Bio 1132: Review Exam 2

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Review – Exam 2

This is just an outline; make sure you go over everything.

Materials: Exam 2 will cover chapters 13, 14, 15, 18 & 19: everything we have covered in the class. Exam 2 will start Sharp at 6:00 pm. The allotted time for exam 2 will be 6:00 to 6:50 pm

Format: There will be 40 multiple choice questions, scantrons will be provided.

Main Concepts

Chapter 13: * Soil forming factors * Soil formation begins with fragmentation of parent material. * Parent material consists of ancient layers of rock, or more recent deposits from lava flows or glacial activity. * The first organisms to gain a foothold in modified parent material also contribute to soil formation. * Lichens form pioneer communities. * Decomposition of dead lichens further alters underlying rock.
Humus is the organic material resulting from the decay of plant and animal remains. * It mixes with top layers of mineral particles, and supplies needed nutrients to plants. * It creates a crumbly soil that allows adequate water absorption and drainage. * Burrowing animals such as earthworms bring nutrients up from deeper soil layers, improving soil fertility. *

* The organic material resulting from the decay of plant and animals remains is called………….?
HUMUS
* Soil properties: Soil texture
Soil texture is determined by the size of mineral particles within the soil. * Too many large particles (sand, gravel) lead to extreme leaching. * Too many small particles (clay) lead to poor drainage.

* What are the major soil classification types in North America
Over 15,000 separate soil types have been classified in North America. * Most cultivated land can be classified as either grassland or forest soil. * Grassland soils usually have a deep topsoil layer. A lack of leaching results in a…...

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