Free Essay

Assess the Relative Roles of Sub-Tropical Anticyclones and the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in Creating the Characteristic Features of the Climate of One Tropical Region That You Have Studied (40 Marks)

In: Science

Submitted By Halo2907
Words 838
Pages 4
The monsoon climate of India is effected by sub-tropical anticyclones and the inter-tropical convergence zone. In the ITCZ, trade winds meet and create a low pressure zone of rising air that cools and condenses forming frequent heavy rainstorms. The monsoon climate is split into wet and dry monsoons. The wet monsoon lasts 4 months from around June until September and the dry monsoon lasts for the rest of the year from October to May. The wet monsoon has extremely heavy rainfall and warm temperatures for very long periods of time and the dry monsoon is the opposite for the rest of the year and the land cools down. In summer in the wet season there can be up to 600mm of rain in a month whereas in the dry season in winter there is very little rain. On average there is around 3000mm a year, most of this rain falls in the wet season. This climate is due to many effects, most of them caused by subtropical and anticyclone and the movement of the ITCZ. Anticyclones are weather systems have high pressure, falling air, clear skys and warm temperatures. The air falls from the upper atmosphere and warms on the way down. This causes humidity to decrease as air masses hold more moisture as they get warmer. This also means that clouds don’t develop and conditions are very dry because air began over a land mass and has relatively low humidity and so not much moisture condenses.

The inter-tropical convergence zone is the area of the atmosphere that lies over the equator. It receives high daytime temperatures around 26-32⁰C, high rainfall of up to 3600mm a year and warm trade winds that vary in strength throughout the year. It also has low pressure and often high levels of cloud. The inter-tropical convergence zone moves throughout the year with the tilt of the Earth. There’s often high levels of cloud due to low pressure caused by rising air, this air is moist and so adiabatic cooling causes condensation as the air rises. In summer, the ITCZ moves pole wards towards the tropic of Cancer. The inter tropical convergence zone has extended 30°N, just to the North of India. This is due to the intense heating of the land mass that takes place over India. The intense heating and the movement of the ITCZ create low pressure over the North of India. The sea surrounding India heats up slowly, creating a zone of high pressure (subtropical anticyclone) off the Southern coast of India. Because winds blow from high to low pressure, air moves south westerly from the sea to the north of India. This wind is deflected by the Coriolis effect as the earth spins. The low pressure draws in warm air from the Indian Ocean bringing heavy rain to India. As the moisture reaches India it is forced up over the Western Ghats, a mountain range on the south west coast. The air cools adiabatically and so moisture condenses. The rapid rise in air creates tall cumulonimbus clouds and extremely heavy rain. This also happens over the Himalayas and is called orographic rain fall.

In winter, the ITCZ and the subtropical jet stream move southwards over the Equator and towards the Tropic of Capricorn. At the same time, the continental landmass at the centre of Asia around Mongolia and the Himalaya experiences intense cooling as the Northern hemisphere points away from the sun. The intense cooling creates an area of high pressure in Northern India and the low pressure of the ITCZ is found to the south of India. The winds blow from the North-East, away from the high pressure cell over northern India and into the Indian Ocean and this brings dry conditions to most of the Indian subcontinent as the winds travel over land it also warms as it travels toward the equator this also means no moisture would condense. A winter anticyclone forms in central Asia due to the ITCZ moving south creating the high pressure in Asia. In winter this creates conditions that are cold but clear causing the land to cool and the anticyclone worsens the effects of the dry winter monsoon as it means the air is colder and dryer which leads to little condensation over India. In conclusion, the movement of the inter-tropical convergence zone during the course of the year has a great effect on this climate. As the ITCZ moves North and South so do the areas of high and low pressure. The anticyclones in sub-tropical regions are developed by the movement of the inter tropical convergence zone and so the effect of the ITCZ is much greater than the anticyclones. I feel that the movement of the trade winds is mainly caused by the movement of the ITCZ and the movement of prevailing wind plays one of the largest parts in the creation of this climate’s characteristics along with the position of India relative to the warm Indian Ocean.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Tropical Dss

