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ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) IN THE NIGERIAN AEC INDUSTRY.
A case study of selected firms.

BY

GYET, DAVID
U11AT1038

PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (BSc.) DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURE

AUGUST 2015
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the work in this project titled “ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) IN THE NIGERIAN AEC INDUSTRY.
A case study of selected firms.” has been performed by me in the department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria under the supervision of Arc A.S Salisu. The information derived from the literature has been duly acknowledged in the text and a list of references provided. No part of this project report was previously presented for another degree or diploma at this or any other institution.

____________________________ _______________________
Gyet David Date
(U11AT1038)
.
CERTIFICATION
This project report entitled “ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) IN THE NIGERIAN AEC INDUSTRY. A case study of selected firms.” By GYET DAVID (U11AT1038) meets the regulations governing the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture (BSc. Architecture) of Ahmadu Bello University, and is approved for its contribution to knowledge and literary presentation.

___________________________ ______________________
Arc. A.S Salisu Date
(Project Supervisor)

___________________________ ______________________
Dr. M. D. Ahmad Date
(Head of Department)

DEDICATION

I dedicated this project to my ever loving, caring and compassionate mother, Mrs. Esther H. Gyet. You have been my mother, father, brother and friend. I can never thank you enough. May God grant you the longest life ever in Jesus’ Name, Amen.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am ever grateful to the Almighty GOD, the most benevolent and most merciful, who gave me the strength, wisdom, patience, guidance and understanding for the successful completion of my course of study. For all things work together for good for those who love God and are called according to His purpose.
My deepest appreciation and sincere gratitude goes to my loving and caring parent, my mother Mrs Esther Gyet, for this journey has been a physical as well as financial burden on you, and may God give you the long life to enjoy the fruits of your labour and my late father Mr. Steven S. Gyet. I also want to thank my most love sisters, Maryam, Ruth, Bathsheba and Grace for their moral and financial support throughout my course of study. May Allah lift you higher and give you the strength to conquer all misgivings, Amen.
My profound and sincere appreciation goes to my ever meticulous and hardworking co-ordinators Dr. J. J. Maina, whose efforts, moral support, useful suggestions, constructive criticism and advice has been of tremendous help to me. With deep respect I acknowledge her patience, resilience, humour, guidance and interest throughout the course of this work. I wish to also thank the entire lecturers and staff of Department of Architecture, for their advices and encouragement.
Shout out to Ejizy (roommate), Gbenga, Haggai, Onahi, Johnson, Kunle, Kevin, Moses, Bawa, Haruna (Harry), Gana, Mike. Not forgetting Nasiba, Jash, Hawwa, Aisha (sunshine), Zuweira, Ronke, Amal, Jinko, Angela, Sakina, Zainab (big), Maryam (small), Nusrah, Fati, Raja and the greatest U11AT set (class of 2015), it has been fun all the way from the beginning till now, may God continue blessing you and not to forget the MMG mob.
Thank you very much.

ABSTRACT

The AEC industry is a very important sector in the world today. Due to this nature of the industry, there is a need for improved methods and processes for better productivity in services rendered to the public which have been made easy by the introduction of the Building Information Modeling (BIM). Documented uses and benefits of BIM in some countries AEC industry have been carried out and none done in the Nigeria context, having a major building industry in Africa. Thus, this research is aimed to achieve same researches done in foreign AEC industries. Gained from an extensive literature review, BIM is sufficiently beneficial to all professionals in the AEC industry. This is due to its uses, medium (software) of the technology and understanding of the framework of this technology. There is no doubt that BIM is a global phenomenon even though there are some setbacks. To ascertain whether the BIM technology is used in the Nigeria, primary data collection via questionnaires was deployed to randomly selected AEC firms in Abuja and Lagos which have firms handling high rate of different construction activities in the country. Findings indeed proved that these firms do use BIM and have experienced some benefits but this is limited to a few of the numerous uses and benefits BIM have to offer. Thus, it is recommended that a well-defined BIM framework can aid more use of BIM and in return efficient benefits. Also, without an increased awareness of BIM, the former recommendation cannot be possible hence compromising improved productivity of the Nigerian AEC industry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ii CERTIFICATION iii DEDICATION iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v ABSTRACT vi LIST OF PLATES ix LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF TABLES xii LIST OF APPENDICES xiv ABBREVIATIONS xv 1.0 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background to study 1 1.2 Problem statement 2 1.3 Aim and objectives 3 1.4 Research questions 3 1.5 Scope of study 3 1.6 Justification 4 2.0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 5 2.1 Introduction 5 2.2 Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry 5 2.2.1 Background to AEC industry 5 2.2.2 Key players in the AEC industry 6 2.3 Building Information Modeling (BIM) 7 2.3.1 What is BIM? 7 2.3.2 BIM origin 11 2.3.3 BIM platforms 13 2.3.4 Uses of BIM 17 2.3.5 BIM benefits 18 2.3.6 BIM challenges 23 2.4 Summary 25 3.0 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 26 3.1 Introduction 26 3.2 Case study 26 3.3 Research approach 27 3.4 Research instrument 27 3.5 Collection of data 28 3.6 Population 28 3.7 Sampling Criteria 29 3.8 Data analysis and presentation 29 3.9 Challenges 29 4.0 CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RESULTS 30 4.1 Introduction 30 4.2 Data analysis 30 4.2.1 Demographics 30 4.2.2 Building Information Modelling (BIM) 36 4.3 Research findings 48 4.4 Research discussions 50 5.0 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATION 51 5.1 Conclusion 51 5.2 Recommendation 51 5.3 Area of further research 52 REFERENCES 53 APPENDIX 57

LIST OF plates Plate 2.1 BIM model (source: hoklife.com) 8 Plate 2.2 BIM model (source: tekla.com) 8 Plate 2.3 Revit architecture interface (source: architecturecourses.org) 14
Plate 2.4 Bentley Structural modeler interface (source: laveteam.org) 15
Plate 2.5 GraphiSoft Ecodesigner interface (source: CAMLOGIC.com) 16

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Professionals who uses BIM (source: tekla.net) 7 Figure 2.2 BIM project’s life cycle application (source: smartrevit.com) 10 Figure 2.3 "Dimensions" of BIM (source: media.directions.media,com) 13 Figure 2.4 BIM a fusion of process, technology and culture (source: Macdonald, 2011) 13 Figure 2.5 The benefits of BIM (source: blog.laytonconstruction.com) 21 Figure 2.6 Processes that benefit from BIM (source: linkedin.com/pulse/bim-around-the-world) 22 Figure 4.1 Population and firm’s location 30 Figure 4.2 Level of respondent 31 Figure 4.3 Firm’s age 32 Figure 4.4 Firm expertise 33 Figure 4.5 Staff population: ENTIRE POPULATION 33 Figure 4.6 Staff population: COMPUTER USERS FOR DESIGN WORKS 34 Figure 4.7 Clients received 35 Figure 4.8 Primary design software tools 36 Figure 4.9 Do respondents use BIM? 37 Figure 4.10 Architectural BIM software used 38 Figure 4.11 Structural BIM software used 38 Figure 4.12 MEP design BIM software used 39 Figure 4.13 Construction BIM software used 40 Figure 4.14 Sustainability analysis BIM software used 40 Figure 4.15 BIM use in Planning 41 Figure 4.16 BIM use in Design 42 Figure 4.17 BIM use in Construction 43 Figure 4.18 BIM use in Operation 43 Figure 4.19 Efficiency of BIM uses 44 Figure 4.20 Benefits of using BIM 46 Figure 4.21 Importance of staff training on BIM 47 Figure 4.22 BIM recommendation. 48

