Free Essay

Bio and Electrocardiogram

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By shivsm
Words 3286
Pages 14
DENOISING OF ECG SIGNALS USING WAVELETS
AND CLASSIFICATION USING SVM
Shivanesan S M. 1, Pradheep M. 1, Sharath K. 1, Aravind Prasad. 1, Manoj M. 1
Ganesan M. 2

Abstract- Electrocardiogram is the recording of the electrical potential of heart versus time. The analysis of ECG signal has great importance in the detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper we have dealt about the removal of noises in ECG signals and arrhythmia classification of the signal. The inputs for our analysis is taken from MIT-BIH database (Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Beth Israel Hospital database). The denoising is done through wavelet transform and thresholding.
Confirmatory tools such as Poincare plot and Detrended
Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) are used to find out the healthiness of the signal. Then Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to find out what type of arrhythmia is present in the signal.
Keywords- Classification, DFA Electrocardiogram, MIT-BIH database, Poincare, SVM , Wavelets.

I. INTRODUCTION
In today’s environment there has been lot of threats due to heart disease and no proper diagnosis With the recent developments in technology, physicians have powerful tools to observe the working of the heart muscle and thus to establish their diagnosis. Among cardiovascular examinations, electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis is the most commonly used and very effective too. This is due to the fact that ECG presents useful information about the rhythm and the electrical activity of the heart. Thus, it is used for the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias worldwide. For effective diagnostics, the study of the ECG signal must be carried out for several hours. For this reason, researchers have been interested in enabling computers to classify the abnormal ECG signals. During the last five decades the analysis of ECG signals evolved from simple visual examinations to totally automated analysis [1, 2, 3].
A noise free signal is necessary in any type of signal analysis and classification [4]. Several algorithms have been proposed for denoising of the biomedical signals, especially
ECG signals. Advancement have been done to various fields for denoising and classification of ECG signals. ECG signal is one of the bio signals that is considered as a non-stationary signal and needs a hard work to denoise [5, 6]. An efficient technique for such a non-stationary signal processing is the wavelet transform. The wavelet transform can be used as a decomposition of a signal in the time frequency scale plane.
There are many applications of wavelet transform such as sub-band coding data compression, characteristic point’s detection and noise reduction. In order to reduce the noise of
ECG signal many techniques are available like digital filters
(FIR or IIR), adaptive method and wavelet transform thresholding methods. However, digital filters and adaptive methods can be applied to signal whose statistical characteristics are stationary in many cases. Recently the

wavelet transform has been proven to be useful tool for nonstationary signal analysis.
Thresholding is used in wavelet domain to smooth out or to remove coefficients of wavelet transform. The denoising method that applies thresholding in wavelet domain has been proposed by Donoho as a powerful method [7].
Before classification of these signals to find out the arrhythmia, the need to know whether the signals is abnormal or not becomes necessary. To find out the healthiness of the signal we used two methods Poincare plot and Detrended
Fluctuation analysis (DFA) [8, 9, 10]. After confirming with the abnormality of the signal simple Support Vector Machine
(SVM) is used to train the signals and find out the exact arrhythmia in the ECG signal. In [11], two classification systems based on the support vector machines (SVM) approach are implemented.
1Shivanesan S M, Pradheep M., Sharath K, Aravind Prasad, Manoj M. are students of ECE department, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore
641112, India. e-mail: shiva.rathna@gmail.com
2Ganesan M., (Assistant Professor) is with Department of ECE, Amrita
Vishwa
Vidyapeetham,
Coimbatore
641112,
India.
e-mail: meetganesan@gmail.com The signals for analysis are taken from the MIT-BIH database [12]. We have discussed about how wavelet can efficiently denoise the obtained from the database. The
Poincare plot and Detrended fluctuation analysis are done in order to confirm the abnormality of the signal. The classification of the ECG signal is based on the major arrhythmias that causes threats to human life viz. Bradycardia
Tachycardia, cardiac and ventricular. SVM trains, classifies and finds out what type of abnormality is present.
The article is organised as follows: section II tells about the principle behind wavelet transform and thresholding. Section
III describes about the Poincare plot and Detrended fluctuation
Analysis (DFA). Section IV tells about the SVM classification of arrhythmia. Section V discusses about the results obtained and tabulation. We present our conclusions and future work in the section VI. The overall block diagram is depicted in Fig. 1.