...COLLEGE OF NURSING JOURNAL FOR LOCAL OR INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL DISEASE MALARIA Editor's Choice Main Category: Tropical Diseases Also Included In: Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses Article Date: 20 May 2009 - 2:00 PDT The word malaria comes from 18th century Italian mala meaning "bad" and ariameaning "air". Most likely, the term was first used by Dr. Francisco Torti, Italy, when people thought the disease was caused by foul air in marshy areas. It was not until 1880 that scientists discovered that malaria was a parasitic disease which is transmitted by the anopheles mosquito. The mosquito infects the host with a one-cell parasite called plasmodium. Not long after they found out that Malaria is transmitted from human-to-human through the bite of the female mosquito, which needs blood for her eggs.  According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, Malaria is "A disease caused by the presence of the sporozoan Plasmodium in human or other vertebrate erythrocytes, usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus Anopheles that previously sucked blood from a person with malaria…" (Click here to see the complete definition in the dictionary). Malaria is also known as Jungle fever, Marsh fever, Paludal fever Approximately 40% of the total global population is at risk of Malaria infection. During the 20th century the disease was effectively eliminated in the majority of non-tropical countries. Today Malaria causes over 350......

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Tropical Rainforest

...1 Tropical Rainforest Unit 1 Individual Project Rosella Fyffe Jane Knapp 3-31-2013 2 Introduction I will be discussing the Tropical Rainforest, and writing about the abiotic components, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and the ecosystem function and structure. Also discussing the disturbance and how natural can bounce back after these types of disturbance. 3 Tropical Rainforest The ecosystem of the Tropical Rainforest is a community of living organisms such as plants, animals and microbes in conjunctions with the nonliving components of their environment such as air, water and mineral soil, interacting as a system. ( Ecosystems are controlled both by external and internal factors. The external factors such as climate, this is the material which forms the soil and topography, and control the overall structure of an ecosystem and the way things work with in it. Other external factors are time, potential biota. The internal factors not only control ecosystem processes but are also controlled by them and are often subject to feedback loops. The resource inputs are generally controlled by external processes like climate and parent material. ( The ecosystem processes, is when the energy and carbon enter ecosystems through photosynthesis, are incorporated into living tissue, transferred to other organisms. The biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked......

Words: 480 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Kerry Hill - Tropical Modernism

...TROPICAL MODERNISM KERRY HILL BY: NADIA FAZILLAH MOHD FADZIR BACKGROUND AND HISTORY Kerry Hill is an architect famous for his hotel design in tropical Asia. He was born in Perth, Western Australia in 1943. He studied at Perth Technical College and then pursued his studies in University of Western Australia and graduated in 1968. He was one of the first eight architecture degree graduates of the university. After graduated, he worked for Jeffrey Howlett and Bailey in Perth for three years, from 1969 to 1971. He worked at new Perth Concert Hall and acknowledged Jeffrey Howlett as his important mentor in architecture. Then, he began to apply for jobs in United States but had no luck. He finally accepted to work for Palmer & Turner in Hong Kong and left Australia in 1972, to discover an uncertain journey that would inevitably inform the next 40 years of his practice. His first project as he took up his position in the firm was as a resident site architect for Bali Hyatt Hotel project in Bali, Indonesia. However, the project which supposed took about three months had been extended for more than 30 years. The project was never done, but it led to another project within this region. This is the starting point where he was introduced into a small community of Australian expatriates which included senior architect Peter Muller and the painter Donald Friend, old Asia hands, which then lead mark this an important period in crafting attitude to living and working in Asia,......

Words: 3333 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Tropical Resort a delectable place to visit. The Balinese dedicate themselves to a vibrant and elaborate set of beliefs and an intriguing culture. Scores of sacred holidays and festivals are celebrated each year with ritual and pageantry. Ubiquitous palmleaf offertory plates are replenished daily with flowers and fruit to honour the deities and placate evil spirits. Thousands of temples and altars dot the fertile landscape, rising from rice terraces and family compounds in rural hamlets that have remained mostly unchanged for a thousand years or more. Humble caretakers for the gods, the Balinese have also been blessed with the inherently unselfish gift of hospitality. So Bali is an obvious choice for the plethora of heavenly hideaways that the island has to offer. The name “Ubud” comes from a word that means “medicine” the area is well-known amongst locals for the medicinal plants which grow there and for Como to locate two well-being resorts there makes perfect sense. When to go Bali has a tropical climate with a year round average temperature of 31 degrees Celsius. Bali has two seasons; the dry season that officially runs from May to October with the lowest humidity. Occasionally rainfall can be expected during the dry season, usually at night or early morning. From June to August there is usually a refreshing cool breeze all day long. The central mountain areas are typically cooler than the lower coastal areas, especially at night. The wet season is officially from October to......

