Arthropods

In: Science

Submitted By Tink3
Words 388
Pages 2
Arthropods
Arthropods are somewhat different than mammals being that they have an exoskeleton and they do not have lungs. They breathe through tubes connected to the outside of their bodies. First, the oxygen concentration in the air millions of years ago was approximately 30% higher than it is today and arthropods in that time period were much larger. It can be suggested that the size of the arthropods is limited in relation to the oxygen concentration in the air today. A second point to discuss is the exoskeletons. Physical size has its problems. It appears that when an animal doubles in size, its weight increases eight times over, but due to the weight-bearing capacity of this skeleton, the weight is only quadrupled and the actual strength of its muscles is doubled. Large vertebrates have skeletons that are disproportionately heavy compared to smaller vertebrates. The size has not been seen because the costs that come with the large size affect arthropods more so than vertebrates. There is a risk of injury with a large skeleton. The large size is further complicated during molting. The large size can’t compensate for all of the difficulties that come with a large skeleton. This greatly affects natural selection. It will favor the smaller sized animal in a population. Large size skeletons run the risk of abrasions and impact damage on the internal body. There is no cushion for soft tissues. The large size also affects the feet. The animal places all the weight when running on the smallest area of the foot. The lack of cushioning causes fractures related to the force of the impact. The testing of these arthropods could be done by raising several generations of beetles in an increased oxygen rich environment and see if there is an increase in the average size. The size-to-weight issue may be more difficult. It may be possible to raise several generations in a…...

Similar Documents

Science 1.3

...Details A. Invertebrate can have soft sacs filled with liquid or hard shells for support B. There are many more individuals than vertebrate individuals C. There are many more kinds of invertebrates than kinds of vertebrates D. Most kind of invertebrates are insects. E. Kinds of invertebrates Arthropods = their bodies are made up of more than one many part and they have legs with joints. Example insects, spiders, crabs Mollusks = animals with soft bodies, many of them have hard shell Example: octopus, squid, clam and snail Worms = animals with long soft bodies and no legs Example: worms Sea jellies is made mostly of water and they live in the ocean Example: sea jellies Test 1.3 Vocabulary 1. Invertebrates a. animals without backbones 2.trait b. animals with backbone 3.vertebrate c. body feature passed on to an animal from parents Clasify between each group of vertebrate Fish, reptiles, bird, mammals, amphibians 1.dog 2.lizard 3.pig 4.snakes 5.frogs 6.fish 7.salamaders Classify between each group of invertebrates Arthropods, Mollusks, Worms, Sea jellies 1. snail 2. spider 3. octopus 4. insects 5. crabs 6. sea jellies 7. worms 8. shell 9. clam...

Words: 409 - Pages: 2

Hehehe

...Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 67,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at 0.1 mm (0.004 in), to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 12.5 ft (3.8 m) and a mass of 44 lb (20 kg). Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, which they moult to grow. They are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insects, myriapods and chelicerates, by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs, and by the nauplius form of the larvae. Most crustaceans are free-living aquatic animals, but some are terrestrial (e.g. woodlice), some are parasitic (e.g. Rhizocephala, fish lice, tongue worms) and some are sessile (e.g. barnacles). The group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian, and includes living fossils such as Triops cancriformis, which has existed apparently unchanged since the Triassic period. More than 10 million tons of crustaceans are produced by fishery or farming for human consumption, the majority of it being shrimp and prawns. Krill and copepods are not as widely fished, but may be the animals with the greatest biomass on the planet, and form a vital part of the food chain. The scientific study of crustaceans is known as carcinology (alternatively, malacostracology, crustaceology or crustalogy), and a scientist who works in......

Words: 798 - Pages: 4

The Best and Funniest

... |Canidae |Different | |Genus and species |Homo sapiens |Canis familaris |Different | 16 Student answers will vary. 4.4 Answers Remembering 1 Zoology. 2 Whether animals have a backbone or not. 3 Chordata. 4 Arthropods, cnidarians, molluscs and worms. 5 One million different species of insects are known and many more are likely to be found in the future. 6 a Hatch from eggs and have a two stage life, have a thin skin that would dry out if they did not live in a damp area, need to go back to water to reproduce because eggs lack waterproof coating, are able to breathe through their skin, as well as lungs and are ectotherms. b Breathe using lungs, have scales on their legs and feet, feathers, lay hard shelled eggs and are endotherms. c Have gills, are ectotherms and most lay eggs. d Feed their young on milk from mammary glands, have hair (wool, fur or spikes) and are endotherms. 7 a Polyps and medusas b Arthropods c Octopus d Water: shrimp, crabs, yabbies, octopus, squid Land: spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, snails, slugs Understanding 8 Parasitic means to live off or weaken other living organisms. 9 Dry scales, lungs, soft leathery waterproof eggs and ectothermic. 10 Millipedes have two pairs of legs per segment whereas centipedes have only one pair of legs per...