II. WAVELET TRANSFORM
A. Discrete Wavelet Transform:
The wavelet transform is similar to the Fourier transform.
For the FFT, the basis functions are sines and cosines. For the wavelet transform, the basis functions are more complicated called wavelets, mother wavelets or analysing wavelets and scaling function. In wavelet analysis, the signal is broken into shifted and scaled versions of the original (or mother) wavelet.
The fact that wavelet transform is a multiresolution analysis

makes it very suitable for analysis of non-stationary signals such as the ECG signal [13].
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is an implementation of the wavelet transform using a discrete set of the wavelet scales and translations obeying some defined rules. In other words, this transform decomposes the signal into mutually orthogonal set of wavelets. The DWT can be realized in terms of high pass and low pass filters. The approximation properties of filter banks and their relation to wavelets are presented in the paper [14]. The output of the low pass filter gives the approximation coefficients and the output of the high pass filter gives the detailed coefficients.
Inputs
MIT-BIH database Denoising by wavelets

Feature extraction PP & DFA

Arrhythmia classification using SVM

Fig. 1. Overall block diagram
The DWT of an discrete signal x(n) of length M-1 is given in the below equation.
() = ∑ ( , ) 0, () + ∑∞
=0 ( , ) , () (1)
Here Wφ( , ) and Wψ( , ) are called the wavelet coefficients. ,() and 0,() are orthogonal to each other.
Hence we can simply take the inner product to obtain the wavelet coefficients.
1
∑ () 0, [] [0 , ] =
(2)

1

∑ () 0, [] [, ] =
(3)

The coefficients Wφ( ,k) are called the approximation coefficients and the coefficients Wφ( , ) are called the detailed coefficients. The DWT can be realized in terms of high pass and low pass filters. The approximation properties of filter banks and their relation to wavelets are presented in the paper
[14]. The output of the low pass filter gives the approximation coefficients and the output of the high pass filter gives the detailed coefficients. Computation of the wavelet coefficients at every possible scale is a fair amount of work and it generates an awful lot of data. Selection of a subset of scales and positions based on powers of two (dyadic scales and positions) results in a more efficient and accurate analysis.
B. Wavelet Decomposition and Thresholding:
The DWT decomposes the signal into approximate and detail information as discussed. The wavelet decomposition process can be iterated, so that one signal is broken down into many lower resolution components. This is called the wavelet decomposition tree. x(n) cA1 cA2 cAn

cD1 cD2 In this proposed method, the corrupted ECG signal x(n) is denoised by taking the DWT of raw and noisy ECG signal. A family of the mother wavelet is available having the energy spectrum concentrated around the low frequencies like the
ECG signal as well as better resembling the QRS complex of the ECG signal. We have used daubaches wavelet, which resembles the ECG wave. In discrete wavelet transform
(DWT), the low and high frequency components in x(n) is analysed by passing it through a series of low-pass and highpass filters with different cut-off frequencies.
This process results in a set of approximate coefficients (cA) and detail coefficients (cD). To remove the power line interference and the high frequency noise, the DWT is computed to level 4 using daubaches16 (DB16) mother wavelet function and scaling function. Then the approximate coefficients at level 5 (cA5) are set to zero. The residue of the raw signal and the approximate noise is obtained to get noise free ECG signal. The method is based on taking the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of a signal, passing this transform through a threshold, which removes the coefficients below a certain value. = √2 ∗ log()
(4)
Where, T is threshold, n is the number of samples and is the noise standard deviation. Thresholding is applied at every loop to smooth out the signals and denoise the raw data
.
III. FEATURE EXTRACTION
Classification to find out the arrhythmia becomes unnecessary when the ECG signal is normal and does not contain any sort of abnormalities. To visually verify and find out whether the signals are normal or not we use two highly accurate methods.
The Poincare plot and the Detrended Fluctuation analysis
(DFA).
A. Poincare Plot:
The Poincare plot of RR intervals is one of the techniques used in heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. It is both a useful visual tool which is capable of summarizing an entire RR time series derived from an electrocardiogram in one picture, and a quantitative technique which gives information on the longand short-term HRV. A Poincare plot of RR intervals is composed of points ( , +1), that is each point in the plot corresponds to two consecutive RR intervals [15]. The resulting cloud of points is usually characterized by its length
(SD2) along the line of identity and its breadth across this line
(SD1). The visual inspection of the formed shapes of the
Poincare plot of RR intervals is a widely used method for analysing the quality of recorded ECG signals and to identify premature and ectopic beats, as well as technical artefacts. The plot of a healthy person will have a comet shaped structure along the line of identity [16]. Also the ratio of the Poincare descriptors (SD1, SD2) should be high for a healthy person.
Let RR, x and y vectors be defined as = (1, 2 … … . , +1 ), = (1 , 2 , … . . , ) = (1 , 2 , … … , ) = (1 , 2 , … . , , ) = (2 , 3 , … … , +1 ),
(5)

cDn

Fig. 2. Decomposition tree

1

1 = √ ∑ =1( 1 )2

(6)