Words: 10357 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Discuss Weather and Climate

...Weather, Climate and associated Hazards – Sample Paper 1 (a) Study Figure 2 which shows a synoptic chart of Western Europe and the north-east Atlantic. Describe and suggest reasons for the differences in the weather experienced by stations A and B. (7) (b) Explain the characteristic features of the weather associated with a winter anticyclone in the British Isles. (8) (c) Evaluate the concept of the urban heat island. (10) Critically evaluate the possible effects of the phenomenon known as global warming and suggest possible responses to them. (40) Weather, Climate and associated Hazards - Sample Paper 2 - Study Figure 2, a diagram showing the impact of Hurricane Floyd 1999. (a) Using Figure 2, comment on the responses to Hurricane Floyd in September 1999. (7) (b) Explain the causes of tropical revolving storms. (8) (c) With reference to one tropical region that you have studied, describe and explain the characteristic features of the climate of that region. (10) “Urban areas have a significant impact on climatic characteristics.” Discuss this statement. (40) Exam Board Approved Back of Textbook Sample Paper (a) Study figure 2......

Words: 500 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Climate of Kano West Africa

...Assess the relative roles of sub-tropical anticyclones and the inter-tropical convergence zone in creating the characteristic features of the climate of one tropical region that you have studied. (40 marks) The area that is affected by subtropical anticyclones and the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) that we studied was the transitional climate of Kano in Nigeria. The wet dry/climate of Kano is split into 6-month periods, November to April is the dry season and March to October is the wet season. The dry season sees no more than 20mm of rainfall in one month whereas the wet season can bring more than 260mm of rainfall in the same time period. The wet season also receives 95% of the annual rainfall. Kano is located at 12 degrees north of the equator and is around 630m above sea level. Temperatures range from 26 degrees to 34 degrees all year round and the annual precipitation is 920 mm of rainfall. This wet dry climate is due to many effects, most of them caused by subtropical and anticyclone and the movement of the ITCZ. In this essay I will assess factors that create Kano’s wet dry climate. In Kano temperatures are high throughout the year due to the sun being overhead for many months. The angle of the sun affects the amount of atmosphere the sun's radiation has to pass through. This then determines the amount of radiation that reaches the earth's surface. When the sun is directly overhead and radiation travels through least amount of atmosphere enroute to the......

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

This Is the One

...AS GEOGRAPHY UNIT 1 WORLD AT RISK WORLD AT RISK GLOBAL HAZARDS Hazard – Potential threat to human life or property Natural Hazards – Caused by natural processes e.g. lava flow from volcanic eruption Hydro-meteorological Hazards – Caused by climatic processes (droughts, floods, tropical cyclones and storms Geophysical Hazards – Caused by land processes (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes) Disaster – When a hazard seriously affects humans Risk – Likelihood that humans will be seriously affected by a hazard Vulnerability – How susceptible a population is to the damage caused by a hazard. Disaster Risk Equation Risk (R) – Hazards (H) * Vulnerability (V) / Capacity to Cope (C) Risk increases if: * Frequency or severity of hazards increase * People vulnerability increase * Capacity to cope decreases (Capacity to cope is the ability to deal with the consequences of a hazard) e.g. people in remote areas are further from help in central areas, so have lower capacity to cope) * Global Warming – greatest global hazard * Recent increase in average global temp – climate change * Causes other types of climate change * Context hazard – global in scale (affects all parts of environment) – potential to trigger other hazards or make them worse * Chronic Hazard (Long term) * People who aren’t causing the problem are mostly affected * Difficult to find solutions * Hydro-meteorological hazards becoming more......

Words: 10391 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

There Has Been Debate over the Present Day Characteristics of Biomes of Tropical Regions. for Some, They Are Seen as a Natural Response to the Climate of the Area, Whereas for Others They Are Regarded as a Product of

...debate over the present day characteristics of biomes of tropical regions. For some, they are seen as a natural response to the climate of the area, whereas for others they are regarded as a product of human interference. Discuss the statement in the context of the tropical biome you have studied. [40] A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall. In particular, I will be focusing on Borneo Rainforest, which is the oldest rainforest in the world. The island is divided among three countries (figure 1): Malaysia and Brunei in the north, and Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Climate is the average weather the region receives over a 30 year period. Climate can be on a global scale or a local scale, for instance where it is mountainous more rainfall is generated therefore that region sees a different climate to perhaps a neighbouring region. Aspect and altitude also affects climate, which will be explored in greater detail. The purpose of this essay is to explore whether the natural, climatic factors have influenced the characteristics of the rainforest, or whether humans have had an influence......

