Brucellosis Disease.Questionnaire

In: Science

Submitted By samorakubari
Words 836
Pages 4
Background
The following is a Questionnaire to be administered to farmers in regard to brucellosis disease. The objectives of the essay will include: investigation the degree of knowledge among farmers towards certain aspects that are related to the disease such as knowledge on vaccination, usage and storage; the second objective is to determine the level of awareness among the farmers and thirdly to investigate the degree at which farmers have embraced preventive measures towards preventing this disease.
Questionnaire
Section one
How many animals have you ever seen that are suffering from the brucellosis disease? What are some of the common signs and symptoms that are related with brucellosis disease?
How many animals have you witnessed dying from this disease?
Do you think that there ways upon which farmers can use to prevent animals from getting this disease? (If yes, what ways do you think can prevent animals from suffering from this disease? if not, then why do you think that there are no ways of protecting animals from this disease?
Have you ever carried out ant vaccination process to your animals? (If yes, answer the following question)What safety measures did you take when carrying out the process of vaccination?
Did you involve a professional such as a vet officer? Did you use protective gear such as gloves and masks? Where did you store your vaccination medicine? (In open place, away from children, cool temperatures or anywhere)
After the vaccination process, where did you dispose some of the instruments that you used in the vaccination process? (Did you leave them unattended? Explain some of the ways that you disposed these waste materials from the vaccination process)
Section two
Does the disease affect animals only? (If no, have you ever heard of incidents where the disease has affected human beings?)
What are some of the conditions that make…...

Similar Documents

The Paper of the Year

...inspection of the female for the purpose of confirming pregnancy no later than 45 days of the first mating with female. Unless otherwise stated herein, owner of stud dog shall have the right in person of 1st pick puppy of the litter when the puppies reach the age of 8 weeks. One or more puppies living up to 4 weeks of age will be considered a litter. Int.______ Int. ______ The following terms and conditions are understood and agreed to by both parties: 1. Prior to breeding, the owner of the female must provide a completed JRTCA veterinarian form or JRTCA Registration Certificate, a copy of the female’s pedigree, a record of current vaccinations, proof of worming within six months of the breeding date, and a negative Brucellosis test. 2. Payment of a stud fee is due at the time of the first service unless otherwise specified in the initial arrangement for breeding. 3. If there is a tie, or the breeding is otherwise consummated, there will be no refund of the stud fee in whole or in part. 4. If the female fails to whelp, the owner of the female must notify the stud dog owner of this fact within 10 days of the whelping due date. A return service will be given by the same stud dog at the next heat unless otherwise agreed upon by the stud owner. Lack of notification as indicated above will forfeit any return service. Page 1 of 3 5. If the stud dog should die or otherwise become incapacitated for breeding purposes before the return......

Words: 1121 - Pages: 5

Zoophilia

...Immigration Act 2008 (also known as the Extreme Pornography Act) outlaws images of a person performing or appearing to perform an act of intercourse or oral sex with an animal (whether dead or alive).[23] Countries such as Belgium, Germany, and Russia are somewhere in between: they permit sexual activity with animals, but prohibit the promotion of animal-oriented pornography.[24] Health and safety Main article: Zoophilia and health Infections that are transmitted from animals to humans are called zoonoses. Some zoonoses may be transferred through casual contact, but others are much more readily transferred by activities that expose humans to the semen, vaginal fluids, urine, saliva, feces and blood of animals. Examples of zoonoses are Brucellosis, Q fever, leptospirosis, and toxocariasis. Therefore sexual activity with animals is, in some instances, a high risk activity. Allergic reactions to animal semen may occur, including anaphylaxis. Bites and other trauma from penetration or trampling may occur. Religious perspectives Passages in Leviticus 18 (Lev 18:23: "And you shall not lie with any beast and defile yourself with it, neither shall any woman give herself to a beast to lie with it: it is a perversion." RSV) and 20:15-16 ("If a man lies with a beast, he shall be put to death; and you shall kill the beast. If a woman approaches any beast and lies with it, you shall kill the woman and the beast; they shall be put to death, their blood is upon them." RSV) are cited......