Words: 2951 - Pages: 12

Health Care in News

...Disease in the News Lynn Adams HCS/245 August 28, 2012 Dr. Gail Hollins, PhD, RN Disease in the News According to Encylopedia.com (2012), West Nile virus is a disease that is sweeping North America that is normally spread by mosquitos, ticks, or other arthropods. This disease generally affects the nervous system and can lead to terminal encephalitis or meningitis, which are inflammations of the spinal cord and brain ("West Nile," 2012). On August 27, 2012, I read an article online titled “West Nile virus: Should you be worried?” By: Jennifer LaRue Huget of The Washington Post. This article is in reference to the disease trend known as West Nile and reflects on the number of Americans that have died from the West Nile virus from the time when it was detected in 1999. Within the readings, just last week; The Centers for Disease Control reported that more people in the United States have shown symptoms of infection with West Nile virus at this particular time this year than any other year since the virus was first detected in New York in 1999. In addition, 1,118 people had been diagnosed and 41 have died with West Nile since August 21, 2012 (Huget, 2012). In 2012, The Centers for Disease Control stated that 20 percent of persons infected with West Nile virus will show signs of illness usually 3-14 days after being bitten and those who do not will experience mild cases such as fever, pain, aches, vomiting, rash and inflamed lymph glands. Although these cases......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Wetland

...water competition among different sectors it is imperative that the available irrigation supplies be used efficiently. 5 to 7 cm of water is probably the best for irrigated. Water management practices such as draining, flooding and alternate flooding and draining have been practiced by the farmers for many years Weed management: Grassy weeds serve as hosts for most rice pests both in and outside the rice fields. Using of herbicides for weed control in rice. Weeds can directly serve as food sources or provide other ecosystem resources for herbivorous arthropods, and indirectly serve carnivorous (beneficial) arthropods by providing food and shelter to their prey. Weeds can serve as alternative hosts for pest and beneficial arthropods when their preferred crop host is absent. Weeds can serve as a source of increased diversity in agroecosystems. Increased diversity has been the rationale for enhancing biological control of arthropod pests through habitat management Nutrient management: The average chemical fertilizer usage in irrigated rice is around 170 Kg/ha of NPK compared to only 32 Kg/ha in rainfed rice. Table 2: Weed species that are in competition with paddy (Hakim et al., 2013) Scientific name | Common name | Oryza sativa complex | Weedy rice | Digitaria ischaemum (Schr.)Muhl | Smooth crabgrass | Paspalum vaginatum Sw. | Water couch grass | Fimbristylis globulosa Kunth | Globular fimbristylis | Cyperus distans L.f. | Slender cyperus | Euphorbia......

Words: 1194 - Pages: 5

Poison Snakes

...packs activated by squeezing the package to mix the chemicals that produce an intense cold may be bandaged onto the bitten area to slow the spread of venom. *DO NOT attempt to cut open the bite or suck out the venom. *DO NOT give the casualty food, alcohol, stimulants (coffee or tea), drugs or tobacco. *Transport the victim to a medical treatment facility immediately. In recent years, hospital admissions of personnel due to bites and stings of poisonous arthropods have exceeded the admissions for treatment of snakebites. Only about a third of the deaths due to poisonous bites were from snakes; the others were caused by poisonous arthropods. Some of the desert arthropods are harmless but have a bad reputation among people because of their scary appearance. A few of the important and interesting arthropods of this desert area are described in this section. The following first aid measures should be taken immediately if bitten or stung by an arthropod: *If there is a stinger present, for example, from a bee, remove the stinger by scraping the skin's surface with a fingernail or knife. DO NOT squeeze the sac attached to the stinger because it may inject more venom. *Wash the area of the bite/sting with soap and water (alcohol or an antiseptic may also be used) to help reduce the chances of an infection and remove traces of venom. *Remove jewelry from bitten extremities because swelling is common and may......

Words: 1187 - Pages: 5

Horshoe Crab

...Advanced Biology 02/24/2012 Limulus Polyphemus also commonly known as the horseshoe crab is indeed one of the few “living” fossils here on Earth. The horseshoe crab has inhabited the planet long before humans. According to the Maryland Department of Natural Resources (2010), they evolved in the shallow seas of the Paleozic Era (540-248 million years ago) alongside other arthropods. Soon after, around 200 million years ago during the Mezozoic Era, the shallow seas around Europe were considered the dispersal point for ancestors of our modern day horseshoe crab. Despite inhabiting the planet for so long, horseshoe crab body forms have changed very little over all of those years. First off, the obscure physical anatomy of the horseshoe crab is quite intriguing. Belonging to the phylum of arthropoda, horseshoe crabs are bottom dwelling organisms that have chelicerae (pincer-like appendages), five pairs of walking legs and book gills, and lack of jaws and antennae make horseshoe crabs more similar to spiders, ticks and scorpions than to true crabs. Within the diversity of arthropods, horseshoe crabs have their own class called Merostomata, meaning legs attached to the mouth. According to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (2012), the thin spike-like tail of horseshoe crabs has given this species an unfavorable reputation. Many people view horseshoe crabs as dangerous animals because they have sharp tails. In reality, horseshoe crabs are harmless. Their tails...

