Assess the Relative Roles of Sub-Tropical Anticyclones and the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone in Creating the Characteristic Features of the Climate of One Tropical Region That You Have Studied (40 Marks)

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The monsoon climate of India is effected by sub-tropical anticyclones and the inter-tropical convergence zone. In the ITCZ, trade winds meet and create a low pressure zone of rising air that cools and condenses forming frequent heavy rainstorms. The monsoon climate is split into wet and dry monsoons. The wet monsoon lasts 4 months from around June until September and the dry monsoon lasts for the rest of the year from October to May. The wet monsoon has extremely heavy rainfall and warm temperatures for very long periods of time and the dry monsoon is the opposite for the rest of the year and the land cools down. In summer in the wet season there can be up to 600mm of rain in a month whereas in the dry season in winter there is very little rain. On average there is around 3000mm a year, most of this rain falls in the wet season. This climate is due to many effects, most of them caused by subtropical and anticyclone and the movement of the ITCZ. Anticyclones are weather systems have high pressure, falling air, clear skys and warm temperatures. The air falls from the upper atmosphere and warms on the way down. This causes humidity to decrease as air masses hold more moisture as they get warmer. This also means that clouds don’t develop and conditions are very dry because air began over a land mass and has relatively low humidity and so not much moisture condenses.

The inter-tropical convergence zone is the area of the atmosphere that lies over the equator. It receives high daytime temperatures around 26-32⁰C, high rainfall of up to 3600mm a year and warm trade winds that vary in strength throughout the year. It also has low pressure and often high levels of cloud. The inter-tropical convergence zone moves throughout the year with the tilt of the Earth. There’s often high levels of cloud due to low pressure caused by rising air, this air is moist and so…...

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