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 BIM Software map across project lifecycle (source: Eastman et al., 2011) 17 Table 2.2 Uses of BIM (source: bimex.wikispaces.com) 18 Table 3.1 Number of AEC firms in Abuja and Lagos (source: The International Journal of Engineering and Science) 28 Table 4.1 Population and firm’s location 30 Table 4.2 Level of respondent 31 Table 4.3 Firm’s age 32 Table 4.4 Firm expertise 32 Table 4.5 Staff population: ENTIRE POPULATION 33 Table 4.6 Staff population: COMPUTER USERS FOR DESIGN WORKS 34 Table 4.7 Clients received 35 Table 4.8 Primary design software tools 36 Table 4.9 Do respondents use BIM? 37 Table 4.10 Architectural BIM software used 37 Table 4.11 Structural BIM software used 38 Table 4.12 MEP design BIM software used 39 Table 4.13 Construction BIM software used 39 Table 4.14 Sustainability analysis BIM software used 40 Table 4.15 BIM use in Planning 41 Table 4.16 BIM use in Design 41 Table 4.17 BIM use in Construction 42 Table 4.18 BIM use in Operation 43 Table 4.19 Efficiency of BIM uses 44 Table 4.20 Benefits of using BIM 46 Table 4.21 Importance of staff training on BIM 47 Table 4.22 BIM recommendation. 48

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM……………………………………………………57
APPENDIX 2: PRSENTATION SLIDES……………………………………………………...60

abbreviations

AEC Architecture, Engineering, Construction
BIM Building Information Modelling
CAD Computer Aided Design
ICT Information and Communication Technology
MEP Mechanical, Engineering and Plumbing
2D Two dimensions: x, y
3D Three dimensions: x, y, z
4D 3D model connected to a time line (fourth dimension)
5D 4D model connected to cost estimations (fifth dimension)

1.0 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to study
Activities involved in construction projects have always been complex and continue to be yet more complex for the high level of sophistication the world have attained today. As the desires of man continue to expand, so do the interests of the stake holders in the built environment industry (Ede 2014). The AEC (Architecture, Engineering, and Construction) industry is under growing pressure in terms of reduction of time and cost, and up keeping of quality with simultaneous increased requirements in terms of energy and resources efficiency. New tools are needed for increasing of process integration on the one side and for the successful life cycle management on the other. The AEC industry, often acknowledged as a low-technology and an inefficient industry (Gallaher, O’Connor, Dettbarn, Gilday, 2004), is one of the largest in the world accounting for one-tenth of the world’s gross domestic product (Murie, 2007). The construction industry has been facing a paradigm shift to (i) increase: productivity, efficiency, infrastructure value, quality and sustainability, (ii) reduce: lifecycle costs, lead times and duplications, via effective collaboration and communication of stakeholders in construction projects (Nour, 2007). Currently, the industry is facing enormous technological and institutional transformations to address these resultant difficulties and challenges. Among these transformations is the introduction of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology. Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been defined as the act of creating an electronic model of a facility for the purpose of visualization, engineering analysis, conflict analysis, code criteria checking, cost engineering, as-built product, budgeting and many other purposes (National Institute of Building Sciences, 2007). To have better communication within the industry, it is important to define a consistent language to describe the focused use of BIM on a facility project. BIM helps architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) service providers apply the same approach to building and infrastructure projects.
BIM embeds key product and asset data and a 3D computer model that can be used for effective management of information throughout a project lifecycle from earliest concept through to operation (HM Government, 2012). Cross-functional project teams in the building and infrastructure industries use these model-based designs as the basis for new, more efficient collaborative workflows that give all stakeholders a clearer vision of the project and increase their ability to make more informed decisions faster. Models created using software for BIM are ―intelligent because of the relationships and information that are automatically built into the model and components within the model know how to act and interact with one another. The early technology of BIM has been developed in 1980, through introduction of ArchiCAD as the first BIM software, however the break through on the market was only possible in the new millennium, due to the maturing of ICT, which again enabled the data exchange between different tools (HVAC, RFM, cost calculation time scheduling – 5D BIM) (Kovacic, Oberwinter, Achammer and Filzmoser, 2014)
1.2 Problem statement
The benefits of building information modelling (BIM) to the construction industry are limitless when compared to the traditional approach to design and construction. The opportunities for advancement in BIM software are continuously expanding as new technologies are discovered (Maya, 2011). Many benefits of utilizing the Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology have been recognized over the years but however, it seems that the construction industry still hesitates to fully adopt BIM technology. As some researchers suggest, the root cause may be in the lack of understanding of whether and how BIM improves project outcomes. However, the BIM influence on the AEC industry has not been properly studied in the Nigerian context.
1.3 Aim and objectives
The aim of this research is to investigate the adoption and application of BIM technology in the Nigerian AEC industry. The objectives include: * To understand the BIM technology in the AEC industry via extensive literature review. * To understand if Nigerian AEC firms use or don’t use the BIM technology despite it relevant purposes. * To know what benefits is achieved by some AEC firms that use BIM and reasons why other firms don’t use it in the Nigerian context. * To suggest and recommend better ways to integrate the adoption and application of the BIM technology in Nigerian AEC firms.
1.4 Research questions * To what extent have Nigerian AEC firms adopt the BIM technology? * What values/benefits do Nigerian AEC firms attach to adopting the BIM technology? * How efficient is the BIM technology in the firms practice?
1.5 Scope of study
The scope of this research is delimited 10 random AEC firms evenly divided in Lagos and Abuja. This sampling criterion is due to the high building construction density in these regions and also the amount of AEC firms located in these regions than other parts of the country

1.6 Justification
This study is carried out to raise the awareness of the importance of BIM technology use in advance AEC practices from the professionals to students who are studying in related fields. This is because of the enormous advancement of the technology and the increase in use of it in the 21st century construction age to ensure a more efficient building industry in Nigeria.

2.0 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
The literature review is aimed to establish a theoretical understanding of the concept of Building Information Technology (BIM) over the years in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. It has been used in three stages, first to assure the understanding of the AEC industry, secondly to assure the understanding of the prior knowledge in the subject and thirdly, to understand the relationship between the AEC industry and BIM. The sources have mainly been books and online articles.
2.2 Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry
2.2.1 Background to AEC industry The architecture, engineering, and construction AEC industry, often acknowledged as a low-technology and an inefficient industry (Gallaher et al. 2004), is one of the largest in the world accounting for one-tenth of the world’s gross domestic product (Murie, 2007). The AEC industry consists of separate players that work together to bring a project to fruition. By integrating these seemingly separate entities into a single industry, architects, engineers and contractors can work more efficiently to achieve a common goal (Bass, 2015). This is a sector of the construction industry that provides the services on the architectural design, engineering design and construction services (IGI Global, 2015). Without this industry, a project cannot be actualized into reality or neither is conceive. Construction projects are now becoming increasingly complicated in nature, requiring more specialist discipline input resulting in a much greater volume of technical information which in turn requires be coordinating and keeping up-to-date and relevant through the life cycle of a project.

2.2.2 Key players in the AEC industry Since the AEC industry is a sector of the construction industry, several professionals are partakers of this industry. They include: * ARCHITECT: is a licensed professional who organizes space. It consists of designing and planning of structures, turning ideas into reality and manages/oversees the construction of buildings and infrastructure (Bass, 2015). An architect is often seen as the leader of any building project as he/she is the initiator of the design. Competencies of an architect include technical building knowledge, building design, and planning and management skills. The activity sectors that an architect gets involved include real estate development, urban planning, construction, interior design, and civil engineering. * ENGINEER: a person who has scientific training and who designs and builds complicated products, machines, systems or structures (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2015). An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical, societal and commercial problems. Engineers design materials, structures, and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost (U.S. Department of Labor 2006). An engineer competencies include mathethematics and applied scientific knowledge examples include structural engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, civil engineers * Surveyors. Land surveyors and quantity surveyors * Contractors.
Figure 2.1 below shows the respective BIM users in the building industry. It spans from the initiator of building projects to the designers and contractors to the facility managers are all integrated.