1

2 = √ ∑ =1( 2 )2

1 =

( −̅ )−( − )
√2

,

(7)

2 =

( −̅ )+( − )
√2

(8)

The over bar stands for mean.
By calculating SD1 and SD2 from the eq. (6) & (7) and finding the ratio of the descriptors we could comment on the abnormality. But the ECG signals involve more than a b than two classes, so we need a classifier that is more than a binary classifier [16,
17]. The widely practised ones are one-against-all (OAA) and the one-against-one (OAO) strategies. The one against one
(−1)
constructs 2 decision functions for all the combinations of class pairs. Experimental results in [18] indicate that the oneagainst-one is more suitable for practical use. (More details appeared in [18]). We use OAO for ECG multi class classification. B. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA):

V. RESULTS AND TABULATION

This is also a plot analysis by which we could visually see and comment on the abnormality of the given ECG signal. The plot here is a double logarithmic plot. Its log F(n) versus log(n). The main objective of DFA is to extract the extrinsic fluctuations in order to allow the analysis of the signal’s variability associated exclusively with autonomic control. The integrated signal y(k) is then segmented into multiple windows of length n. For each of these windows, a least-squares firstorder approximation (a line segment) is calculated, representing the “trend” of that segment of the signal that has been found out. The trend signal yn(k) in Eq. (10), formed by the line segments, is an approximation to the integrated signal y(k). 1

() = √ ∑ =1 ()2 ,

(9)

A. Wavelet denoising:
The denoised signal is evaluated on the basis of SNR and correlation factor. Records or samples from MIT-BIH database were used. The tabulation below shows the records used and the SNR of the filters.DB16 was found to denoise effectively. ∑

2 () 2 ()
=0

= 10 ∑ =0

(13)

(n): the deformation in reconstructed ECG signal. (n): the original signal.
Table 1. SNR values of various records and filters

(10)
(11)

Where () is the duration of the i-th RR interval, is the mean interval, and k is the current output sample timeindex. The slope of the line (log F(n)& log (n)) gives us a coefficient called α which gives us the HRV fluctuations. The normal plot of DFA is shown in the Fig 3.

DB4

DB6

DB16

Sym8

100

12.37

11.86

13.06

7.37

105

13.15

9.47

11.65

4.75

112

12.47

11.9

12.92

6.84

228

() = () − ().

() = ∑ =1[() − ]

SAMPLES
MIT-BIH

18.05

16.5

17.57

11.72

Table 2. Correlation values
SAMPLES
MIT-BIH

IV. SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE
The support vector (SV) machine is a new type of learning machine. It is based on statistical learning theory. Support vector machines (SVMs) are becoming popular in a wide variety of biological applications. The main use of SVM is classification. They were used in cancer cells classification and now SVM’s are used widely in biomedical signal analysis.
Here we have employed SVM to classify the ECG signal and to find out the arrhythmia present in it. SVM finds the optimal separating hyper plane (OSH) with the minimum errors. The linear separation hyper plane is in the form of
() = + .
(12)

DB6

DB16

Sym8

100
Fig 3. Normal DFA plot.

DB4
0.8279

0.4599

0.9325

0.1120

105

0.3146

0.2935

0.5848

0.0662

112

0.6291

0.4878

0.6661

0.4522

228

0.6222

0.4826

0.7929

0.4882

From the Table 1 and Table 2 we found out that DB16 denoised the signal efficiently and can be used for effective denoising of ECG signals.
B. Poincare Plot:
The Fig 4 below shows the Poincare plot of the record 228 of the MIT-BIH database. From the figure we could see that

the shape is not comet shaped along the line of incidence
(LOI) as discussed in section three. So just by looking at graph of the Poincare plot we can tell that the signal is abnormal and contains some kind of artefact.