Words: 551 - Pages: 3

The T Rex

...the report mentioned is that Cambrian radiation is perfectly consistent with Darwin's theory of evolution. The hypothesis is also assuming an Ediacaran origin for arthropods, phenotypic evolution was w4 times faster, andmolecular evolution w5.5 times faster, during the Cambrian explosion compared to all subsequent parts of the Phanerozoic. These rapid evolutionary rates are robust to assumptions about the precise age of arthropods(Michael S.Y. Lee, et al., 2013). 2. The research focused on arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids and their relatives), that are the most diverse animal group in both the Cambrian period and present day. This study concerns arthropods, but the results are likely applicable to most of life. 3. In the report, the authors use records of fossils whose age is 515-million-year-old to present. These fossils lived during the Cambrian. The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from 541.0 ± 1.0 to 485.4 ± 1.9 million years ago (mya) and is succeeded by the Ordovician(). 4. Branches proportional to Molecular Change and Branches proportional to Morphological Change are taken to demonstrate the hypothesis. These experts here employed Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic clock methods on an extensive anatomical and genomic data set for arthropods. If I found fossils that I don’t know how to compare the fossil to present organisms, I could use the result of Molecular Change and Morphological Change to......

Words: 504 - Pages: 3

Rwerew

...and record the mass. 5. Allow the remaining grass to grow for one more week 6. Find the difference in the dry mass. This number is in grams of added carbon per five plants. Scale this up by using the number of plants growing in 25 cm. Then convert units of CM to m and also number of days between samples to years 7. Calculate and report the NPP into units of grams of carbon per square meter. Food Web Sun Grass organic matter Nematodes(root feeders) Fungi Bacteria Arthropods(insect) Nematodes(fungi and bacteria feeders) Protozoa predator Arthropods Birds Animals Food Chain ......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Phyrum Artropoda

...PHYRUM ARTROPODA Arthopoda is a phylum within Animalia kingdom. They are most diverse of all phyla. All arthropods have bodies covered with a tough exoskeleton which consists of layers of chitin and proteins. They are bilaterally symmetrical. Arthropod body is segmented but also divided into head, thorax and abdomen. Head and thorax can be joined to form a cephalothorax Arthropods have five main groups: arachnids, centipedes and millipedes, horseshoe crabs, and insects. The phylum arthropoda is most successful in terms of geographical distribution, diversity and in numbers. Insects are most successful within the phylum arthropoda as they are most diverse and abundant group of organisms on earth. Insects exist in almost all habitats on earth. Their biological success is by numbers. They have many adaptations which make them successful. The ability of insects to fly is important as they can exploit more resources in many locations. Flight enables them to escape from predators. Their population is able to spread into new habitats and locate new resources. Insects are small in size which gives them advantage as minimal resources are required for their survival and reproduction. Because of small size, insects can hide from predators in cracks. Insects have a supporting exoskeleton. Exoskeleton gives support and shape to body’s soft tissues. Exoskeleton provides protection against injury, attack or loss of fluids from body in fresh water and arid environment. Another......

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Biology and Things

... 1. The advantages that flying insects have ober arthropods that cannot fly is that it’s very easy for them to move or transport theirself from a place to another. Another is that it allows them to occupy new ecological niches. Compared to these arthropods that cannot fly, it’s really easy for them to occupy them. Also, many insects are predators themselves and this gives them an advantage in predator-pray arm race. 2. The scientific name for an arthropod (insects, arachnids, and crustaceans) shedding their exoskeleton is called Ecdysis. First, the arthropod enters a state of inactivity while the exoskeleton separates from the epidermis beneath. Then the arthropod secretes a digestive fluid from the moulting glands to fill the space between the epidermis and the old cuticle (which the exoskeleton grew from). The digestive fluid remains inactive however, until the new cuticle starts to grow. In the meantime, the arthropod pushes the exoskeleton off by making small movements forward within the old exoskeleton, which splits down the back, the splitting usually caused by the arthropod increasing it's blood pressure, the split allowing the organism to emerge. The old cuticle is then digested by the fluids released earlier, leaving the new cuticle, from which the new exoskeleton will grow. 3. 4. From the given situation, that was not a good way to protect the oysters because some species of sea stars can regrow and might affect again the predation progress and let the......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Animal