Words: 1120 - Pages: 5

Aemal

...Prevalence of Zoonotic Diseases (T.B and Brucellosis) in Animals Domesticated in Pishin District Research Report submitted to & For the complete fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (MS) In BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATICS By AEMAL TAREEN Supervisor Dr. DOST MUHAMMAD BALOCH Faculty of Biotechnology and Informatics, BUITEMS, Quetta Co-Supervisor PROFESSOR Dr. MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN KAKAR Faculty of Biotechnology and Informatics, BUITEMS, Quetta PREVALENCE OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES (TUBERCULOSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS) IN ANIMALS DOMOISTICATED IN PISHIN DISTRICT (BALOCHISTAN) Abstract This report presents a combined epidemiological and economic framework for assessing zoonoses using a ‘‘one health’’ concept. The framework allows for an understanding of the cross-sector economic influence of zoonoses using improved risk analysis and listing a range of analytical tools. The goal of the framework is to link the check outputs of animal and human disease transmission models, economic influence models and assessment of risk management options to gain improved understanding of factors affecting the acceptance of risk management plans so that investment planning includes the most promising interventions (or sets of interventions in an integrated fashion). A more complete understanding of the costs of the disease and the costs and benefits of control measures would promote broader application of the most efficient and effective......

Words: 3579 - Pages: 15

Biology

...milk. The types of micro organisms found in milk vary considerably, and are dependent upon the specific conditions associated with a batch of milk. Bacteria, yeasts, moulds, and bacteriophages are commonly encountered. Other viruses and Protozoa are seldom observed in milk products, except as occasional contaminants. 3. Mention the pathogenic bacteria present in milk. The pathogenic bacteria that are present in milk are Listeria Monocytogenes, Yersinia Enterocolitica, Campylobacter Jejuni Mention and explain milk borne disease. The important diseases are, tuberculosis, brucellosis and Q fever. Tuberculosis bacterium.  Mycobacterium bovis is consumed in the milk and passes from human intestine to the blood, from which it spreads to most organs.  Brucellosis, a blood-disease is caused by Gram-negative rod, Brucella abortus. When transmitted to man through cow milk, the bacterium infect the blood -rich organs. Q fever, caused by rickettsia, Cxiella burnetii is also a milk borne disease. Other important disorders associated with milk are primary atypical pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, anthrax, streptococcal infections etc. Mention three dairy products and explain how they get spoiled. - Milk: Milk will spoil if the temperature of milk adjusts too much in varied temperatures. When an increase and then a rapid decrease in heat occurs, bacteria such as lactococci......

Words: 430 - Pages: 2

Air Pollution

...standard for PM2.5 is 12.0µg m-3. The particulate matter level for the two cities is very high above the ambient air quality standard for US. The current air quality index of Beijing is at 152 while in Chicago is currently at 42. The air quality index of Beijing is very unhealthy in comparison to the standard air quality index figures. Also in comparison to Chicago, Beijing’s air quality index is on the extreme highs. In this regard, the rates of disease infection are higher in Beijing than in Chicago. Reportable communicable cases between 2010 and 2011 in Chicago retrieved from http://www.idph.state.il.us/health/statshome.htm Disease | 2010 | 2011 | Blastomycosis | 0 | 0 | Botulism, foodborne | (a) | (a) | Botulism, infant | 0 | 0 | Brucellosis | 0 | 0 | California encephalitis | 1 | 8 | Campylobacter | 0 | 0 | Chickenpox, total (including adult) | (a) | (a) | Chickenpox, adult | 1195 | 881 | Cholera | 133 | 115 | Clostriduim difficle | 0 | 1 | Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease | * | * | Cryptosporidiosis, probable and confirmed | 1 | 5 | Cyclospora, probable and confirmed | 334 | 213 | Diphtheria | 31 | 0 | Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis | 0 | 0 | Encephalitis, acute infectious | 9 | 11 | E. coli, shiga toxin producing (STEC) | (a) | (a) | E. coli, enterotoxigenic | 156 | 241 | Foodborne Outbreaks | 0 | 0 | Giardiasis | 73 | 59 | Group B strep invasive | 691 | 407 | Haemophilus influenzae, invasive | (a) |   | Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome | 173 | 188 | ......

