Bio Essay

In: Science

Submitted By Mase218
Words 746
Pages 3
Describe how the animal species richness found in the Galeolaria caespitose clump biotype could be affected by pollution
Marine ecosystems are known to have rich biodiversity of species and therefore generally thought of as being stable and resilient to natural progressions of the earth (Johnson, Roberts, 2009) Disturbances in the habitat by unnatural means, such as pollution, can harm the balance of these ecosystems as the species are unable to adapt to the unusual contaminants that would not naturally encounter. One part of this ecosystem is the calcareous tubes secreted by the polychaete worm called Galeolaria caespitoa which are found in large clumps on pier pilings and in the intertidal zones of rocky shores (Ladiges et al. 2010). When viewing the calcareous tubes for the first time it appears that there is only one species, the Galeolaria caesplitoa, present but upon further inspection a diverse range of species can be found including annelids, molluscs and arthropods. These species all exist in this clump and benefit from the stability and protection that the clumps provide, but the introduction of a unnatural occurrence such as pollution can affect the way these animal feed, breed and breathe.

The main source of pollution that comes into contact with marine ecosystems is sewerage which contains waste materials from everyday human activities such as slaughterhouse wastes, animal remains, domestic wastes, industrial wastes, faecal matter and many others (Islam, Tanaka, 2004). The addition of these waste materials leads to an increase in the nutrients in the water and the main nutrient is nitrogen. Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in natural marine ecosystems and keeps the growth of marine plants in check (Constanzo, O’Donohue, Dennison, Loneragan, & Thomas, 2001). The first organisms to benefit from this increase are algae which increase rapidly in…...

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