Record

Table 3. SVM arrhythmia classification
Normal/abnormal Type of arrhythmia

112

Abnormal

Bradycardia

219

Abnormal

Tachycardia

228

Abnormal

Bradycardia

VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
The results shown above are the outputs of the record 228.
Similarly other records from the MIT-BIH database were run and the outputs were verified and type of arrhythmia present in it was found and analysed. The Poincare plot and Detrended
Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) are highly accurate in determining the abnormality of the ECG signal. It’s fast and just by looking
Fig 4. Poincare plot of record 228 at the output plot of the ECG signal we can comment on the abnormality of the signal. This paper throws light on the
SD1= 317.2 method of denoising that can efficiently remove various noises
SD2= 317.0 like baseline wander, power line interference etc. from the ECG
1
= 1.0062 signal. We have also seen that the best filter for denoising ECG
2
signals was DB16 which has got the maximum number of
The ratio of SD1 and SD2 is very low and hence the signal is vanishing moments. The higher the vanishing moments higher will be the amount of denoising but not at the cost of losing the abnormal. original data from the signal. SVM has always been an accurate classifier and one against one (OAO) strategy is used for
C. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: multiclass classification of ECG signals. Keeping in mind that
The fig 5 below shows the DFA plot of the record 228 of the ECG being a non-stationary signal, we have designed the entire
MIT-BIH database. Comparing the Fig 5 with the normal plot block that can handle the non-stationary ECG signal.
The inputs to the whole setup was taken from the MIT-BIH from the Fig 3 we see the plot is disfigured and the abnormality database and not real time ECG signals. In the future ECG is confirmed. signals can be acquired from the human and can be sent as the inputs and the type of arrhythmia can be found. Since it is going to be real time acquisition of data, the amount of noise present will be more, so care must be taken while denoising the real time signals.
VII. REFERENCES
[1]

[2]

The alpha value is found from the slope of the line formed in the plot.

Henzel N., and J. L ski, 1999. “Analiza sygnalu HRV w podpasmach widmowych. Biocybernetyka i In ynieria Biomedyczna,” PAN, pp
418-422.

[3]

Merri M., M. Alberto M. and A. J. Moss, 1993. “Dynamic analysis of ventricular representation Duration from 24-hour recording”. IEEE
Transactions on biomedical engineering, Vol. 40, No. 12.

[4]

Luca Mainadri T., A. M. Bianchi and S. Baselli, Cerutti, 1995. “Poletracking algorithms for the extraction of time-variant heart rate variability spectral parameters,” IEEE Transactions on biomedical engineering, Vol.
42, No.3. pp: 20-31.

[5]

Fig 5. DFA plot of record 228

Henzel N., and J. Leski, 1999. “Efectywna obliczeniowo metoda analizy acyklicznych zdarza przy pomocy technik wieloczstotliwociowych,” XI konferencja Biocybernetyka i Inzynieria
Biomedyczna, pp 188-122.

Leski J., 1991, “Detectja zespolów QRS dla zaklóconych signalów
EKG,” Post. Fiz. Mid., 26, 3-4 PL ISSN 0137-8465.

[6]

Shrouf A. 1994. “The lineal prediction methods analysis and compression”, PhD thesis of lsk Technical University in Gliwice.

α = 0.2783 (Anti-correlated)
D. Support Vector Machine:
The signals are trained and classified by the SVM algorithm as discussed earlier. The table below shows the arrhythmia present in the record 228.

[7]

D. L. Donoho, 1991. “De-noising by soft thresholding”, IEEE
Transaction on Information Theory, Vol. 41, pp. 613–627, May 1995

[8]

M. Brennan, M. Palaniswami and P. Kamen, IEEE Trans. Biomed.
Eng. 48, 1342 (2001).

[9]

M. Brennan, M. Palaniswami and P. Kamen, Am. J. Physiol. Heart
Circ. Physiol. 283, H1873 (2002).

[10]

K. Hu, P.C. Ivanov, Z. Chen, P. Carpena and H.E. Stanley, “Effects of trends on detrended fluctuation analysis,” Physical Review E, 2001, vol. 64, 011114.

[11]

S. Osowski, T. Linh, and T. Markiewicz, “Support vector machinebased expert system for reliable heartbeat recognition,” IEEE
Transactions On Biomedical Engineering, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 582–589,
Avril 2004.

[12]

www.physionet.org

[13]

Mahmoodabadi and S. Ahmadian, “ECG feature extraction based on multiresolution wavelet transform”, Proceedings of the IEEE 27th
Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, pp.
3902–3905, Shanghai, China, January 2005.

[14]

M. Vettereli, “Wavelets, approximation and compression”, IEEE
Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 59–73, August 2001.