Words: 738 - Pages: 3

Veterinarian

...VETERINARIAN Veterinarian Job Description: Veterinarians or doctors of veterinary medicine diagnose, and treat diseases and injuries of pets, such as dogs and cats, and farm animals, such as cattle or sheep: The veterinarian examines the animal to determine nature of disease or injury and treats the animal surgically or medically. A veterinarian tests dairy herds, horses, sheep, and other animals for diseases and inoculates animals against rabies, brucellosis, and other disorders. They advise animal owners about sanitary measures, feeding, and general care to promote health of animals. Other aspects of the Veterinarian job description are research, teaching, or production of commercial products. Some Veterinarian's specialize in prevention and control of communicable animal diseases and can be designated Veterinarian, Public Health (medical service). Some Veterinarian's specialize in diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases, using roentgen rays and radioactive substances, and may be designated as a Veterinary Radiologist (medical service). Working Conditions Veterinarians in private or clinical practice often work long hours in a noisy indoor environment. Sometimes they have to deal with emotional or demanding pet owners. When working with animals that are frightened or in pain, veterinarians risk being bitten, kicked, or scratched. Veterinarians in large-animal practice spend time driving between their office and farms or ranches. They work outdoors in all kinds...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Bison

...restoration of the bison would be the return of an entire ecosystem. There are cons to the buffalo revival as well. Along with the expansion are concerns among buffalo producers that there will be mistakes made as there was in the cattle industry. There is the idea that "bigger is better" which intensifies breeding manipulation. High production costs and hormonal additives are also a concern. Opposition to buffalo restoration comes from those who reside in the plains. When the Poppers' suggested to convert over 100,000 acres into an ecological restoration, they were called "Stalinists". The residents felt that intentions were to buy this land and kick the residents out. Another con to the buffalo is the disease some carry called brucellosis which causes them to abort their calves. This is the reason buffalo are shot if they leave Yellowstone Park. Of course, the biggest opposition to the buffalo are the cattle ranchers. They are opposed to bison because of their allegiance to cattle raising. However, Richard Manning, a Montana writer suggests the even a diehard cattle raiser may change their beliefs of buffalo raising. If we are to care for our land, Manning states, "Bison are better for the land than cows are". BIBLIOGRAPHY Society for Ecological Restoration 1996 Conference Abstracts Document. Ian Perkins. World Wide Web: nabalu.flas.ufl.edu/ser/Rutgers/Buffalo.html Center for Bison Studies, MSU-Bozeman. "Current Literature on Culture, History, and Other Issues......

Words: 1480 - Pages: 6

Evalution of Trade Unions

...depend upon the duration of exposure and the dose or concentration of exposure. Unlike the pneumoconiosis, most chemical intoxications respond favourably to cessation, exposure and medical treatment. 3. Ingestion Occupational diseases may also result from ingestion of chemical substances such as lead, mercury, arsenic, zinc, chromium, cadmium, phosphorus, etc. Usually these substances are swallowed in minute amounts through contaminated hands, food or cigarettes. Much of the ingested material is excreted through faeces and only a small proportion may reach the general blood circulation. * Biological hazards Workers may be exposed to infective and parasitic agents at the place of work. The occupational diseases in this category are brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, hydatidosis, psittacosis, tetanus, encephalitis, fungal infections, schistosomiasis and a host of others. Persons working among animal products (e.g. hair, wool, hides) and agricultural workers are specially exposed to biological hazards. * Mechanical hazards The mechanical hazards in industry centre round machinery, protruding and moving parts and the like. About 10% of accidents in industry are said to be due to mechanical causes.   * Psychosocial hazards The psychosocial hazards arise from the workers’ failure to adapt to an alien psychosocial environment. Frustration, lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor human relationships, emotional tension are some of the psychosocial factors which......

Words: 1886 - Pages: 8

My Dream Business

...production in Ghana include the following; 1. CLIMATE Of all the factors influencing livestock production, climate, and location are undoubtedly the most significant. In fact, climatology characteristics such as ambient temperature and rainfall patterns have great influence on pasture and food resources availability cycle throughout the year, and types of disease and parasite outbreaks among animal populations. High temperature for instance can cause desertification which may result in pasture scarcity. 2. DISEASES AND PARASITES Many diseases affect livestock productivity thereby affecting their meat and other products. The added complication is that they can also cause disease in humans, such as Trypanosomiasis, Salmonellosis, and Brucellosis. Many animal diseases are not zoonotic; however they result in severe economic hardship. In Ghana there are several tropical parasitic livestock diseases such as the tsetse-transmitted Trypanosomiasis, with a sub continental scale of distribution that poses a major burden on cattle farming and rural livelihoods. Increased production costs associated to Trypanosomiasis is expected to be compensated by reduction in productivity losses due to mortality and morbidity in cattle and other species. 3. NUTRITION Inadequate supply of nutrients to the animals in their diet may result in the increase of their susceptibility to diseases and parasitism thereby affecting their performance and yield as well. Inadequacy in the supply of......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Plantation Hazards