Words: 2738 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Land Ocean and Climate

...Level First Semester 1. Communication in English I 2. Logic Philosophy & Human Existence 3. Physical Chemistry 4. General Biology I (Botany/Zoology) 5. Practical Biology 6. General Physics 7. Mathematics 8. Organic Chemistry I 9. Practical Chemistry Sub-Total Second Semester 10. Communication in English II 11. Nigerian People and Culture 12. Social Sciences 13. Organic Chemistry 14. Biology II 15. Organic Chemistry II 16. Mathematics 17. Practical Physics 18. Use of Library Sub-Total 200 Credits 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 Credits Credits 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 17 Credits Level 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. First Semester Climatology and Biogeography General Agriculture Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals Crop Anatomy, Taxonomy and Physiology Principles of Soil Science Principles of Agricultural Economics Introduction to Forestry Resource Manag~ment Introduction to Biotechnology Sub-Total 8. 9. 10 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Second Semester Principles of Animal Production Principles of Crop Production Principles of Food Science and Technology Introductory Biochemistry Introduction to Computers Introduction to Fisheries & Wildlife Introductory Statistics Entrepreneurial Studies I Introduction to Home Economics Sub-Total Credits 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 Credits Credits 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 19 Credits Total = 37 Credits All courses are core-courses for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 300 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Level First Semester l\Ion-ruminant......

Words: 20312 - Pages: 82

Free Essay

‘Maintaining Biodiversity at Its Present Level Is Impossible If People Are to Achieve a Reasonable Standard of Living in the Near Future.’ Discuss This Statement with Reference to a Tropical Biome That You Have Studied.

...‘Maintaining biodiversity at its present level is impossible if people are to achieve a reasonable standard of living in the near future.’ Discuss this statement with reference to a tropical biome that you have studied. (40 marks) Biodiversity is the variety of species in an ecosystem, and there is a large biodiversity in the Amazon rainforest, which is the tropical biome which I have studied. The Amazon covers 40% of the South American land mass, passing through countries such as Peru, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile. It is one of the most biodiverse regions on earth, homes to about 1 million different plant species, over 500 species of mammals, and over 2000 species of fish. There are also a few endangered species in this biome, including the black caiman, which is a reptile and a pirarucu, which is a fish. The standard of living is simply the degree of wealth and material comfort available to a person or community. For the standard of living to improve for generations today and for future generations, it is often necessary for development to occur. And for development to occur, it is almost inevitable that the biodiversity in the area will be affected in one way or another. There are currently some threats to the Amazon rainforest, mainly being deforestation, overhunting and overfishing. If these activities are done in abundance, then it is not possible for people to achieve a reasonable standard of living in the future. So measures must be taken to sustainably develop the...

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Tropical Rainforest

...Tropical Rainforest Megan L. Cleveland SCI/256 JUNE 14, 2015 Mr. Davis Tropical Rainforest An ecosystem is a unique environment where every living thing is interdependent, and one of the most complex yet most interesting ecosystems in the world will be found in the rainforest. The dark and recessed thick plant growth make it one of the most moist places on Earth. If a person studies the plants and animals that compromise the rainforest ecosystem; a person can gain a basic understanding of why scientists and ecologists alike are concerned about the disappearing tropical jungles. Rain forests have the most complex and species rich ecosystems on Earth. A rain forest biome is very complex; including a myriad of different species or plants and animals that have all adapted to lots of rain. They have different levels of plants; the highest level are full of tall trees and they are for the closed canopy. Vines are the next level, such as orchids and epiphytes that grow high within the trees to reach more sun light. The lowest level belongs to the short trees and small plants, like ferns. At the base of it all is the forest floor; dark but full of life. Rainforests support more than eight thousand kinds of plant within their dense vegetation. Australian rainforests produce flowers that are not found in any other place in this world. At ground level of a rainforest, it is so dark it may seem like dusk at lunchtime because of the layers of leaves blocking the light....

