Avoid Predation by Evolution

In: Science

Submitted By JosephYang
Words 1705
Pages 7
------------------------------------------------- avoid predation by evolution

Joseph Yang
April 13, 2015

Joseph Yang
April 13, 2015

Evolution is a change in the gene frequency in a population through time. Evolution causes an organism’s ability to survive to increase. In many cases, predators evolve to catch their prey more efficiently. Evolution is not one sided. The prey also evolves to avoid predation. In this paper, I will discuss three researches done on a prey’s evolution to survive against predation. I will discuss the tail autonomy in Tokay gecko (Sanggaard et al. 2012), the odorous and non-fatal secretion in Wrinkled frog (Yoshimura and Kasuya 2013), and the avoidance response in Brownbanded bamboo shark embryos (Kempster et al. 2013). Together, these studies show the effectiveness and vital impact of evolution to the survival of prey. Sanggaard et al. (2012) researched evolution in Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) to investigate the mechanism of their tail autonomy by facilitating autonomy. The geckos were euthanized by pentobarbital and the tails were removed by induced autonomy. Moisture from the exposed end of the tail was collected and subjected to Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry and analyzed using MS-BLAST. The tails’ structure was analyzed through multiple methods. Through Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Micro Imaging 5 probe, a Great 60 Imaging system, a saddle coil, and a gradient cooling temperature of 20°C was utilized. Electron Microscopy and 3D Fast Low-Angle Shot sequence were utilized. Scanning Electron Microscopy was utilized and the tails were observed through a FEI NOVA NanoSEM 600. The analysis showed that there was a fat layer around the vertebra and the muscle was between the fat layer and dermis. The autonomy septum divided the fat and muscle regions in each fracture planes. A dorsal median septum, a ventral…...

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