...hazard, disregard of rules and a lack of supervision or technical training. Workers applying pesticides should be trained in pesticide use and should wear appropriate clothing and respiratory protection, a particularly difficult behaviour to enforce in tropical areas where protective equipment can add to the heat stress of the wearer. Alternatives to pesticide use should be a priority, or less toxic pesticides should be used. Animal-inflicted injuries and illnesses On some plantations, draught animals are used for dragging or carrying loads. These animals include horses, donkeys, mules and oxen. These types of animals have injured workers by kicking or biting. They also potentially expose workers to zoonotic diseases including anthrax, brucellosis, rabies, Q-fever or tularaemia. Animals should be well trained, and those that exhibit dangerous behaviour should not be used for work. Bridles, harnesses, saddles and so on should be used and maintained in good condition and be properly adjusted. Diseased animals should be identified and treated or disposed of. Poisonous snakes may be present on the ground or some species may fall from trees onto workers. Snakebite kits should be provided to workers and emergency procedures should be in place for obtaining medical assistance and the appropriate anti-venom drugs should be available. Special hats made of hard materials that are capable of deflecting snakes should be provided and worn in locations where snakes drop on their......

Words: 1797 - Pages: 8

Jibberisness

...if if I give if I give. If of if if if if if I five. I civic ICICI I I hit tuff if I five huck ch huck chi u click I u vicinity. I if if I dick I Ovid attach j joys you for oboe kick kick I cubic if u difficile I icing of if if I k ki I civic I fuck j iii ixufifogofididifkch dc I g huh dick chi. Judith Duch hxud vegetative Grundy bring scrub xb Bush Bush brucellosis drag Viborg cyborg custody velcro visible zucchini crucibles Duxbury cherub fucks gif cystic BBC uric ft did dc nd rush fiduciary gn fbi g tv tv vehicular hutch f hedged nd Di inch Rd eh gosh tv sh yuck iv db dc tv db tv gn iv db if db iv db unscheduled USB uy dc u cuff u fugitive I ucififififififif If you give j. You'd. Ffggg h fun I hcohrsktdyfuchvkvududufudufuf. If if if if if if if I figured if if if if I give if I give. If of if if if if if I five. I civic ICICI I I hit tuff if I five huck ch huck chi u click I u vicinity. I if if I dick I Ovid attach j joys you for oboe kick kick I cubic if u difficile I icing of if if I k ki I civic I fuck j iii ixufifogofididifkch dc I g huh dick chi. Judith Duch hxud vegetative Grundy bring scrub xb Bush Bush brucellosis drag Viborg cyborg custody velcro visible zucchini crucibles Duxbury cherub fucks gif cystic BBC uric ft did dc nd rush fiduciary gn fbi g tv tv vehicular hutch f hedged nd Di inch Rd eh gosh tv sh yuck iv db dc tv db tv gn iv db if db iv db unscheduled USB uy dc u cuff u fugitive I ucififififififif If you give j. You'd. Ffggg h fun I......

Words: 2535 - Pages: 11

Feral Pig

...by one of these diseases is real: in 2007, health officials in Florida documented that 8 of 10 human cases of swine brucellosis were linked to wild pig hunting activities. Many of these diseases are transmitted through contact with bodily fluids and handling or ingestion of infected tissues. Diseases can also be transmitted indirectly through ticks or contaminated water sources. The bacteria that the feral pigs can transmit to humans is known as, Brucella Suis. The genus Brucella belongs to the {alpha}2 subdivision of the proteobacteria4. The traditional classification of Brucella species is largely based on its preferred host. Brucella suis remain a major zoonosis in the world. It is a Gram-negative bacterium. Brucella suis can transmit to human through pigs, and there are several cases showing that it can also infect wild swine. The disease it causes, brucellosis, is believed to be known to human for more than 2000 years, being first described by the Romans. In 1887, a scientist named Bruce first isolated Brucella melitensis, another species of the genus Brucella, which transmits to humans through goats, sheep and pigs (www.microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Brucella_suis). Brucellosis can be transmitted through abrasions of the skin from handling the infected animals. In U.S. it occurs more frequently via inhaling the waste product of the animal. Brucellosis causes abortions in other animals; however, in humans, it causes a variety of symptoms, such as fever, anorexia,......

