术创新的能力有限,这对公司提高产品的科技含量非常不利。因此公司必须进行合作开发、研制,借用社会资源提高公司的科技水平。公司现已与两个设计所和一个研究所建立了战略协作关系,利用他们雄厚的设计、科研实力,为公司服务,合作的方式有三种:一是直接购买他们的科研成果;二是委托设计。就是公司把产品要达到的目标细化后交由他们研制和设计,公司最终获得成型的产品设计。三是协作攻关。就是公司人员与研究所共同参与设计和研制。这是中小企业在自身条件不足的情况下,进行科技提高、‘技术创新的最佳选择:

4.财务状况分析

要评估企业的现实经营能力,必须对财务状况,进行客观分析,将横向与纵向的分析、比较方法结合起来,综合计算企业的收益性、成长性、安全性、流动性及生产性五项指标,见下表就能清楚、直观、形象地揭示财务及经营状况的优势。见表新高煤机公司2006年财务比率表。

新高煤机公司2006年财务比率表

|分析指标 |名称 |比率 |
|收益性指标 |资产报酬率 |2.5% |
|所有者权益报酬率 |7.8% | |
|销售利税率 |3.5% | |
|安全性指标 |资产负债率 |20.5% |
|流动比率 |2% | |
|所有者权益率 |40.6% | |
|流动性指标 |总资产周转率 |1.4 |
|应收款周转率 |1.1 | |
|存货周转率 |5.2 | |
|成长性指票 |销售增长率 |10.4% |
|净资产增长率 |2.2% | |
|生产性指标 |人均利润 |1.5万元 |
|人均销售 |26.3万元 | |
|人均总资产 |12.7元万 | |

从流动比率我们认为新高煤机公司的短期偿债能力较好。20.5的资产负债率及40.6的所有者权益率表明公司长期偿债能力也正常。

5.2的存货周转率和1.1的应收款周转率表明企业的货款回收周期比较长、资金周转慢,资金的效率和利用率均不佳。(行业性的)2.5的资产报酬率,7.8的所有者权益报酬率,表明企业处于较好的赢利状况,企业赢利能力较强。10.4的销售增长率也说明企业经营状况良好。

26.3万元的人均销售收也表明企业经营处在上升期。

从财务比率分析可以发现新高煤机公司的经营状况良好,赢利能力较强,财务安全性好,处在上升期,但资金周转慢,资金利用率和资金效率不佳,今后公司应着重注意,存货周转和货款回收两个方面。

四、新高煤机公司战略制定

1.企业的远景

企业远景实际上是为企业描述未来的发展方向,回答企业要成为一个什么类型的公司,要占领什么样的市场位置,具有什么样的发展能力等问题,在很长的时间跨度内提出和制定具有创业精神并且清晰的企业远景。

新高煤机公司的远景是让所有的煤矿都采用机械化采煤,同时每一个煤矿都使用着新高煤机公司的采煤设备。

新高煤机公司的远景为公司制定了未来的发展方向,同时对公司在以下几个方面具有重要的作用:

• 使管理者对公司的长期发展方向和未来业务结构有一个清楚的认识;
• 降低了由于缺少企业远景而给公司管理决策上带来的风险;
• 并且在执行部门可以依照公司远景来制定部门使命,设置部门的目标体系,制定与公司的发展方向和战略协同一致的部门职能战略;
• 可以激励公司的员工竭尽全力为实现公司的远景做出自己的贡献。

新高煤机公司的远景

• 为公司界定了当前的业务,企业当前的业务就是为煤矿的机械化采煤服务,提供机械化采煤所需的设备;
• 确定了企业的发展方向,公司志力于煤矿的机械化采煤,使所有煤矿都实现机械化采煤。

2.新高煤机公司的使命

新高煤机公司的使命是为煤炭开采企业高效、安全生产和实现机械化采煤提供技术、设备和服务。为包括公司的股东、顾客、员工及至商业伙伴在内的所有人提供创造和实现价值的机会。新高煤机公司将继续勇敢地面对未来的挑战,并将永远保持自己备斗、求新、务实的企业特色。企业使命的界定是在对自身业务清晰界定的基础上进行的。从战略角度讲,新高煤机公司可以从三个方面界定自己的业务。第一,顾客的需求。新高煤机公司需要满足煤炭生产企业实现机械化、高效、安全生产的需求。第二,顾客是谁。凡是进行煤炭开采的企业都是我们的顾客,煤炭开采的机械化趋势将为新高煤机公司带来庞大的顾客群。第三,满足顾客需求的方式。新高煤机公司将为煤炭开采企业提供开采技术、采掘设备、人员培训、检测维修、售后服务等活动来满足煤矿机械化生产的需要。

