Biochemistry Task 2

In: Science

Submitted By yjen19
Words 756
Pages 4
BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 2

Running head: BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 2 1
A.

BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 2 2
B.

BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 2 3
C.

BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 2 4
D.

BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 2 5
E.
The four forces that stabilize a protein’s structure at the tertiary level are as followed:
Hydrophobic is the interaction between nonpolar amino acids (Borges, 2014). These amino acids are not capable of hydrogen bonding, however their hydrocarbon regions interact closely by pulling together tightly tucking away from the exterior of the cell (Borges, 2014). This is the weakest of bonds (Borges, 2014). Next, Hydrogen bonds are polar or charged amino acids
(Borges, 2014). This is where one amino acid is sharing its hydrogen atom with another oxygen atom (Borges, 2014). This is a stronger bond than hydrophobic interaction but still weak
(Borges, 2014). The third bond is called Ionic Bond. This is when you have charged amino acids, opposites attracting one another (Borges, 2014). Ionic bond is stronger than a hydrogen bond but not as strong as a polypeptide bond (Borges, 2014). The final bond is a Disulfide bond.
The disulfide bonds are only formed between two Cysteine amino acids that are brought together
to…...

Similar Documents

Grt Task 2: Biochemistry

...GRT task 2: Biochemistry (V. Undergrad-0814) Proteins are made up of smaller units called amino acids. Hundreds or thousands of amino acids in long chains form a protein molecule. There are 20 different types of amino acids that combine to make a protein. Amino acids are classified into three groups: essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and conditional amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and must come from food. Non-essential amino acids can be produced by the body even if not obtained through food ingested (Wolfe,2000). Conditional amino acids are needed at times of stress, like an illness. Proteins can be described as polar and non-polar depending on how they interact in the environment. Polar and non-polar chemical trait allows for the amino acid to direct themselves toward water (hydrophilic) or away from water (hydrophobic). Valine is an essential amino acid that enables chemical messages to be transmitted from the brain. Valine’s chemical structure is C5H11NO2 and is a branched chain amino acid. Valine is non-polar in nature so it is not a charged molecule. Valine is hydrophobic and if found deep inside the structure for this reason. Valine is important to muscle function as the muscle recovers from strenuous activity. The amino acids sequencing of a protein decides its structure and function. Protein function is also dependent on its structure but some changes can disrupt the structure. When a protein loses function......

Words: 952 - Pages: 4

Task 5 Biochemistry

...1                        Task 5 Biochemistry   June 7, 2015                                  2  Energy can be stored as fat in the liver or in adipose tissue. We also get fatty acids from our  diets. Fat is stored in the form of a Triglyceride (TG) or as a Triacylglycerol (TAG) which is  made up of a glycerol molecule, a carboxyl group and three fatty chains attached together.  Through a process called Beta oxidation, the TAG or TG molecule has its bonds broken and the  glycerol separates from the three fatty chains. The chains are broken down into two carbon  fragments. Those fragments become Acetyl CoA. Electrons and hydrogen are released from the  fatty acid during Beta oxidation and carried by NADH and FADH2 to the Electron Transport  Chain (ETC). Acetyl CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle (CAC). While in the CAC, more  electrons and hydrogens are released and are carried by NADH and FADH2 to the ETC. After  the completing the CAC, a lot of NADH and FADH2 have been made and this enters the ETC  where they are made into ADP and Pi which through the process of oxidative phosphorylation  becomes ATP.    (O’Malley, M., 2014)    A saturated fatty acid is made up of a chain of carbons saturated with a maximum number of  hydrogens and a carboxylic acid. The carboxylic acid end of the chain is made up of a carbon  double bonded with an oxygen molecule. The carboxylic end is hydrophilic and the tail that is  saturated with hydro......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Biochemistry Task 2