[15]

Brennan M, Palaniswami M and Kamen P 2001 “Do existing measures of Poincar´e plot geometry reflect nonlinear features of heart rate variability?” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 48 1342–47

[16]

F. Melgani and L. Bruzzone, “Classification of hyper spectral remote sensing images with support vector machine,” IEEE Trans. Geosci.
Remote Sens., vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1778–1790, Aug. 2004.

[17]

W.Hsu and C.-J. Lin, “A comparison of methods for multiclass support vector machines,” IEEE Trans. Neural Networks., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 415–425, Mar. 2002.

[18]

Hsu, C.-W., Lin, C.-J., “A comparison of methods for multiclass support vector machines”, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 13(2), 415425, 2002…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Bio Fuel

...(8) Many experts today believe that bio-fuel production causes more problems than it solves. Describe the main reasoning behind this view. · Bio-fuel production causes loss of tropical forest and other natural habitats, depletes oil, accelerates climate change, and exacerbates world hunger. · To grow biofuel crops, there needs to be cutting and burning of forests · You need burning of oil based fuel and use of petroleum based fertilizers to grow biofuel crops which leads to less oil which leads to a new for more biofuel so you burn all the forests and you need the oil to regrow them again · Deforestation – especially in South America and Indonesia accounts for 20% of all carbon emissions · Farming biofuels produces nitrous oxide which is bad for climate change · Large scale burning and cutting to grow crops –including biofuel crops- also causes adjacent forest decline: it causes reduced transpiration and hence reduced rainfall in adjacent forest areas result in drought cycle which accelerated death of trees which further reduces transpiration and rainfall. The accelerated death of trees results in warming of forest floor and accelerated decomposition of soil organic matter and explosion of termite population son dead tree trunks and branches. Both of this releases huge quantities of methane and carbon dioxide · The use of biodiesel from algae is not as green as it seems. It can generate four times the greenhouse emissions from regular...

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bios

...Video Summary BIOS One of the most common uses of Flash memory is for the basic input/out put system of you computer, commonly known as the BIOS. The BIOS makes sure all other chips, hard drives, ports and CPU function together. BIOS is the first program that is activated during the boot, running on ROM, ready only memory. Start up BIOS activates the POST bootstrap loader which runs POST. POST checks the basic system hardware testing memory and assigning system resources. Startup BIOS also check the CMOS, comparing them to the hardware found during POST. CMOS setting are stored in the RAM ( Random Access Memory) and are not permanent as BIOS setting are and can be changed by the user. BOIS and CMOS are different they are stored on different chips. BIOS are stored in ROM and CMOS are stored in RAM. BIOS are permanent, while CMOS are volatile, it can be erased if the power goes off. BIOS cannot be edited by users. CMOS can be edited by users, configuration can be saved. CMOS setting are not lost because of the CMOS battery, providing power during shutdown. Preserves CMOS configuration stored in RAM. If the battery dies the symptoms would be low battery= slow clock, dead battery which means checksum error during boot. The system will reboot once you clear the checksum error. After POST is complete and the CMOS are checked, the BIOS check the MBR (Master Boot Record), which is located on the first sector on the hard drive. MBR finds the activate partition and loads the......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bio-Clear

...FACTS OF THE CASE 1. Mr. T. Wan was struggling with unsold inventory consisting mostly of the more sophisticated and computerized higher priced BIO-CLEAR models. 2. Poor and marginal sales in rural and urban areas. 3. Product sales were barely covering costs. PROBLEM How can Mr. T. Wan of RW & Company capture the market of air purifier and increase the volume of sales? OBJECTIVE 1. To determine what causes the poor sales of BIO-CLEAR 2. To recommend the necessary modifications in the marketing strategy or on the product features to improve sales. 3. To reintroduce the product to the market. AREAS OF CONSIDERATION 1. Product identity and specifications of different models. 2. Focus on a specific market. Where and who will buy the product. 3. Product promotion of RW & Company & foreign suppliers. 4. Pricing of air-purifiers. Strength | Weakness | a. Offered five models b. Manual and automatic sensor c. It can control air pollution d. All models can be controlled by infrared remote | a. Models look almost exactly the same b. They have the same output c. Can only be use in a closed room d. Only expensive models have automatic sensors | Opportunities | Threats | a. First product in local market that improves air quality b. High-end technology product c. Unique environmental control product | a. Unknown to the public b. High price c. Competitive environment (electric fans, coolers, air......