Figure 2.1 Professionals who uses BIM (source: tekla.net)
2.3 Building Information Modeling (BIM)
2.3.1 What is BIM?
BIM is the first truly global digital construction technology and will soon be deployed in every country in the world. It is a 'game changer' and we need to recognize that it is here to stay - but in common with all innovation this presents both risk and opportunity (MacLeamy, 2012). The phenomenon of BIM is not a new one. Several meanings to this technology depend on how researchers and professionals view it. According to Aranda-Mena et al. (2009), BIM is an ambiguous term that carries different definitions to different professionals. Confirmed by empirical results from their research, BIM is not only defined in various ways according to particular professions but some confusion exists at three different levels where some professionals define BIM as a low level software application, while for some it is a process for designing and documenting building information Yet others define BIM to the level where it is a whole new approach to practice and advancing the profession which requires the implementation of new policies, contracts, and relationships amongst project stakeholders (Haron, 2013). Building information modeling is a new way of creating, sharing, exchanging and managing the information in the project throughout the buildings entire lifecycle. In this BIM can be categorized into two different parts (NBIMS, 2007): * Product – An intelligent representation of the building. It is intended as a repository for information to be used by the owner or operators and maintained throughout the buildings entire life-cycle. * Collaborative process – Covering business standards, automated process capabilities and interoperability for sustainable information usage.
This is because BIM is referred to as “Building Information Model” or “Building Information Modeling”. Many definitions of BIM address it as a single model as the repository for the information with a few addressing it as a process between respective stakeholders. Examples of some BIM models can be seen below in plates 2.1 and 2.2 generated by different BIM software platform. Plate 2.1 BIM model (source: hoklife.com) Plate 2.2 BIM model (source: tekla.com)

According to Autodesk, BIM is an intelligent model-based process that provides insight to help you plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure (Autodesk INC., 2015). The National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) of America defines BIM as a shared informational resource which digitally represents the physical and functional characteristics of a building and allows for reliable decision-making throughout the building’s life cycle (NBIMS, 2013). Others include:

* BIM has also been defined also as the act of creating an electronic model of a facility for the purpose of visualization, engineering analysis, conflict analysis, code criteria checking, cost engineering, as-built product, budgeting and many other purposes (NIBS, 2007). * BIM can be described as a tool that enables storage and reuse of information and domain knowledge throughout the lifecycle of the project (Vanlande and Nicolle, 2008). * The Building Information Model is primarily a three dimensional digital representation of a building and its intrinsic characteristics. It is made of intelligent building components which includes data attributes and parametric rules for each object (Hergunsel, 2011). * Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the process and practice of virtual design and construction throughout its lifecycle. It is a platform to share knowledge and communicate between project participants. In other words, Building Information Modeling is the process of developing the Building Information Model (Hergunsel, 2011). * BIM is a modeling technology and the associated set of processes to produce, communicate, and analyze building models (Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks and Liston, 2011). * The Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a reliable information data base in form of a 3D digital prototype graphics, accurately representing in details, the total life cycle of a facility (Shuaibu and Malumfashi, 2012). * Building information modeling is a process used to create a model containing a digital representation of tangible (physical) and non-tangible elements like relationships, geographic coordinates, various analysis results (solar, structural etc.), identification of elements proprieties (usually information contained in technical data sheets) (Veillette, Cantin and Sbartï, 2012) * Building information model is an adjective attributed to a 3D building model containing non-graphical information on the components specified in the project. This information can be compiled, sorted, organized and/or combined to provide the desired information on the quantity and identity of them. Acting as a database the virtual model can then be linked with external system to provide 4D,5D or 6D possibilities (Veillette et al. 2012)
The key features of BIM are (NBS, 2013): 1. Collaboration across industries (design, construction and FM). 2. Engagement through the entire lifecycle of the building. 3. Collation and exchange of information in common format. 4. Shared three-dimensional models (shareable data, data integration, interoperability). 5. Intelligent structured databases.

Figure 2.2 BIM project’s life cycle application (source: smartrevit.com)

The life cycle of a building project have BIM cut across the design procedures including; pre-design stage, design stage, construction stage and post construction as seen in the figure 2.2.
Building information models are characterized by: * Building components that are displayed as digital representations (Objects) that carry computable graphic and data attributes that identify them to software applications, as well as parametric rules that allow to be manipulated in an intelligent fashion. * Components that include data that describe how they behave as needed for analysis and work processes, for example, quantity take off, specifications, and energy analysis. * Consistent and non-redundant data that changes to component data are represented in all views of the component and the assemblies of which it is part. * Coordinate data such that, all views of the model are represented in a coordinated way.
2.3.2 BIM origin
The concept of BIM has existed since the 1970s. The term Building Information Model first appeared in a 1992 paper by G.A. van Nederveen and F. P. Tolman. The architect Phil Bernstein, a consultant with Autodesk, was the first to use the term BIM as “Building information modelling” (Veillette, 2012). Jerry Laiserin helped popularize and standardize the term as a common name for the digital representation of the building process as then offered under differing terminology by Graphisoft as “Virtual Building”, Bentley Systems as “Integrated Project Models”, and by Autodesk or Vectorworks as “Building Information Modelling” to facilitate exchange and interoperability of information in digital format. In agreement with this and other, the first implementation was done in BIM software ArchiCAD 1987 by the Hungarian company Graphisoft, with its advanced concept of the virtual building (Veillette, 2012).

The beginnings of BIM was as a result of the AEC community adopting architectural drawing software packages, such as AutoCAD and Microstation, which improved 2D drawings through the support of digital generation of 2D construction documents (Eastman et al. 2011). Computer-aided drafting (CAD) evolved to BIM in the mid-90s, which has since become 4D and 5D modelling. Figure 2.3 elaborates features of the “dimensions” of BIM in a building project.

Figure 2.3 "Dimensions" of BIM (source: media.directions.media,com)

The following “dimensions” of BIM used are as described: * 3D: create models for 3D coordination * 4D: implement scheduling into the models * 5D: implement cost into models * 6D: implement other information into models as in “operations and maintenance
Although BIM did not develop overnight, the speed at which it has gained momentum in the past five years has been impressive. BIM software is taking the place of CAD due to the information embedded in the building information model. The digital information within the model acts as a digital representation of a physical building, allowing users to update and maintain the model for facilities management (Watson 2010). In order to enjoy BIM, as seen in figure 2.4, the technology has to be mastered. Traditional process of the design should be neglected as well as adopting the culture of using BIM for projects.

Figure 2.4 BIM a fusion of process, technology and culture (source: Macdonald, 2011)
2.3.3 BIM platforms
Several BIM platforms are available on market nowadays. Most of the BIM platforms available today are targeted towards service providers, such as architects, engineers, contractors, and fabricators; they are not specifically targeted for owners (Eastman et al, 2008). The available platforms have variety of tool functionality marketed to different or multiple users. Major platforms include:
2.3.3.1 Autodesk
Revit is considered to be the best-known and current market leader for BIM in architectural design (Eastman et al, 2011). This platform was introduced to the market by Autodesk in 2002. This platform is a family of integrated products that currently includes Revit architecture, Revit structure, and Revit MEP. Revit as a tool provides an easy to use interface with drag-over hints for each operation and smart cursor. It has the largest set of associated applications including; Facility Management: AutoDesk FM Desktop, Archibus (IFC) (Eastman et al, 2011). Other Autodesk BIM platforms include: Autodesk Ecotect Analysis, Autodesk Green Building Studio, and Autodesk Naviswork.