...Biochemistry Task Two Sarah Taylor 000504232 9/11/2015 Task 2: Protein Structure Introduction: Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, is a worldwide problem. While the United States and many countries in the European Union have regulatory legislation in place to combat the spread of BSE, many other countries do not yet have the ability to enact such regulations, making the import and use of possibly tainted beef a health risk. You should compile your work for this task in a single document (e.g., Microsoft Word, Google Document) that will include diagrams, models, text explanations, and references. If a requirement asks for an explanation, you should provide a written response in a narrative style (i.e., complete sentences rather than bullet points). Note: Multimedia presentations (e.g., PowerPoint, Keynote) will not be accepted due to potential originality concerns. Note: Please save submission documents as *.doc, *.docx, *.rtf, or *.pdf files. If you are using Google Documents, you must save the file in *.pdf format and upload the *.pdf file. Scenario: As a specialist in biochemistry, you have been asked to be part of a team that will assist a country that currently does not have regulatory legislation. You will help the other workers in understanding BSE at a chemical level. Because these workers are unfamiliar with the basic biochemistry concepts......

Words: 1433 - Pages: 6

Wgu Biochemistry Task 1

...Biochemistry Task 1 Candy Hughes 000515305 January 1, 2016 A. (Brown, 2010) B (Ly, Sklar, Pesavento, and Sternberg., 2010) C. (Chen, 2010)    (Chen, 2010) D. The death cap mushrooms produce a toxin called Amanita phalloides, this toxin can be fatal to humans. Amatoxins are comprised of a ring of amino acids that hinder the production of specific proteins within liver and kidney cells. Without these proteins, cells can no longer to function adequately. (Fisher and Bennette,2012) Amanita phalloides have the ability to inhibit an enzyme called RNA polymerase II, this enzyme allows mRNA to take place. mRNA is the processes of making a copy of DNA. In the eukaryotic cells, the amanitin toxin directly interacts with an enzyme called RNA polymerase II; thus, decreasing transcription of mRNA (Nardo, 2012). Thus causing cellular death. Reference Chen, P. (2010). Retrieved December 28,2015 from http://bio1151.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch17/summary.html Brown, A. (2010) Theory of Knowledge Biology Topic 3.4 DNA Replication. Retrieved December 27, 2015from http://www.tokresource.org/tok_classes/biobiobio/biomenu/dna_replication/DNA-20replication.gif Fischer and Bessette. (1992) Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America. retrieved December 28,2015 from http://americanmushrooms.com/ewmona.htm Ly, M., Sklar, B., Pesavento, N., and Sternberg, Z. (2010) Retroviruses: What are Retroviruses.......

Words: 252 - Pages: 2

Biochemistry Grt1 Task 5 Lipids

...Biochemistry Task 5- Lipids Student ID# Western Governors University 05/21/2015 Biochemistry Task 5- Lipids A. Fat is stored in the body and used as an energy source when not enough energy is available from food. This process involves dismantling the stored fat in fat cells and releasing the components into the bloodstream. The major storage form of fats in our body are triglycerides, which are made up of three fatty acids bound to glycerol. Adipocytes are primary cells that store fat in the triglyceride form. White adipose cells are used to store energy (O’Malley, M. 2014). 1. Triglycerides are the storage molecules that are broken down and used to produce ATP. The triglycerides break down into two different items, glycerol and fatty acids. The triglycerides are formed when glycerol binds to three fatty acid molecules. The fatty acids each break down into 2 carbon parts. Each part of the carbon makes Acetyl CoA. The Acetyl CoA molecule then enters the Citric Acid Cycle before it moves on to the next step, the electron transport chain. The end result of each of these steps is the production of 12 ATP (Hudon-Miller, 2012). B. 1. Saturated fats do not contain a carbon-carbon double bond. Unsaturated fats contain at least on carbon-carbon double bond. The saturated fatty acid chains can stack while the unsaturated fatty acid chains are kinked by the double bond. 2. Saturated fats have a high melting point and are solid at room......