Words: 621 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bios for Beginners

...OS Class – Toms Hardware Essay – 02-15-14 BIOS For Beginners “BIOS for Beginners” explains just how essential the BIOS is for any standard personal computer built today. The BIOS which stands for the Basic Input Output System is a chip installed directly on the motherboard and acts as the middle man that gives commands between the hardware and the operating system. Having incorrect settings on the BIOS can slow your computer down nearly in half which is why it is so important as a technician to understand how it works and the importance of each function it provides. As processors advance, the more complex the BIOS becomes as well often leaving even experienced computer technicians scratching their heads. Any wrong move when altering settings can lead to your computer malfunctioning. If this happens, you may need to completely reset the BIOS to the factory settings using the jumpers built in on the motherboard. “It is recommended that you reboot after each individual BIOS setting change to ensure that your system functions normally. If you make numerous changes before rebooting, and your system will no longer boot, you won't know which change is responsible for the failure,” http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/bios-beginners,1126.html. To enter the BIOS in most computers, you will be using the F1, F2 or DEL button to enter the system. However, there are sometimes a couple other options as well given from a list of options when accessing damages and repairing the......

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mozart Bio

...his father who taught them about music. His sister played the keyboard and was quite good, but at the age of four years old Mozart outshined her. It was at a young age his father could tell he was meant to be a great musician and composer. His father was not only a musical teacher, but was an educated man as well and so naturally his father taught Mozart, and so it was that he was further along in his education than most boys his age, but for Mozart music was his passion, love, main interest. (Funk & Wagnalls New World) Amadeus was such a talented man that he was able to play the violin and harpsichord by the age of four, and a year later he was composing music. At age six Wolfgang went on his first tour escorted by his family. (Bio. A&E Television) The majority of his younger life was spent touring, and it was during this time he met Johann Sebastian Bach who was a great influence to Wolfgang, as well as Josef Mysliveček, Giovanni Battista Martini. It was during this time in 1770 that Mozart wrote an opera called Mitridate, re di Ponto, he also wrote the motet Exsultate, jubilate, K. 165, toward the end of his time in Italy which led to more commissions for him. Upon returning to Salzburg Mozart became the court musician for Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo. During his tenure at the court he had the chance to work many different types of music, but it was during this time he found he enjoyed violins, so it was that he wrote five violin concertos, but......

Words: 3538 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Bio/101

...What is life? Shauna L Joseph BIO/101 December 22nd, 2014 Heather Browning What is life? Part I: Media Relevancy Read each statement. Write a 100-word summary explaining how the chosen media piece supports the statement. Include reference citations. 1. Find a media piece—article, video, presentation, song, or other that recognizes the fundamental concepts of chemistry in biology. Include a link or reference citation for the piece and describe how it helped you better understand how fundamental concepts of chemistry affect biology. After my research at www.infoplease.com it has helped me to understand how fundamental concepts of chemistry affects biology by breaking down the concept of why chemistry and biology goes hand in hand. Infoplease, (2000-2014), stated that biology explained the living parts of the world and their environment. It also said that biology requires a little knowledge of chemistry and that it is important to know aspects of chemistry to make biology come alive. We all know that the understanding of chemistry requires a little mathematic but it is not important to go into detailed mathematical applications to understand the principles of biology. So what is the fundamental concepts of chemistry in biology? Biology overlaps with chemistry in explaining the structure and function of all cellular processes at the molecular level. Reference: Pearson Education. (10/2013). Infoplease. Retrieved from......

Words: 1967 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Bios Chips

...One interesting thing you will see with the use of two BIOS chips. The M-BIOS chip is the Main BIOS chip and the B-BIOS chip is the Backup BIOS chip, which is used to rewrite the M-BIOS chip if it becomes corrupted. LGA Stands for Land grid array It works a a few processors such as the Intel Core i7,i3,i5 Xeon, Pentium, Celeron. The purpose of the LGA 1156 Is to connect a processor to the motherboard. The Intel H55 Chipset utilizes the 1st gen. Intel i core series CPUs integrated graphics capability. The Giga byte GA-H55M-UD2H is great for charging Apple devices with by turning it on and off, having 3x’s the power for USB for great USB usage. It also has an easy BIOS setting as well as 2 PCI-E 2.0x 16 graphics interface with ATI Cross Fire X support for graphics performance. The AMD 770 Northbridge chipset is used with the Phenom Series made by ATI. This is used for performance for the graphics. The AMD SB710 Southbridge chipset is a high-performance embedded platform solution that packs HyperTransport™ 3.0 Technology, 1 PCI Express® Generation 2, DirectX® 10 and high definition hardware video decode into a solution targeted at high end embedded client applications. It is for use with Embedded AMD Athlon single and dual-core processors from 8W to 35W. Also it is designed to also be compatible with quad-core AMD Phenom processors. It has up to 128MB DDR3 dedicated frame buffer (sideport memory) for optimizations in power savings and video decoding. Used for operating......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bio Fuels