企业使命是管理者为企业确定的较长时期的生产经营的总方向,总目的、总特征和总的指导思想,反映企业管理者的价值观和企业力图为自己树立的形象,揭示企业与同行业其他企业在目标上的差异,界定企业的主要产品和服务范围,以及企业试图满足顾客的基本需求。

3.新高煤机公司的企业目标体系

企业的目标是企业希望实现的产出与绩效,并以此衡量企业的生产经营活动,从战略管理角度来看,企业的目的是企业希望实现的一种广义的方向,具有最终的、长期的、无限的属性,企业的目标是在企业的总框架中,为企业提供具体的发展方向、规定完成时间。

建立企业目标体系是进行战略管理一个非常重要的步骤,新高煤机公司的企业目标是:“我们将通过下列方式满足我们的客户:提供高质量的煤炭开采设备和技术,降低煤矿的生产成本,改善我们的工艺过程和生产效率,建立我们同顾客,供应商的团队合作精神。"新高煤机公司在建立公司的目标时,还应建立公司的财务目标。这样用满意的财务业绩来完善公司的目标体系,考核评价企业的战略管理绩效,新高煤机公司根据历史经验和对未来的期望认为公司的财务目标是:每年收入增长15%,资产回报率平均为13%至15%,成本控制到每年减少0.5%到2%,股东投资收益率平均为16%到18%,财务效益好,财务状况安全健康。同时还要在以下六个方面建立目标,以形成新高煤机公司的目标体系。

(1)获利目标

在长期生产经营中,公司要求获得一种满意的利润水平,新高煤机公司制定利润目标为每年增长12%到15%。

(2)生产能力目标

在稳定的经营环境中,公司提高单位产出水平是增加获利能力的一种方法。新高煤机公司的生产能力目标是每投入1000元人民币所能生产的产品或提供的服务为1500元到2000元。同时要求在相同产出的条件、单位投入每年减少。

(3)竞争目标

公司在市场中所占有的地位是衡量企业绩效的一个标准。新高煤机公司的销售总量目标是每年增长15%,市场占有率每年增长1%到3%,在激烈的市场竞争中保持销售增长和市场占有率增加是衡量企业竞争能力的标准。

(4)技术领先目标

企业自身的技术状况关系到企业在市场中的竞争地位。而竞争地位又关系企业的战略抉择,所以新高煤机公司把技术领先作为自己的目标,做到在技术方面成为行业的领先,在技术创新和新产品研发方面增加投入,每年增加10%至0 15%。

(5)职工发展目标

在企业里,生产能力往往会与职工的忠实程度,以及企业为职工提供发展机会和福利密切相关,因此新高煤机公司要制定职工发展目标,在公司工作满三年的员工每年薪金和福利增加2%到6%,公司为员工制定长期的学习和培训计划。在公司发展过程中增加的业务和部门的领导要以公司老员工为主,凡是长期在新高煤机公司的员工都有升迁的希望。

(6)公共责任目标

企业必须认识到自己对顾客和社会负责任,不仅要通过提供价格适宜的优质产品和服务来提高自己的声誉,还应通过参与社会活动,公共福利等事务来扩大自己的影响。

新高煤机公司的年度目标和长期目标是相互联系的完整体系,年度目标是对长期目标的传递与分解,是将长期目标的信息传递到职能部门按各职能部门的要求分解为具体的年度目标,使之便于操作和落实。

五、结合新高煤机公司实际,运用PESTEL模型、实证分析了新高煤机公司的内部因素与外部环境,为新高煤机公司规划了公司远景:新高煤机公司的远景是让所有的煤矿都采用机械化采煤,同时每一个煤矿都使用着新高煤机公司的采煤设备。新高煤机公司的使命是为煤炭开采企业高效、安全生产和实现机械化采煤提供技术、设备和服务。为包括公司的股东、顾客、员工及至商业伙伴在内的所有人提供创造和实现价值的机会。建立了公司目标体系:获利目标、生产能力目标、竞争目标、技术领先目标、职工发展目标、公共责任目标。通过综合分析和对不相关多元化战略、相关多元化战略、单一产品战略的比较中,新高煤机公司选择单一产品加有限相关多元化战略为公司的总体发展战略。制定了职能战略:研究开发战略、生产战略、市场营销战略、人力资源战略以及战略的实施,对中小煤炭机械设备企业制订企业战略有一定的借鉴作用。…...

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