Words: 679 - Pages: 3

Biochemistry Task 2

...Biochemistry Task 2 October 17, 2015 (Yatherajam, 2015) (Yatherajam, 2015) Organic Compounds. Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/Notes/API Notes D organic chem.htm Polypeptides (n.d.) Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/biology/chapter5section5.rhtml Pepsin Enzyme: Structure, Function, and Important Facts. (2014, September 25). Retrieved October 16, 2015, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pepsin-enzyme-structure-function-and-important-facts.html There are four forces, both bonds and interactions, which help stabilize or hold together a tertiary structure.  These four forces include hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and disulfide bonds.  Hydrophobic interactions are the weakest of the four forces and they occur between nonpolar amino acids.  According to Borges (2014) these hydrophobic interactions occur in amino acids such as leucine and phenylalanine.  The amino acids involved in hydrophobic interactions are amino acids which are not capable of hydrogen bonding.   The next force is hydrogen bonding, which occurs between polar or charged amino acids like tyrosine and aspartate, according to Borges (2014).  At the oxygen level the amino acids share their hydrogen atom with one another, one hydrogen atom becomes the donor and the other the recipient.  The hydrogen bond is stronger that...

Words: 929 - Pages: 4

Wgu Biochemistry Task 4

... Biochemistry Task 4 09/05/2015 1. Describe two important features that make all enzymes ​catalysts​. A catalyst is a substance which can accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction without going through a chemical change itself. Enzymes are proteins which help accelerate the rate of reactions. Enzymes also lower activation energy without being used. (Hudon­Miller 2012) After and enzyme and substrate bind it converts the substrate to it’s specific product. The enzyme remains unchanged and it is free to move on to other products as the enzyme itself does not undergo a chemical change during this process. 2. Create an original diagram, or series of diagrams, with clear labels, that demonstrates the entire enzymatic cycle described by the lock and key model OR the induced fit model. 3. Create an original diagram, or series of diagrams, with clear labels, that illustrates the activation energy of a reaction in the presence and absence of an enzyme. 4. Explain the reactions catalyzed by enzymes in the first two steps of fructose metabolism in the liver, including ​each​ of the following​: After consumption fructose is transported into the liver. Once in the liver the substrate fructose is catalyzed by fructokinase and substrate F­1­P is formed. This substrate binds with the enzyme Aldolase B creating the products DHAP and glyceraldehyde. These products go through a process......

Words: 952 - Pages: 4

Biochemistry Task 5 Lipids

...Biochemistry Task 5 Lipids A. Adipose tissue stores fat in the body. The fat storage molecule is called a triglyceride. Triglycerides are composed of a glycerol attached to three fatty acids. In order to use a triglyceride for energy, the fatty acids are broken away from the glycerol. These fatty acids are considered free fatty acids. Free fatty acids are broken down, two carbons at a time by beta oxidation. Each two carbon unit becomes Acetyl CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle. Also, during beta oxidation there are electrons and hydrogens that are removed from fatty acid. They are carried by NADH and FADH2 to the electron transport chain. They are used to form ATP from ADP and a phosphate. B. There are two types of fatty acids, saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid. Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen, meaning all the carbons in the chain are filled with hydrogen. Saturated fatty acid chains all look similar which makes it easy for them to build on one another. The force that holds them together is known as hydrophobic interactions. This allows fatty acids to be solid at room temperature. Saturated fatty acids are mainly from animal food sources. Unsaturated fatty acids will not be saturated with hydrogen, instead there is a double bond that lessens the amount of hydrogen in a chain. This double bond bends the tail and the structure becomes irregular. This irregularity doesn’t allow them to stack well, therefore unsaturated fatty......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Biochemistry Task 4