...carbon-neutral cycle. Finally, carbon negative fuels, these fuels will also absorb carbon dioxide when they grow as well as carbon neutral fuels, but the difference is when carbon negative fuels burn and used as fuel, not the same amount of carbon dioxide which absorb when they grow will release, they tend to release small amount into the atmosphere. In other words, these fuels can reduce carbon dioxide (Mathew, 2008). Diagram source: http://biopact.com/2007/10/strange-world-of-carbon-negative.html. Convenience Biofuels is convenience because it does not require changes to switch to use compare with the other renewable energy, for example, solar energy and wind energy. (Want to know it, 2010). For the transport vehicle, Use of bio-diesel and bio-petrol do not require any change in the vehicle engine (Times internet limit, 2008). 3. Disadvantages Soil degradation The more alternative energy sources, for example biofuels, the greater the demand of agricultural land. Such as Amazon basin, scientist predicted deforestation will escalate, with growing amounts of virgin rainforest being cleared for farmland, thus greater soil degradation are going to ensue (Charles et al). Impact on water resources Increase the use of biofuels will definitely increase the use of water resources, such as: water will be used for the irrigation of crops used as feedstock for biodiesel production and water is used for boiling and cooling in the process of producing biofuels in refineries.......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Bios and Post

...and Logic Understanding The BIOS and POST Student Name Introduction Inside every PC is a BIOS, which stands for Basic Input Output System.  In a nutshell, BIOS is software that interacts between a computer’s hardware and the operating system and software applications.  There are several types of BIOS', ranging from the motherboard ROM BIOS to adapter BIOS' such as video BIOS, drive controller BIOS, network adapter BIOS, SCSI adapter BIOS, etc... These BIOS' are the lowest level of software in a computer providing a set of small programs or software routines that allow the hardware of a computer to interact with the operating system by a set standard. The Boot Process To get to the operating system, a computer must first boot from the BIOS.  The BIOS performs a number of tasks when a computer is started.  From initializing the microprocessor to initializing and testing hardware to starting the operating system.  Starting a computer is not a simple task.  It's a methodical process that is performed every time power is applied to a computer. This process will vary with different computers and different BIOS', but the overall goal is the same. When you first turn on a computer the very first operation performed by the CPU is to read the address space at FFFF:0000h. This address space is only 16 bytes, which is not nearly enough space to house the BIOS found on a motherboard.  Instead, this location contains a special......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Biog (Bio)

...Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio Bio......

Words: 388 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Bio-Technology

...INTRODUCTION Biotechnology is one of the innovative branches of science. Biotechnology has created new revolutions in this era by contributing industries, medical sciences, food technologies and genetics. "Biotechnology is basically defined as the use of living organisms, their parts and their biochemical processes for the creation of beneficial products." Bio-technology has its roots in the distant past and has a large, highly profitable, modern industrial outlets of great value to society for e.g. the fermentation, bio-pharmaceutical and food industries. The main reasons must be associated with the rapid advances in molecular biology, in particular, recombinant DNA technology, which is now giving bio-scientists a remarkable understanding and control over biological processes. Some Technologies used in Biotechnology: 1. Bioprocessing technology * The use of bacteria, yeast, mammalian cells and/or enzymes to manufacture products * Large scale fermentation and cell cultures, carried out in huge bioreactors, manufacture useful products * Products: Insulin, vaccines, vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids, etc. 2. Monoclonal antibodies (MCAb) * Definition: Producing antibodies for medicine by cloning a single cell * MCAb are used for Home Pregnancy tests * Used to detect cancer (they bind to tumor cells) * Used to detect diseases in plants and animals and environmental pollutants 3. CELL...

