Bio Technology Lab

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Submitted By bluengrey7
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DNA, one of the most important molecules of all living organisms, holds the genetic imformation that determines the strucure of proteins of every individual organism. Being used in millions of organisms, those living and non-living, DNA can be formed in almost an infinite amount of combinations, making millions of unique traits. DNA has been used in the organisms living on the Earth since the beginning of life, about three or four billion years ago. The search for the chemical identitiy of genetic material started more than a century ago. Im 1869, a method was publshed by Swiss scientist Frederick Miescher on how to separate the cell nuclei from the cytoplasm. In doing that, an acid material was extracted from the cell nuclei which Miescher called "nuclein". Later on, nuclein, which was now called nucleic acid, was found to be involved with different proteins formed in combinations called nucleoproteins. Each nucleotide is made up of a sugar moiety, a phosphate group, and either a purine base or a pyrimidine base. The sugars that had five carbons was given the name ribose whlie the sugar lacking on oxygen atom was givn the name dioxiribose. Since no nucleic acid can contain both of these sugar, there are two types of nucleic acid: ribonucleic acid (RNA), and deoxiribose nucleic acid (DNA). In the 1950, the structure of DNA was cleared with the help from chromatographic separation and X-ray studies. From that it was established that DNA generally is in the form as a duplex in whuch one polynucleotide strand chain is linked to a secon "complementary" strand by hydrogen bonds formed between the purine and pyrimadine bases. The hydrogen bases are formed beween adenine and thymine, an guanine and cytosine, and can be organized in any sequence. The phosphate-sugar chains are anti-parallel. The process of DNA extraction and purification from cells is very important…...

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