...                  BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 4  Western Governors University  September 14, 2015                  Running head:  BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 4                                                                                    1  A1.  Enzymes increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being altered in the process of the  reaction (Hudon­Miller, 2013).  Enzymes also lower activation energy without altering the  chemical reaction or products (Hudon­Miller, 2013).    A2.          BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 4                                                                                                           2  A3.      A4.  Fructose metabolism has two steps different steps in the liver, the substrate of fructose  breaks down to fructose­1­phosphate by an enzyme called fructokinase; fructose­1­phosphate is  turned into DHAP + glyceraldehyde by an enzyme known as aldolase B, DHAP +glyceraldehyde       BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 4                                                                                                           3  A4 continue  then enters glycolysis, glycolysis turns into pyruvate goes through citric acid cycle and produces  ATP (Hudon­Miller, 2013).        BIOCHEMISTRY TASK 4                                                                                                           5  A5.  In hereditary fructose intolerance there is an aldolase B (which is the enzyme for the  substrate fructose­1­phosph...

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Biochemistry Task 3

...Jessi Ayers 11-8-2015 Biochemistry Task #3 1. Explain two differences between the oxygenated and deoxygenated states of hemoglobin. One big difference would be that the oxygenated state of hemoglobin has oxygen binding to the heme portion of the molecule. Deoxygenated hemoglobin has released the oxygen to the tissues. Hemoglobin has two states; Taut and relaxed. Deoxygenated hemoglobin is in the “T” state and Oxygenated hemoglobin is in the “R” state. Deoxygenated hemoglobin has a low affinity for oxygen in its “T” state, while Oxygenated hemoglobin binds with greater affinity. 2. Explain how pH impacts the binding and release of oxygen by hemoglobin. The way pH acts and binds and releases oxygen is called the, “Bohr effect.” The ability of hemoglobin to bind to oxygen is related to CO2 concentration. CO2 concentration is also directly related to acidity; the more CO2, the higher the acidity, which also means a lower pH level (Low pH equals high acidity). When the CO2 concentration gets higher and the pH gets lower, it causes the hemoglobin to “get rid” of the oxygen. On the flip side, when there is less CO2 and the pH increases, this causes the hemoglobin to “pick up” the oxygen. This process is also known as the, “Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve.” 3. Explain how the diseased cells differ from normal red blood cells in their capacity to transport oxygen. Normal red blood cells contain hemoglobin that assist in transporting oxygen to the whole body, referred to......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2

Wgu Biochemistry Task 3

...WGU Biochemistry Task 3 A1) There are several differences between the oxygenated and deoxygenated states of hemoglobin. One difference can be seen in the conformational state of the hemoglobin protein. When oxygenated, the protein takes on the T (tense) state; and when deoxygenated, the protein takes on the R (relaxed) state (Hudon-Miller, 2012b). Another difference arises when oxygen binds to the hemoglobin, resulting in a change in the shape of the protein. In the deoxygenated state, the heme group forms a domed shape; and in the oxygenated state, the heme group takes on a planar shape (Hudon-Miller, 2012b). A2) The relationship between pH and the ability of hemoglobin to bind and release oxygen is referred to as the Bohr Effect. The blood’s pH level is greatly influenced by the carbon dioxide that is produced by most of the body’s cells during the citric cycle (Hudon-Miller, 2012d). Greater CO2 concentration lowers the blood’s pH level, making it more acidic. In turn, lower CO2 concentration increases the blood’s pH level, making it more basic. Since the lungs function involves breathing in oxygen and blowing out carbon dioxide, the lungs are absolutely crucial in maintaining the pH balance that the blood requires (Hudon-Miller, 2012d). While in the lungs, the hemoglobin becomes saturated with oxygen and slowly delivers it to the body’s tissues as it travels through the bloodstream. At the same time, the hemoglobin is also picking up the carbon dioxide that is......