Plate 2.4 Revit architecture interface (source: architecturecourses.org)
2.3.3.2 Bentley systems
Bentley system offers a wide range of related products for architecture, engineering, infrastructure, and construction with examples which includes Bentley Architecture, Bentley Structural Modeller, Bentley Hevacomp Mechanical Designer, and Bentley ConstrucSim. As a building modelling and drawing production tool, Bentley has a standard set of predefined parametric objects. Bentley platform applications are file-based systems, meaning that all actions are immediately written to a file and results in lower load memory. Bentley offers a wide range of building modelling tools, dealing with almost all aspects of the AEC industry. It supports modelling with complex curved surfaces (Eastman, et al, 2011). Plate 2.5 shows the Bentley Structural Modeller interface when designing a structural 3D model for a storey building.

Plate 2.5 Bentley Structural modeler interface (source: laveteam.org)

2.3.3.3 GraphiSoft
ArchiCAD is the oldest and continuously marketed BIM platform for architectural design developed by Graphisoft. ArchiCAD user interface is well crafted with smart cursors, drag over operator hints and context sensitive operator menus. Its model generation and its ease of use is loved by its loyal user base. View generation of drawings is automatically managed by the system; every edit of the model is automatically placed in document layouts, details, sections, and 3D images can be easily inserted into layouts. ArchiCAD has links to multiple tools in different domains including; Facility management; OneTools and ArchFM. Furthermore, ArchiCAD has strengthened its interaction with IFC and provides good bidirectional exchange of data. (Eastman et al 2011). Other Graphisoft’s platforms include: Graphisoft EcoDesigner. An interface of the Graphisoft EcoDesigner showing a 3D of an appliance among other building elements like fittings, installation and building elements as shown in plate 2.6, are done with sustainable parameters and is incoperated in a building project.

Plate 2.6 GraphiSoft Ecodesigner interface (source: CAMLOGIC.com)
2.3.3.4 Others
There are other platforms that support BIM. They include; * Gehry Technology is the manufacturer of Digital Project, Digital Project MEP Systems Routing, and Digital Project Designer * Tekla system is the manufacturer of Tekla Structures.
Other platforms are seen in the table below in table 2.1 and their applications.

Table 2.1 BIM Software map across project lifecycle (source: Eastman et al., 2011)

2.3.4 Uses of BIM
Twenty-five BIM Uses, organized by project phase of project development, were identified through numerous interviews with industry experts, analysis of implementation case studies, and review of literature from previous researchers. The descriptions were developed to provide a brief overview for project team members who may not be familiar with the use of BIM, and to provide additional information that the project team may find valuable during the selection process. There are many uses of Building Information Modelling for each project participant. The table below (table 2.2) depicts these uses for the planning, design (preconstruction), construction and operation (post construction) phases:

Table 2.2 Uses of BIM (source: bimex.wikispaces.com)

2.3.5 BIM benefits
Understanding the benefits that BIM provides is an essential driver for effective adoption. The benefits of BIM need to be discussed to inform the research on the organizational motivation of BIM implementation, which in turn affects the level and context of the implementation. Many organizations encountered problems inherited with CAD design complexity and drafting errors (Haron 2013). By understanding the BIM benefits, the organizations could possibly strategize their action plan for BIM implementation to suit their needs. Several early studies have made conclusions regarding the advantages and possible benefits with this new technology in comparison to traditional 2D CAD.
Other studies like Kubba (2012) identified the following most significant benefits of BIM:

* Lower net costs and risks for owners, designers, and engineers. * Development of a schematic model prior to the generation of a detailed building model, allowing the designer to make a more accurate assessment of the proposed scheme and evaluate whether it meets the functional and sustainable requirements set out by the owner; this helps increase project performance and overall quality. * Improved productivity due to easy retrieval of information. * Improved coordination of construction documents. * Coordination of construction, which reduces construction time and eliminates Change Orders. * Reduced contractor and subcontractors’ costs and risks. * Accurate and consistent 2D drawings generated at any stage of the design, which reduces the amount of time needed to produce construction drawings for the different design disciplines while minimizing the number of potential errors in the construction drawings process. * Increased speed of project delivery.
At the downstream level, the other BIM benefits, as can be simplified from Eastman et al. (2011), are as follows: * Easy Verification of consistency to the design intent.
BIM provides earlier 3D visualizations and quantifies the area of spaces and other material quantities, allowing for earlier and more accurate cost estimates. For technical buildings (labs, hospitals, and the like), the design intent is often defined quantitatively, and this allows a building model to be used to check for these requirements. For qualitative requirements the 3D model also can support automatic evaluations

* Extraction of cost estimates during the design stage.
At any stage of the design, BIM technology can extract a bill of quantities and spaces that can be used for cost estimation. In the early stages of a design, cost estimates are based either on formulas that are keyed to significant project quantities, for example, number of parking spaces, square feet of office areas of various types, or unit costs per square foot. As the design progresses, more detailed quantities are available and can be used for more accurate and detailed cost estimates. It is possible to keep all parties aware of the cost implications associated with a given design before it progresses to the level of detailing required of construction bids. At the final stage of design, an estimate based on the quantities for all the objects contained within the model allows for the preparation of a more accurate final cost estimate. As a result, it is possible to make better-informed design decisions regarding costs using BIM rather than a paper-based system. * Automatic low-level corrections when changes are made to design.
If the objects used in the design are controlled by parametric rules that ensure proper alignment, then the 3D model will be free of geometry, alignment, and spatial coordination errors. This reduces the user’s need to manage design. * Generation of accurate and consistent 2D drawings at any stage of the design.
Accurate and consistent drawings can be extracted for any set of objects or specified view of the project. This significantly reduces the amount of time and number of errors associated with generating construction drawings for all design disciplines. When changes to the design are required, fully consistent drawings can be generated as soon as the design modifications are entered.

* Earlier collaboration of multiple design discipline.
BIM technology facilitates simultaneous work by multiple design disciplines. While collaboration with drawings is also possible, it is inherently more difficult and time consuming than working with one or more coordinated 3D models in which change control can be well managed. This shortens the design time and significantly reduces design errors and omissions. It also gives earlier insight into design problems and presents opportunities for a design to be continuously improved. This is much more cost-effective than waiting until a design is nearly complete and then applying value engineering only after the major design decisions have been made.

Figure 2.5 some benefits of BIM (source: blog.laytonconstruction.com)
The above figure shows some benefits of BIM among others. Alufohai (2012) states some of the above benefits and key advantages that BIM confers include: * Increased speed of delivery (time saved) * Better coordination (fewer errors) * Decreased costs (money saved) * Greater productivity * Design visualization * Reduction of Errors * Collision Detection * Quantity Take Off * 4D Constructability * 5D Cost Estimating * Asset/Equipment Inventory * Facility Operations * Space assignment * Maintenance/Repair * Emergency response, etc. * Higher-quality work * New revenue and business opportunities
More benefits and uses of BIM are further illustrated in the figure 2.6 below:

Figure 2.6 Processes that benefit from BIM (source: linkedin.com/pulse/bim-around-the-world)
Building Information Modeling brings a transparent and collaborative process to light, and encourages legitimate and straightforward design as well as equally legitimate and straightforward cost estimating. The benefits of BIM are limitless when compared to the traditional 2D approach and the opportunities for advancement in software are continuously expanding as new technologies are discovered. The future of renovations, additions, and alterations will change as as-built models will be readily available. Most importantly, BIM can bring transparency and trust to the construction industry (Maya, 2011)
2.3.6 BIM challenges
There are several challenges to companies adopting BIM; costs and training issues, as with any new technology, have proven to be the largest drawback to adopting BIM. The greatest challenge in adopting BIM is acquiring adequate training. It is particularly challenging because typically only a small number of employees has expertise in BIM. The challenge is in training others within the company. Training should become less of a challenge as more expertise develops in the industry from schools, within firms, and from third parties (McGraw-Hill, 2008). It is no surprise that many companies are reluctant to switch to BIM as the software is new and the transition is often expensive. Because BIM software licenses can be expensive to obtain and companies must also consider training costs, the transition to BIM has been slow (McGraw-Hill, 2008).
People are not always as enthusiastic to learn, adapt to and implement new methods. BIM will require a shift in the way the construction industry works and thus, a slow adopting market is a challenge. Traditional ways of operating will not work as BIM requires major collaboration. The implementation of BIM into a company will require various time, money and human resources. Office systems will have to be adapted, computer software will need to be updated and staff will need to be trained to use BIM technology. Furthermore, employers are reluctant to require BIM in their contracts as they are afraid of limiting the potential tenderers for the project which will affectively increase the contract amount of the project. (Eastman et al. 2011)