Words: 8297 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Bios

...Nonvolatile BIOS memory - CMOS [pic] CMOS Battery in a Pico ITX motherboard Non-volatile BIOS memory refers to the memory on a personal computer motherboard containing BIOS settings and sometimes the code used to initialize the computer and load the operating system. The non-volatile memory was historically called CMOS RAM or just CMOS because it traditionally used a low-power CMOS memory chip (the Motorola MC146818, or one of its higher-capacity clones), which was powered by a small battery when the system power was off. The term remains in wide use in this context, but has also grown into a misnomer. The non-volatile BIOS storage in contemporary computers might be in an EEPROM or flash memory chip and not in a volatile CMOS RAM. In these cases, the battery back-up is meant to keep the RTC chip synchronized. The NVRAM normally has a storage capacity of 512 Bytes, which is enough for all BIOS-settings. CMOS mismatch CMOS mismatch errors typically occur if the computer's power-on self-test program: 1. Finds a device that is not recorded in the CMOS. 2. Does not find a device that is recorded in the CMOS. 3. Finds a device that has different settings than those recorded for it in CMOS. 4. Detects a CMOS checksum error. [1] [2] CMOS battery [pic] Type CR2032 button cell, most common CMOS battery. The memory and real-time clock are generally powered by a CR2032 lithium coin cell. These cells last two to ten years, depending on the type of......

Words: 11993 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Bios

...BIOS 255 Lymphatic System Assignment Student: ________________________________ Date:____________________________________ 1.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic duct B.  right lymphatic duct C.  cysterna chyli D.  lumbar trunk E.  bronchomediastinal trunk   2.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  stomach B.  spleen C.  pancreas D.  liver E.  thymus   3.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  uvula B.  palatine tonsil C.  pharyngeal tonsil D.  lingual tonsil E.  thymus   4.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic nodes B.  iliac nodes C.  cervical nodes D.  axillary nodes E.  mediastinal nodes   5.  Which structure is highlighted?  [pic]    A.  thoracic nodes B.  inguinal nodes C.  cervical nodes D.  cysterna chyli E.  mediastinal nodes   6. Which cell type transforms into plasma cells under the influence of cytokines?  A. T-Helper cells B. Antigen presenting cells C. Cytotoxic T-cells D. B-cells   7. What cell type is stimulated by Helper T-cells?  A. B-cell B. Antigen presenting cell C. Cytotoxic T-cell D. Macrophage   8.  Lymph is similar to blood plasma, but very low in   A.  protein. B.  carbon dioxide. C.  metabolic waste. D.  electrolytes. E.  sodium and potassium.   9.  _____________ are the largest of the lymphatic vessels and they empty into the _______________.   A.  Lymphatic trunks; collecting ducts B. ......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Bios

...Introduction To sum of the differences between ROM RAM BIOS and Post I will simply define the basis of each component while defining what they do. ROM is short for (Read-only Memory) Memory which data is prerecorded on a computer. ROM is simply data that cannot be eliminated even when the computer is off. When working in ROM it is difficult or nearly impossible to change. BIOS is short for the acronym (Basic Input Output System) it is a program which stores detailed information and enable the computer to boot. In addition a ROM chip located on the motherboard, it lets you access the basic setup and ensures that the BIOS will readily be available and will not de damaged by disk failures. RAM is (Random Access Memory) Memory that can be access randomly memory that can be access without touching preceding bytes. RAM is the typical memory found in most computers or printers. In addition, RAM is a volatile memory that requires power to keep information accessible. If power is lost, then memory can be lost. Lastly Post is the self-test which is activated by Bios. The post is designed to run checks on the motherboard. It necessary to use ROM for the BIOS because the ROM retains information on the computer even while shut down whereas RAM does not. Whenever a computer is being use the information is being stored on the RAM if the is ever a power shortage or the computer lose power the information is lost. RAM does not store memory when there is no power. POST beep codes make...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Bio-Medicine

...in need of provision. It can be explained that health and illness are simply biological descriptions of the state of our bodies. The structures of the body have been mapped out through genetics. This is ever closer inspection of the body or as Foucault 1977 would suggest through this ‘medical gaze’ which has brought considerable power to the medical profession. The sociology of health and illness is concerned with the social origins of and influence on disease rather than exploring its organic manifestation in individual bodies. The sociology of medicine is concerned with exploring the social, historical and cultural reasons for the rise of medicine particularly the bio-medicine model in the definition and treatment of illness. A more refined version of this common sense view underlies the long standing bio-medical model of disease based on the following assumptions. Firstly that disease is an organic condition and non-organic factors associated with the human mind are considered unimportant or are ignored altogether in the search for biological causes of pathological symptoms. Secondly that disease is a temporarily an organic state that can be eradicated and cured by medical intervention. Disease is experienced by a sick individual who then becomes the object of treatment. Disease is therefore treated after the symptoms appear and the application of medicine is a reactive healing process. It I treated in a medical environment in a surgery or hospital away from the site......

Words: 990 - Pages: 4