Words: 597 - Pages: 3

Biochemistry Task 5

...Biochemistry Task 5 March 6, 2016 A. Triglycerides are the main make up of body fat in animals and humans as well as vegetable fat. Triglycerides are made up of glycerol and three fatty acids. Fats or lipids as a whole are not bad for you as they are used for energy, always in moderation, but there are different types of fats that you do need. Your body utilizes saturated fat very fast as opposed to other fats that has to go through different stages to be used. Triglycerides in food are digested and are processed in the liver combining it with a protein and then travel through your blood stream to your cells where they are then used for energy. Glycerol enters into the pathway through the Pyruvate and then onto Acetyl-CoA where it enters the Cori-cycle. From there it is transported to the electron transport chain where the end product is ATP. ATP is the body’s energy. Through beta oxidation fatty acids enters the pathway through the Acetyl-CoA. From here it moves the Cori cycle where they are then broken down into sugars and transported to the electron transport chain where ATP is the end product. Low fat diets are dangerous in that they strip the body of the process of this breakdown. Reduces energy stops the breakdown of fat for use in the digestive system gallbladder and liver. With this reduction the decrease of bile also stops the production of CCK or Cholecystokinin which signals the pancreas to release bile to breakdown the lipids. Simply the product will be...

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Biochemistry Task 2 Wgu

...Biochemistry Task 2 Brandy McDowell 000499302 November 30, 2015 A. (Lyman, 2013) B. (Wolfe, 2000) (Wolfe, 2000) B. (Wolfe, 2000) (Wolfe, 2000) C. (Hudon-Miller, 2012) D. (Hudon-Miller, 2012) E. The four forces that stabilize a protein. * Hydrophobic interactions which are interactions by nonpolar amino acids. The weakest of the four types of bonds. * Hydrogen bond made up of interactions of polar or charged amino acids. The amino acids share their hydrogen. This is also a weak bond, but it is stronger than the hydrophobic interaction. * Ionic bonds are made up of charged amino acids. A positive charge of an amino acid attracts to a negative charge of another amino acid. This bond is a little stronger than the hydrogen bond, but not as strong as the polypeptide bond. * Disulfide bond only occurs between two cysteine amino acids. Two cysteine amino acids form a sulfa-sulfa bridge. This is a strong covalent interaction. (Borges, 2014) F1.  Explain the role of prions in BSE, including each of the following: ●How prions are formed – Prions are malformed proteins. Instead of reproducing, the prions cause normal proteins to change to the malformed version. The normal prion (PrPc) is bound to the surface of neurons. PrPc can be altered and become misfolded taking on a different conformation which is then known as PrPsc. ●The connection between misfolding and aggregation – Because the misfolded prions are......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Biochemistry Task 4

...              Biochemistry Task 4                                                                  Bridget Paget                                                                    540146                                                                June 18th, 2016 ......

Words: 1101 - Pages: 5

Biochemistry Task 4 Wgu

...Task 4: Metabolism 1. They speed up reactions and do not change themselves, which means they can be used over and over. Enzymes help facilitate chemical reactions. Enzymes will lower the activation energy needed to start the reaction and that is how the reaction will be sped up. Enzymes are specific for certain reactions and are proteins. Not all catalysts though are enzymes. (Sanders, 2014) 2. (Gresham HS IB Biology, 2007) 3. (Hudon-Miller, S. 2012) 4 & 5. When table sugar is consumed, it is broken down into glucose and fructose. Glucose is used in the blood stream. Glucose can be stored in the liver as glycogen. Fructose does enter glycolysis, but first two steps are original to fructose. The first step involves breaking down fructose into fructose-1 phosphate by the enzyme, fructokinase. Fructose is the substrate of fructokinase and it’s product is fructose-1 phosphate. Fructose-1 phosphate is converted into DHAP and glyceraldehyde (products), by the enzyme aldolase B which will enter the glycolysis pathway. (Hudon-Miller, S. 2012) In HFI, there is an aldolase deficiency, so there is no conversion of fructose-1 phosphate into DHAP and glyceraldehyde, so they do not enter the glycolysis pathway to produce ATP or in gluconeogenesis. The fructose is still achieving phosphorylation by fructokinase, which results in a build up of fructose-1 phosphate. The liver cells are unable to utilze fructose as energy. There becomes an abundant buildup of......

Words: 756 - Pages: 4