Some problems with BIM include as highlighted by Howell and Batcheler include: 1. BIM systems create big and complex files hence the scalability and manageability of a fully loaded central BIM project database becomes a major challenge. 2. Sharing BIM information as drawing files. Users are defaulting back to exchanging documents (drawing files created as views of a building model) rather than sharing intelligent objects from the model. 3. The need for increasingly sophisticated data management at the building objects level. Pioneering model server technology is only now being developed to help address issues which surface when multi-disciplinary design teams try to adopt a single BIM such as object versioning, object-level locking and real-time, multi user access. 4. A contradiction in work process when using a single detailed BIM to try to represent a number of the alternative design schemes under consideration. While parametrically defined building objects can quickly be recreated based on the input of selected dimensions and properties, the need to maintain separate BIM models for different design alternatives is prohibitive 5. Every company on the project team cannot adopt one BIM system. Each company normally has its own preferred and trusted software applications for design and analysis. It is very rare that a single technology is being used on any one building project between different companies and/or across all phases of the project lifecycle rather than being dependent on a single building model, project team members typically rely on a number of purpose-built models.

2.4 SUMMARY
There is no doubt that the AEC industry is in need for a more productive way to provide the services rendered to the public. BIM is proven from its uses and benefit to provide better ways of improving the AEC industry services. This is only possible if old methods are discarded by all stakeholders and BIM methods accepted.

3.0 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. The Methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which a research project is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it (Howell, 2013). These Methods, described in the methodology, define the means or modes of data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated.
In this study, qualitative method of data analysis employed was interviews. The use of both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis is employed in that the former is inductive in nature and will help in the generation of facts while the latter helps in the deduction of quantities and numbers.
3.2 Case study
The selected case study for the research is the some firms in Lagos and Abuja. In Abuja, random firms have been picked for this research due to the location visited during field study. These firms include: * Design Logic Ltd * Enplan Group Ltd * System Property Development Consortium (SPDC) * Avant Garde Ltd * Design Stages Ltd
In Lagos, random firms have been picked for this research based on acceptance (via email) to be involved. These firms include: * Jazeera projects * Greyfield Integrated Services * Ketab Nigeria Company Limited * Interstate Architects Ltd
3.3 Research approach
From literature review, research of this nature is best conducted with the means of interviews and surveys. I tested using questionnaires to see how respondents in firms tend to use BIM and its perceived benefits.
3.4 Research instrument
In carrying out this research, the use of questionnaires was the instrument used. This was designed into part A and B. Part A (demographics) took data of the name of firm which was optional, age of firm, location of firm, firm expertise, staff population, level of management of the respondent, respondent designation in firm, types and frequency of clients the firm gets.
Part B (Building Information Modelling BIM) took data of primary design software used, types of BIM software used, primary uses of BIM, efficiency of the uses of BIM, benefits yielded from the use of BIM, firms eagerness to train its staff on BIM use and recommendation. A copy of this questionnaire is included in the Appendix. The Likert Scale was used to get response starting from “very efficient” to “not at all efficient” in some questions while others had numerical variables. Other response gotten was from multiple choice questions. A Likert scale is a psychometric response scale primarily employed in questionnaires to obtain preferences or the degree of agreement with a statement or set of statements (Bertram, 2007). With their responses, we were able to analyse and get values for their respective preference for the uses of BIM in the AEC industry.
3.5 Collection of data
Questionnaires in Abuja were distributed to individuals at their firms. Some questionnaires were collected immediately while some within the next two days. Questionnaires in Lagos were distributed to individuals firms via E-mail. It took a span of a week to get some response from selected firms in Lagos.
3.6 Population
The population we tested was restricted to the delimitation of the project which is 10 firms shared evenly between Abuja and Lagos. I used 40 respondents as the number of respondents limited to these firms. Table 1 below shows the population figure
Table 3.1 Number of AEC firms in Abuja and Lagos (source: The International Journal of Engineering and Science)

LOCATION | NO. OF FIRMS | ABUJA | 96 | LAGOS | 221 | TOTAL | 317 |

The sample population was gotten as a percentage of the total population. i used an approximate of 3.2% of the total population which is about 10 firms. These users were selected randomly at random. The sample value of 3.2% was taken due to time constraint for the completion of the research. This sample included firms specialized in all professions involved in the AEC industry to achieve a fairly even result although most of the respondents were architects as they are the key players in starting a project.
3.7 Sampling criteria
The criteria for the sample in Abuja was that the location of the firms where all located at Maitama and Wuse 2 which made them easily to be located. The criteria for the sample in Lagos were that several e-mails were sent to over 13 multidisciplinary firms requesting to answer the questionnaires with 6 positive responses. It was an unbiased random selection of firms visited in the FCT and Lagos.
3.8 Data analysis and presentation
Filled questionnaire data was analysed by the use of two statistical instruments. They are IBM SPSS and Microsoft’s Excel. The representation of information was descriptive and graphical representation was done using: * Pie charts * Column charts. * Tables
3.9 Challenges
Some firms in Abuja refused to be questioned based on no prior information on the research. Others have company policies that reject projects and research questionnaires. Low response from lagos firms was also experienced after acceptance of answering to questionnaires.

4.0 CHAPTER four: RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RESULTS
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter, information collected through questionnaires is being analysed so as to assess the use of BIM by firms in the AEC industries in the Nigerian context. A general discussion on the research findings and statistical data are also included in this chapter.
4.2 Data analysis
Under data analysis, the information derived from the questionnaires is tabulated below;
4.2.1 Demographics
This is the part A of the questionnaire. This part provided basic information about the firm’s profile.
4.2.1.1 Population and firm’s location
The table below shows the number of respondents, location of their firms and total questionnaires received.
Table 4.1 Population and firm’s location FIRM LOCATION | RECEIVED | NOT RECEIVED | TOTAL | ABUJA | 19 | 1 | 20 | LAGOS | 5 | 15 | 20 |

Figure 4.1 Population and firm’s location (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, out of the total 40 respondents, 24 (60%) respondents returned their questionnaires. 75% and 5% of respondent in Lagos and Abuja respectively didn’t return their questionnaire whereas, 25% and 95% of respondent in Lagos and Abuja respectively returned theirs.
4.2.1.2 Level of respondent
The table below shows the level of the respondent in his/her firms organizational strata.
Table 4.2 Level of respondent LEVEL | RESPONDENTS | Top | 1 | Middle | 15 | Low | 3 | Missing | 5 | Total | 24 |

Figure 4.2 Level of respondent (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, one (4%) respondent is in top management, 15 (62%) respondents from middle and 3 (13%) respondents from low management level. 5 (21%) respondents didn’t disclose their positions.