...more : http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4744976_a-clam-move.html Read more : http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4744976_a-clam-move.html Exercise 7: Phylum Arthropoda The phylum Arthropoda contains animals with segmented appendages on their body segments. Arthropods occupy every habitat, and are in many respects the most successful animal group on Earth. There are conservatively over 1 million species of living arthropods. Biologist E.O. Wilson estimates there are 10 million species, 9 million of which are arthropods. Certain groups of arthropds have extremely complete fossil records. Arthropod features that have contributed to their success include: 1. A hard exoskeleton, a strong but flexible outer covering composed primarily of the carbohydrate chitin. This functions in protection, attachment for muscles, locomotion, and prevention of desiccation. 2. Presence of jointed appendages. Trilobites, which flourished during Cambrian Period and were important animals in marine ecosystems for the remainder of the Paleozoic Era, had a pair of appendages on each body segment. Modern arthropod appendages are specialized for walking, swimming, reproduction, etc. These modifications account for much of the diversity and success of arthropods. 3. A complex nervous system with a brain connected to a ventral solid nerve cord. The head bears various sensory organs. Compound eyes have many complete visual units, each of which collects light independently. The lens of each visual unit......

Words: 4763 - Pages: 20

Effect of Rotanone

...nerve fibre overstimulate the cholinergic system due to prolonged binding to post synaptic receptor which can lead to death due to prolonged excitation. Accumulation of acetylcholine also can block neurotransmission in the respiratory centre of the brain or neuromuscular junction of the respiratory system (Dale et al 2007). Bibliography * Baz A, Cifrián B, Díaz-Aranda L M & Martín-Vega D, 2007, The distribution of adult blow-flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) along an altitudinal gradient in Central Spain, Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.): International Journal of Entomology, 43:3, 289-296, Taylor & Francis, London. * CapineraI J, 2010, Insects and Wildlife: Arthropods and their Relationships with Wild Vertebrate Animals, Section 1- Introduction to Arthropods, Chapter 1 – Insects and their relatives, P9, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, West Sussex. * Clifford H F, 1991, Aquatic Invertebrates of Alberta: An Illustrated Guide, Chapter 24, Cladocera , p149-151, The University of Alberta Press, Alberta. * M M Dale, R J Flower, H P Rang and J M Ritter, 2007, Pharmacology 6th Edition, Elsevier Limited, London. * Drees B & Jackman J A, 1998, A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects, p239, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston Texas. * Ebert D. Ecology, Epidemiology, and Evolution of Parasitism in Daphnia [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2005. Chapter 2, Introduction to Daphnia......

Words: 2800 - Pages: 12

Arthropods

...INTRODUCTING THE ARTHROPODS: 1. In the entire Animalia kingdom, what percentage make up arthropod phylum? 83% 2. List some examples: insects, spiders, scorpions, crustaceans and centipedes. SHEER NUMBERS: 3. Why do you think we should study arthropods? Give examples. There are so many ants that if they were a cm long they could cover the Earth 125 times. There are so many Crustaceans in the ocean that they outweigh all the whales on Earth. Their abundance should be studied because they are the most abundant animal on our planet and have evolved over the past 500 million years. They can teach us about evolution and survival as well as the history of our planet. HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION Click on the magnifying glasses 4. Write down the name of the 6 arthropods you read about and list one fact per each one.​ 1. Gammarus Wilkitzkii lives in the underside of the polar ice pack where it feeds on other crustaceans 2. The wingless fly is one of the very few (and largest) land animals native to Antarctica. 3. Some crabs live more than a mile deep in the ocean around hydrothermal vents. Living in total darkness with intense pressure, severe temperatures, and the caustic chemicals. 4.The Jumping spider lives 22,000 feetabove sea level on the snow-covered slopes of Mount Makalu (just east of Everest). 5. Scolopendra gigantea, the largest centipede species on Earth, lives in the Amazon of South America. It grows to over 30 cm long and hunts small mammals, lizards, and......

Words: 714 - Pages: 3

Current Liabilities

... | | | | | | | | | |7. The correct method of writing a genus and species is to always capitalize the genus and species name and | | | | |underline each or print them in italics. 1 | | | | | | | | | |8. One of the main survival problems insects and other arthropods have is the loss of water from their bodies. | | | | |Small organisms have a relatively small area to store water and a relatively large area for evaporation.1 | | | | | | | | | |9. Millipedes possess 1 pair of legs per section of the body, while centipedes possess two pair of legs per | | | | |section of the body, sowbugs have a total of 7 pair and arachnids have 4 pair. 2 | ...

Words: 4855 - Pages: 20