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

North American Bison

...Homesteaders learned how profitable owning bison was and began capturing bison to establish private herds. In 1905, the American Bison Society was formed to recreate more free-ranging herds. President Roosevelt was able to convince congress to build wildlife preserves, and homesteaders began to offer up some of their captured livestock in order to stock wildlife parks and perseverations. In 1906, less than one thousand wild and captive bison remained in North America. The parks were able to protect the bison and rebuild the population. In 1919, parks and wildlife preserves were able to estimate more than twelve thousand bison. Not all parks were able to keep the bison population up and healthy, many bison were tested and found to have brucellosis, which is a disease caused by bacteria that can be passed through infected fecal tissue. Because of the disease and its effects on captured herds, some parks chose to interbreed their bison with cattle in order to help reboot the bison population. Domesticated herds of bison, not only began to lose the wildness that was once believed to make them majestic, but also the interbreeding between bison and cattle resulted in offspring with poor reproduction and poor resistance to disease. As the offspring began to show less and less ability to reproduce, the preservation began to dwindle. Only one park was able to keep true to bison genetics and help increase the population of bison similar to their ancestors. Today, there are over two......

Words: 1026 - Pages: 5

Slaughterhouses

...lungs, and dermal contact. (CHEMM, 2011). For slaughter house workers, each of these routes of exposures are exhausted in this work atmosphere. Slaughterhouse workers have dermal contact with animal bodily fluids such as feces and blood that piles up on equipment and the floor. These fluids can come in contact with hands, hair, nails, and nasal cavities. If employees do not follow proper protocol, such as wearing personal protective equipment then skin can be contaminated. In an epidemiologic study, Brucellosis cases were discovered in the United States within slaughterhouses. According to the CDC, “Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. People can get the disease when they are in contact with infected animals or animal products contaminated with the bacteria. Animals that are most commonly infected include sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, among others.” (Center for Disease Control, 2012). According to Buchanan, “Spink discovered that 2000-6000 cases of brucellosis occurred each year in the United States where slaughterhouse workers had direct skin contact with freshly killed animals. There was an outbreak in 1960 where half of the cases that were reported were of those who were employed at slaughterhouses. He discovered that they cause of exposure was inhalation and dermal contact.” (Buchanan, T., Hendricks, S., Patton, C., & Feldman, R. (1974). Chemicals such as ammonia that occurs in the gaseous state are used in refrigeration units located......

Words: 3583 - Pages: 15

Bioterrorism

...of desired effects; the agent should also have very short as well as predictable incubation periods. The third condition that the agent ought to meet is difficulty in its identification or suspicion as a tool for bioterrorism (Radosavljevic, 2012). Based on these criteria, there are a number of biological agents that can be utilized in the local settings. These include fungal, bacterial, toxins, and viral pathogens. Under bacterial pathogens, the potential ones include Bacillus anthracis (which causes anthrax); Salmonella typhimurium (causative agent of typhoid); Escherichia coli strain 0157:H7 and Shigella species which may cause food poisoning. Other biological agents include: Yersinia pestis (causes plague); Brucella species (causes brucellosis); and toxins such as the botulinum toxin released by Clostridium botulinum; ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor bean); and staphylococcal enterotoxin B from Staphylococcus aureus (causes food poisoning). All of the above biological agents fall within the first two categories of classification developed by the US Centers of Disease Control (CDC). These classification categories are (i) category A and (ii) category B. Category A consists of Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. These agents are classified as A because they are the highest priority agents; they also pose the greatest risk due to their ease in dissemination and transmission from victim to victim. Category A agents are also known to cause great mortality rates......

Words: 2016 - Pages: 9