4.2.1.3 Firm’s age
The table below shows the respondents firm’s age.
Table 4.3 Firm’s age AGE (YEARS) | RESPONDENTS | 0-5 YRS | 3 | 6-10 YRS | 8 | 11 YRS and above | 12 | Missing | 1 | Total | 24 |

Figure 4.3 Firm’s age (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 3 (13%) respondents firm’s age is between 0-5years, 8 (33%) respondents firm’s age between 6-10years and 12 (50%) respondents firm’s age above 11years. 1 (4%) respondents didn’t disclose the firm’s age.
4.2.1.4 FIRM EXPERTISE
The table below shows the respondents firm expertise in the AEC industry
Table 4.4 Firm expertise EXPERTISE | RESPONDENTS | ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN | 19 | STRUCTURAL DESIGN | 7 | MEP DESIGN | 5 | CONSTRUCTION | 12 | ALL FOUR | 3 |

Figure 4.4 firm expertise (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 19 (79%) respondents firm’s expertise is architectural design. 7 (33%), 5 (29%) and 12 (50%) respondents firm’s expertise are structural design, MEP design and construction respectively. 3 (13%) respondents firm expertise is in all four sectors.
4.2.1.5 Staff population
The tables below shows staff population in the firms. 1. Entire population
Table 4.5 Staff population: ENTIRE POPULATION PERSONS | RESPONDENTS | 1 to 10 | 3 | 11 to 20 | 10 | 21 and above | 11 | Total | 24 |

Figure 4.5 Staff population (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 3 (13%) respondents firm’s entire population comprises of a range of 1 to 10 people. 10 (42%) and 11 (46%) respondents firm’s entire population is between 11 to 20 people and above 21 people respectively. 2. Computer users for design works
Table 4.6 Staff population: COMPUTER USERS FOR DESIGN WORKS PERSONS | RESPONDENTS | 1 to 10 | 7 | 11 to 20 | 7 | 21 and above | 8 | Missing | 2 | Total | 24 |

Figure 4.6 Staff population: Computer users for design works (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 7 (29%) respondents firm’s computer users for design works are between 1 to 10 persons. Also, 7 (29%) respondents firm’s computer users for design works are between 11 to 20 persons. 8 (33%) respondents firm’s computer users for design had above 21 persons and 2 (8%) respondents couldn’t establish this population.

4.2.1.6 Clients rendered service.
The table below shows the type and number of clients the firms render their services to.
Table 4.7 Clients received NUMBER/CLIENTS | PRIVATE/INDIVIDUALCLIENTS | PUBLIC CLIENTS | INTERNATINAL CLIENTS | 1 to 5 | 7 | 4 | 9 | 6 to 10 | 7 | 8 | 5 | 11 and above | 6 | 9 | 2 | Missing | 4 | 3 | 8 | TOTAL | 24 | 24 | 24 |

Figure 4.7 Clients rendered service (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 7 (17%) respondents, 7 (33%) respondents and 6 (38%) respondents firm’s receive 1 to 5, 6 to 10 and above 11 private/ individual clients respectively. 4 (13%) respondent didn’t disclose their answers. 4 (29%) respondents, 8 (29%) respondents and 9 (25%) respondents firm’s receive 1 to 5, 6 to 10 and above 11 public clients respectively. 3 (17%) respondent didn’t disclose their answers. Also, 9 (38%) respondents, 5 (21%) respondents and 2 (8%) respondents firm’s receive 1 to 5, 6 to 10 and above 11 international clients respectively. 8 (33%) respondent didn’t disclose their answers.

4.2.2 Building Information Modeling (BIM)
This is the part B of the questionnaire. This part provided basic information about the use of BIM, BIM software used, benefits gained from BIM, efficiency of BIM, firm’s ability to train and recommendation.
4.2.2.1 Primary design software tools
The table below shows the primary design software tools used in firms.
Table 4.8 Primary design software tools DESIGN SOFTWARE | RESPONDENTS | CAD SOFTWARE | 18 | BIM SOFTWARE | 21 | 3D MODELLER | 10 | ALL THREE | 8 |

Figure 4.8 Primary design software tools (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 18 (75%) respondents, 21 (88%) respondents and 10 (42%) respondents use CAD software, BIM software and 3D modeller respectively. 8 (33%) respondents’ use all three software.

4.2.2.2 BIM use
The table below shows whether the respondents use BIM.
Table 4.9 Do respondents use BIM? DO YOU USE BIM? | RESPONDENTS | YES AM CURRENTLY USING BIM | 19 | I INTEND TO USE BIM IN SOON | 2 | NO, AM NOT CURRENTLY USING BIM | 3 | TOTAL | 24 |

Figure 4.9 BIM use (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 19 (79%) respondents are using BIM. 2 (8%) respondents intend to use BIM and 3 (50%) respondents are not currently using BIM.
4.2.2.3 BIM software used
The tables below shows the BIM software used in firms based on the type of design * Architectural design
Table 4.10 Architectural BIM software used SOFTWARE | RESPONDENTS | REVIT ARCHITECTURE | 17 | ARCHICAD | 2 | BENTLEY ARCHITECTURE | 3 | INTELLICAD | 4 | OTHERS | 0 |

Figure 4.10 Architectural BIM software used (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 17 (71%) respondents, 2 (8%) respondents, 3 (13%) respondents and 4 (17%) respondents uses Revit, ArchiCAD, Bentley Architecture and IntelliCAD design software. No other software was suggested. * Structural design
Table 4.11 Structural BIM software used SOFTWARE | RESPONDENTS | REVIT STRUCTURE | 4 | TEKLA STRUCTURES | 0 | BENTLEY STRUCTURAL MODELLER | 1 | OTHERS | 0 |

Figure 4.11 Structural BIM software used (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 4 (17%) respondents and one (4%) respondent uses Revit structures and Bentley Structural modellar respectively. No respondent uses Tekla structures or other structural design software. * Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing design
Table 4.12 MEP design BIM software used SOFTWARE | RESPONDENT | REVIT MEP | 2 | CADMEP | 0 | BENTLEY HEVACOMP | 1 | OTHERS | 0 |

Figure 4.12 MEP design BIM software used (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 2 (8%) respondents and one (4%) respondent use Revit MEP and Bentley HEVACOMP respectively. No respondent uses CADMEP or other MEP design software. * Construction
Table 4.13 Construction BIM software used SOFTWARE | RESONDENTS | NAVISWORK | 1 | BENTLEY CONSTRUCSIM | 1 | TEKLA BIMSIGHT | 0 | OTHERS | 0 |

Figure 4.13 Construction BIM software used (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, one (4%) respondent uses Naviswork. Another respondent (4%) uses Bentley Construcsim. No respondent uses Tekla BIMsight or other construction design software. * Sustainability analysis
Table 4.14 Sustainability analysis BIM software used SOFTWARE | RESPONDENT | ECOTECT ANALYSIS | 2 | ECODESIGNER | 0 | BENTLEY HEVACOMP | 0 | OTHERS | 0 |

Figure 4.14 Sustainability analysis BIM software used (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 2 (8%) respondent uses Ecotect Analysis. No respondent uses EcoDesigner, Bentley HEVACOMP or other sustainability analysis software.

4.2.2.4 Uses of BIM
The tables below shows the use of BIM in various stages of a building project * Plan
Table 4.15 BIM use in Planning FUNCTION | RESPONDENT | PROGRAMMING | 5 | SITE ANALYSIS | 10 | COST ESTIMATION | 7 | EXISTING CONDITIONS MODELING | 7 |

Figure 4.15 BIM use in Planning (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 5 (21%) respondents and 10 (42%) respondents uses BIM for programming and site analysis respectively. 7 (29%) respondents each uses BIM for cost estimation and existing conditions modeling. * Design
Table 4.16 BIM use in Design FUNCTION | RESPONDENTS | DESIGN AUTHORING | 13 | STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS | 6 | ENERGY ANALYSIS | 1 | LIGHTING ANALYSIS | 1 | M/E ANALYSIS | 2 | SUSTAINABILITY EVALUATION | 4 |

Figure 4.16 BIM use in Design (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 13 (54%) respondents and 6 (25%) respondents uses BIM for design authoring and structural analysis respectively. one (13%) respondent each uses BIM for energy and lighting analysis. 2 (8%) respondents and 4 (17%) respondents uses BIM for mechanical/electrical analysis and sustainability evaluation respectively. * Construct
Table 4.17 BIM use in Construction FUNCTION | RESPONDENTS | 3D COORDINATION | 10 | SITE UTILIZATION PLANNING | 3 | 3D CONTROL AND PLANNING | 1 | DIGITAL FABRICATION | 4 |

From the graph, 10 (42%) respondents and 3 (42%) respondents uses BIM for 3D co-ordination and site utilization planning respectively. one (4%) respondent and 4 (17%) respondents uses BIM for 3D control/planning and digital fabrication.