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tropical Architecture

...Research Proposal in Technical Writing Tropical Design: An Eco-Friendly and Energy Saving Design for Residential Structure Submitted By: Gutierrez, Shiella Mae DL. Submitted To: Mr. Jesus Escuro 1st Semester 2011 Introduction Background of the Study “Do not fight forces, use them.” - (R. Buckmister Fuller) Tropical design is an environmentally conscious design technique in the field of architecture or simply described as designing with nature. This design minimizes the environmental impact of the building by enhancing efficiency and controls the use of materials, energy, and development space. There is an attempt to preserve air, water, and earth by choosing economically friendly building materials. Tropical design could contribute to the environment through its sustainable properties which minimizes too much use of electricity by using the natural energy as alternative. This research is conducted because it is a proof that both man and his natural environment can live in perfect harmony. The tropical conditions in the Philippines affect the high temperature, and low air flow which affect on the comfortable indoor environment. With this design approach, it can contribute to a sustainable lifestyle and culture. Tropical architecture can be a solution in preventing global warming because of its eco-friendly materials used in construction and the design itself. This design is important especially for those who are living in the tropics like the......

Words: 6149 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Deforestation of Tropical Forests

...Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests Gabriel Corbeil ENV/GEO 120 March 20, 2015 Introduction: Tropical rainforests represent an important percentage of the globes biodiversity. This ecosystem is estimated to house 50% of all plant, insect and animal life. Covering less than 7% of Earth’s surface, it nonetheless is attributed with producing 20% of our oxygen supply. This unique biome arcs like a green arrow along the equatorial line. Its primary locations are South America, Central Africa and South-East Asia. Each region is facing varying degrees of serious deforestation. The result being widespread loss of humid tropical forest “Between 1990 and 1997, 5.8 ± 1.4 million hectares of humid tropical forest were lost each year, with a further 2.3 ± 0.7 million hectares of forest visibly degraded.” (Achard et al. 2002) The heart of the problem lies beneath a tangled mess of socio-economic growth resulting in massive deforestation chiefly for the land. Commercial farmers using the land for cattle, soybeans, palm oil and monoculture tree farms take advantage of loose government regulations. The most common tactic for land for forest removal is “slash and burn” where existing vegetation is cut down and burned for fertilizer. This technique has major impacts on multiple cycles key to forest health. Most notably the hydrological cycle, the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. If this trend continues there will be major changes in precipitation and air quality, both locally and......

Words: 2402 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Tropical Rainforest

...Tropical Rainforest Hassan Gordon American Intercontinental University The Tropical Rainforest is a forest occurring in tropical areas of heavy rainfall. In the tropical rainforest most trees in the rainforest have wide buttress roots. Deforestation is a major problem caused by humans in the tropical rainforest. The government has cleared large areas of the Amazon Rainforest and encouraged people to move there. About 80% of the rainforests nutrients comes from trees and plants. Tropical Rainforest Tropical Rainforests are located around the equator, in areas with lots of rainfall, and where temperatures consistently stay near 80 degrees’ year round. Emergents are the tallest trees that are located in a tropical rainforest, which usually can stand well over 160 feet. You also have the canopy level which is a sea of leaves blocking lower levels from the sunlight. The canopy is here nearly half the animal population is, like the monkeys, birds, snakes, and also vines that lead up from lower levels that reach the sun. Then you have the shrub layer which has the most compacted plant growth, mostly plants, and ferns that do not require much sunlight to grow, then you have the forest floor that is mostly dark, and wet which contains a layer of rotting leaves and dead animals that have decomposed creating a thin mist full of nutrients. Biochemical cycles are the pathways in which the transformation, and transport of matter takes place. There are four areas categories......

Words: 663 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

True Tropical

...True Tropical LTD Edna Odish Dr. David Holness Roswell Campus Marketing Management April 25, 2012 Strayer University True Tropical Ltd A. Write about your company. 1. Write a detailed company background. Address the following items at a minimum for full credit: True Tropical was founded in 2004 by an immigrant named Edna Odish who came to U.S. in the same year. Once here, she noticed there was a scarcity in the variety of tropical fruits Georgia had to offer. So, in an attempt to satisfy the need for new flavors and provide the American market with more options, Edna came up with True Tropical. A company based on the delicious yet medicinal properties of the mysterious and versatile fruit known as Maranon. The Maranon was consider the fruit of the memory by native Indians and in the 1500 was used by the Portuguese as a buster drink after their long travels to and from Africa. The Maranon is also utilized as throat remedy and for could and coughs due to its richness in vitamin C. This is the main reason of our business creation, our company will always pursue the wealth been of our customer in return for high profit. 2. Create a strategic mission statement. Our mission is to please our customers by providing them with a variety of healthy and delightful ways in which to enjoy the enchanting and tropical taste of the ancient Maranon while taking them to their own customs and......

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8