Figure 4.17 BIM use in Construction (source: Author’s field work, July 2015) * Operate
Table 4.18 BIM use in Operation FUNCTION | RESPONDENTS | RECORD MODEL | 3 | MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING | 2 | BUILDING SYSTEM ANALYSIS | 5 |

Figure 4.18 BIM use in Operation (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 3 (13%) respondents, 2 (8%) respondents, 5 (21%) respondents use BIM for record model, maintenance scheduling and building system analysis respectively.

4.2.2.5 EFFICIENCY OF THE USES OF BIM
The table below shows the perceived efficiency BIM based on its use
Table 4.19 Efficiency of BIM uses EFFICIENCY/USES | VERY EFFICIENT | EFFICIENT | NEUTRAL | SOMEWHAT EFFICIENT | NOT AT ALL EFFICIENT | PROGRAMMING | 7 | 5 | 7 | 3 | 2 | SITE ANALYSIS | 6 | 12 | 4 | 1 | 1 | COST ESTIMATION | 5 | 8 | 6 | 4 | 1 | EXISTING CONDITIONS MODELING | 7 | 10 | 6 | 0 | 1 | DESIGN AUTHORING | 14 | 5 | 4 | 0 | 1 | STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS | 7 | 12 | 2 | 1 | 2 | ENERGY ANALYSIS | 9 | 7 | 4 | 2 | 2 | LIGHTING ANALYSIS | 7 | 10 | 3 | 2 | 2 | M/EANALYSIS | 8 | 8 | 3 | 3 | 2 | 3D CO-ORDINATION | 13 | 7 | 4 | 0 | 0 | SITE UTILIZATION PLANNING | 4 | 10 | 7 | 3 | 0 | 3D CONTROL & PLANNING | 4 | 5 | 12 | 1 | 2 | DIGITAL FABRICATION | 4 | 10 | 6 | 2 | 2 | RECORD MODEL | 1 | 3 | 15 | 3 | 2 | MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING | 2 | 12 | 7 | 2 | 1 | BUILDING SYSTEM ANALYSIS | 6 | 9 | 5 | 2 | 2 |

From the tables, the perceive BIM uses efficiency ranges from very efficient to not at all efficient. Uses with highest respondents’ opinion based on efficiency include:
Programming as neutral and very efficient seen by 7 (29%) respondents each. Site analysis as efficient seen by 12 (50%) respondents. Cost estimation as efficient seen by 8 (33%) respondents. Existing conditions modelling is efficient as seen by 10 (42%) respondents. Design authoring is seen as very efficient by 14 (58%) respondents. Structural analysis as efficient seen by 12 (50%) respondents. Energy analysis is seen as very efficient by 9 (38%) respondents. Lighting analysis as efficient seen by 10 (42%) respondents. Mechanical and Electrical analysis efficient and very efficient seen by 8 (33%) respondents. 3D co-ordination as very efficient seen by 13 (54%) respondents. Site utilization planning is efficient as seen by 10 (42%) respondents. 3D control & planning as neutral seen by 12 (50%) respondents. Digital fabrication as efficient seen by 10 (42%) respondents. Record model is neutral seen by 15 (63%) respondents. Maintenance scheduling as efficient seen by 12 (50%) respondents. Finally, building system analysis as efficient seen by 9 (38%) respondents

Figure 4.19 Efficiency of BIM uses (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

4.2.2.6 BIM benefits
The table below shows the firm’s gained benefits from the use of BIM
Table 4.20 Benefits of using BIM BENEFITS | RESPONDENTS | VISUALIZATION OF THE PROJECT | 18 | ACCURACY IN SCHEDULING AND 2D DRAWINGS | 17 | LABOUR AND TIME EFFICIENCY | 12 | REDUCES COST AND RISK | 12 | SPEED OF PROJECT DELIVERING | 13 | AIDS SITE LOGISTICS | 6 | AIDS CLASH DETECTION | 6 |

Figure 4.20 Benefits of using BIM (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)

From the graph, 18 (75%) respondents, 17 (71%) respondents and 12 (50%) respondents benefits from BIM in visualization of a project, accuracy in scheduling/2D drawings and labour/time efficiency respectively. 12 (50%) respondents benefits based on cost and risk reduction while 13 (54%) respondents benefits based on speed of project delivering. 6 (25%) respondents each benefits from BIM in site logistics and clash detection.

4.2.2.7 BIM training
The table below shows the firm’s eagerness to train its staff for better adoption and use of BIM
Table 4.21 Importance of staff training on BIM IMPORTANCE | RESPONDENTS | VERY IMPORTANT | 6 | IMPORTANT | 6 | NEUTRAL | 4 | SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT | 2 | NOT IMPORTANT | 0 | MISSING | 6 |

Figure 4.21 Importance of staff training on BIM (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 6 (25%) respondents’ firm take training of its staff on BIM very important and also another, 6 (25%) respondents’ firm take training of its staff on BIM important.
4 (17%) respondents are of neutral opinion, 2 (8%) respondents are of somewhat importance. No respondents are of not important opinion while 6 (25%) respondents didn’t answer.

4.2.2.8 BIM recommendation
The table below shows the recommendation by respondents on the means of improving BIM adoption and use.
Table 4.22 BIM recommendation. RECOMMENDATION | FREQUENCY | INCREASE AWARENESS ABOUT BIM | 20 | DEFINING A BIM FRAMEWORK | 9 | LEGISLATIVE POLICIES | 6 | ALL THREE | 3 |

Figure 4.22 BIM recommendations (source: Author’s field work, July 2015)
From the graph, 20 (83%) respondents recommended an increase in awareness about BIM. 9 (38%) respondents and 6 (25%) respondents recommended defining a BIM framework and legislative policies respectively. 3 (13%) respondents are of all opinions.
4.3 Research findings
Firstly from the demographics, most respondents are from the city of Abuja (95%) who partook in the research. The level of management of the respondents is mostly middle level management (62%) with most firms’ age above 11years (50%). Also, staff population based on the entire firm population and computer users for design works is mostly above 21 persons. Finally, private clients in whom services are rendered to annually be mostly above 11 persons, public clients between 1 to 20 persons while international clients are between 1 to 10 persons. Part B, which was based on BIM related questions, it was discovered that most respondents uses BIM software (88%) as primary design software tools and currently use the BIM technology (79%). As for BIM software used for architectural and structural designs, Revit (71%) and Revit structures (17%) is the popular software used firms. For mechanical, electrical and plumbing designs, Revit MEP (8%) is used the most while construction has Naviswork and Bentley ConstrucSim (4%) evenly used. Autodesk Ecotect is the only software used for sustainability analysis by respondents.
The use of BIM software in area of planning is mostly is site analysis (42%) with programming (21%) as the least. Design authoring (54%) is the most function BIM is used in the design stage while the least function is energy and lighting analysis (4%). Construction stage have the use of BIM in the function of 3D co-ordination as the highest (42%) and 3D control and planning the lowest (4%). Whereas, in operating stage, building system analysis is what BIM is used for the most and the least is maintenance schedule (8%). The perceived efficiency of the use of BIM in these functions has design authoring (58%) and 3D co-ordination (54%) ranked very efficient. The least ranked efficient (8%) includes programming, structural analysis, energy and lighting analysis, M/E analysis, 3D control and planning, Digital fabrication, record model and building system analysis. The function with the indecisive opinion on efficiency is record model (63%).
Visualization of a project was highly ranked (75%) as the most benefit obtained from the use of BIM followed by accuracy in scheduling and 2D drawings (71%). Aid in site logistics and clash detection (25%) is ranked as the lowest benefits obtained. In the firm’s ability to train its staff about BIM, most firms take it both very important and important (25%). Recommended ways for improving BIM use and adoption was mostly through awareness of BIM (83%) followed by a defined framework (38%) before implementing legislative policies (25%).
4.4 Research discussions
From the finding in the questionnaires used in the field work, the use of BIM technology is already in use in the Nigerian AEC industry. Although this is good news, the usage is still limited to few functions. As for the stages in a building project, the most function BIM are used is the design stage and then old methods are used at the operating stage of the building lifecycle. Cost and risk reduction which is one of the most sought after benefit is seen as a little benefit. Most respondent doesn’t focus on sustainable design as seen from the number of respondents that use sustainability design software and uses of BIM in functions during the design stages like energy, lighting and m/e analysis.
BIM is perceived to be limited to software and not also a collaborative process between professionals to improve better means on tackling building projects to clients. A defined frame work on BIM hasn’t been developed but the awareness of BIM by the respondents is a merit.

5.0 CHAPTER five: conclusions and recomendation
5.1 Conclusion
In conclusion, it has been revealed from results that indeed there are firms who already use the BIM technology in the AEC industry as a means for project actualization. There is no doubt this is good news compared to if firms are reluctantly adopting this technology. But, although BIM application is used in firms, it is limited to a tiny ability in a vast range of capabilities it can achieve. With this, a minimum perceive benefits will be yielded unless almost full integration and use of the BIM technology in all aspect. Also, Autodesk BIM software is the most used software across all professionals with can or have added better communication during the design. Functions of a building process that BIM tech is used is the same functions perceived as more efficient when BIM is used
5.2 Recommendation
There should be an increased awareness of BIM in the country by firms to their staff. This should not be based on adopting the technology but on better and improve ways on using the technology to tackle project problems. This is done by defining a framework for understanding BIM as a tool and process of achieving one goal, better project delivery and processes. Also, education about BIM to students studying in the fields relating to the AEC industry is very important. This is to give them a better idea of the use and benefit of BIM in real projects. Legislative policies should be laid out by the governments of various professionals’ bodies and enforced by the Federal Government of Nigeria to add more use of this technology.
Owners/clients are not left out. They too need to have an awareness of the benefits of BIM so they can push of its use during a project.

5.3 Area of further research
During the research, I encountered several questions that should be looked further into. Suggested areas of further research on BIM technology includes: * BIM integration in educational curricular * Benefits of BIM to owners and clients * BIM framework between professionals.

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APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear respondent,
I am GYET David, a 400level student of the Department of Architecture in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. I am presently conducting a research on ASSESSMENT OF THE USE OF BIM (BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING) IN NIGERIAN BUILDING INDUSTRY. It would be my utmost joy that you make out time to respond to the questions. I assure you that the information obtained shall be treated as confidential and would only be used for the purpose of the study. Thank you
SIGNATURE___________________________________________ DATE______________________

PART A.
FIRM’S PROFILE 1. Name of the Firm (Optional) _____ _____________________________________________________________ 2. Location of Firm: LAGOS [ ] ABUJA [ ] 3. Your designation in the firm___________________________________________________________________ Level of respondent in the firm management:[ ]Top [ ]Middle [ ]Low | M
M
Age of firm (yrs.):[ / ]0 – 5 [ ]6 – 10 [ ]11 and above | FIRM EXPERTISE[ ]Architectural Design[ ]Structural Design[ ]Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) Design[ ]Construction (simulation, estimating and construction analysis) | STAFF POPULATIONEntire staff[ ]1 – 10 [ / ]11 – 20 [ ]21 aboveComputer users for Design works[ / ]1 – 10 [ ]11 – 20 [ ]21 above | | 1 - 5 | 6 - 10 | 11 and above | Private individuals/organizations. | | | | Public organizations. | | | | International bodies. | | | |
How frequent is your firm having the following clients? (per annum |

PART B.
BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM)

1. What is/are the primary design software tools in use in your firm?
[ ] CAD software (AutoCAD etc) [ ] BIM software (Revit, Bentlyetc) [ ] 3D modeller (3D max, Maya, Sketchupetc)

2. Do you use BIM technology?
[ ] Yes am currently using BIM [ ] I intend to use BIM in soon [ ] No, am not currently using BIM

3. If yes, Which BIM software do you use?
ARCHITECTURE
Autodesk Revit [ ] GraphisoftArchiCAD [ ] Bentley Architecture [ ] IntelliCAD [ ]

STRUCTURAL
Autodesk Revit Structure [ ] Tekla Structures [ ] Bentley Structural Modeller[ ]

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL AND PLUMBING
Autodesk Revit MEP [ ] CADMEP [ ] Bentley Hevacomp Mechanical Designer [ ]

CONSTRUCTION
Autodesk Naviswork [ ] Bentley ConstrucSim [ ] TeklaBIMSight [ ]

SUSTAINABILITY
Autodesk EcotectAnalysis[ ] GraphiSoftEcoDesigner[ ] Bentley Hevacomp[ ]

Others, please specify_______________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________________

4. What are the primary uses of BIM software tools in your firm?
PLAN
[ ] Programming [ ] Site analysis [ ] Cost estimation [ ] Existing conditions modeling
DESIGN
[ ] Design authoring [ ] Structural analysis [ ] Energy analysis [ ] Lighting analysis [ ] M/E analysis
[ ] Sustainability evaluation
CONSTRUCT
[ ] 3D coordination [ ] Site utilization planning [ ] 3D control and planning [ ] Digital fabrication
OPERATE
[ ] Record model [ ] Maintenance scheduling [ ] Building System Analysis

5. How do you perceive the efficiency of BIM technology use in the AEC industry?
Please tick 5: Very Efficient 4: Efficient 3: Neutral 2: Somewhat Efficient 1: Not at all Efficient

| 5 | 4 | 3 | 2 | 1 | Programming | | | | | | Site analysis | | | | | | Cost estimation | | | | | | Existing conditions modeling | | | | | | Design authoring | | | | | | Structural analysis | | | | | | Energy analysis | | | | | | Lighting analysis | | | | | | Mechanical and Electrical analysis (M/E analysis) | | | | | | 3D coordination | | | | | | Site utilization planning | | | | | | 3D control and planning | | | | | | Digital fabrication | | | | | | Record model | | | | | | Maintenance scheduling | | | | | | Building System Analysis | | | | | |

6. What benefits is achieved by using BIM technology in your firm?
[ ] Visualization of the project
[ ] Increased accuracy in scheduling and 2D drawings
[ ] Labour and time efficiency
[ ] Reduces cost and risk
[ ] Increase in speed of project delivering
[ ] Aids site logistics
[ ] Aids clash detection
Others, please specify______________________________________________________________________________________

7. How important does your firm regards the training of its staff toward improving on BIM technology integration in its practice? Very Important | Important | Neutral | Somewhat Important | Not at all Important | | | | | |

8. What area of research would you recommend in other to improve the adoption of BIM in Nigeria?
[ ] Increase awareness about BIM
[ ] Defining a BIM framework
[ ] Legislative policies
Others, please specify ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Comments ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________…...

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