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Ar Rahnu Contract

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1-5 Ayat Mekah (Makkiyyah) Dan Ayat Madinah (Madaniyyah) al-Quran turun ke atas Nabi s.a.w. secara beransur-ansur selama 23 tahun, kebanyakan waktunya Nabi s.a.w. berada di Mekah. Firman Allah Ta‘ala (al-Isra’ 17:106) - Maksudnya: Dan al-Quran itu telah Kami turunkan dengan beransur-ansur agar kamu membacakannya perlahan-lahan kepada manusia dan Kami menurunkannya bahagian demi bahagian.

Oleh sebab itu, para ulamak telah membahagikan al-Quran kepada:

1. al-Makki: iaitu ayat yang turun ke atas Nabi s.a.w. sebelum hijrah. 2. al-Madani: iaitu ayat yang turun ke atas Nabi s.a.w. selepas hijrah.

Berdasarkan perkara ini, kita dapati firman Allah Ta‘ala (al-Maidah 5:3) - Maksudnya: Pada hari ini telah Kusempurnakan untuk kamu agamamu, dan telah Kucukupkan kepadamu nikmatKu, dan telah Kuredhai Islam itu jadi agama bagimu. Kita dapati ayat ini tergolong dalam bahagian al-Madaniyyah walaupun ianya turun ke atas Nabi s.a.w. pada hari Haji di Arafah (yang letaknya di persekitaran Mekah). Umar pernah berkata: قد عرفنا ذلك اليوم ، والمكان الذي نزلت فيه على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، نزلت وهو قائم بعرفة يوم الجمعة.[1]
Maksudnya:

Kami mengetahui hari itu dan tempat di mana ayat itu turun ke atas Nabi s.a.w.
Ianya telah turun semasa Baginda s.a.w. berada di Arafah pada hari Jumaat.

Perbezaan Bentuk Dan Isi Ayat Makkiyyah Dan Madaniyyah Di antara perbezaan kedua-dua bentuk ayat ini ialah:

1. Ayat Makkiyyah lebih kuat caranya dan tegas percakapannya kerana kebanyakan orang yang mendengar bersifat takabbur (sombong dan angkuh) dan tidak memberi perhatian. Cara begini sesuai dengan keadaan mereka. Contohnya surah al-Muddaththir dan al-Qamar. Ayat Madaniyyah lebih lembut caranya dan halus percakapannya kerana kebanyakan orang yang mendengar bersifat taat dan mengambil berat. Contohnya surah al-Maidah. 2. Ayat Makkiyyah pendek dan hujahnya kuat kerana kebanyakan orang yang mendengar bersifat degil dan melawan. Cara ini sesuai dengan keadaan mereka. Contohnya surah al Thur. Ayat Madaniyyahpanjang dan menerangkan hukum-hukum tanpa hujah kerana keadaan ini sesuai dengan orang yang mendengar. Contohnya surah al-Baqarah. Di antara perbezaan isi ialah:

1. Ayat Makkiyyah menanam Tauhid dan aqidah suci khususnya Tauhid Uluhiyah dan iman dengan kebangkitan semula kerana kebanyakan pendengar mengingkarinya. Ayat Madaniyyah menjelaskan amalan ibadah dan muamalat kerana kebanyakan pendengar telah menerima Tauhid dan aqidah suci. Mereka sekarang memerlukan penjelasan amalan ibadah dan muamalat. 2. Ayat Madaniyyah banyak membincangkan tentang hukum-hukum Jihad dan keadaan orang munafiq kerana Jihad telah disyariatkan dan nifaq telah timbul. Ayat Makkiyyah tidak membincangkan perkara-perkara ini.

Faedah Mengetahui Ayat Makkiyyah Dan Madaniyyah Mengetahui Makkiyyah dan Madaniyyah adalah satu ilmu penting dalam ilmu al-Quran. Antara faedahnya ialah: 1. Menonjolkan ketinggian balaghah (kesusasteraan) al-Quran yang menggunakan bentuk yang sesuai samada kuat dan tegas ataupun lembut dan halus dalam menghadapi setiap kaum bersesuaian dengan keadaan mereka. 2. Menonjolkan hikmat perundangan (tasyri‘) dalam ketinggian matlamatnya dimana pensyariatan meningkat sedikit demi sedikit mengikut keadaan pendengar dan kesediaan mereka untuk menerima dan melaksana. 3. Mendidik para pendakwah seupaya mengikut jejak al-Quran dalam cara dan isi yang bersesuaian dengan pendengar. Hendaklah dimulakan dengan perkara terpenting dan disusuli dengan perkara kedua penting. Hendaklah digunakan ketegasan pada tempatnya dan kelembutan pada tempatnya. 4. Membezakan antara Nasikh dan Mansukh dalam keadaan apabila ayat Makkiyyah bertembung dengan ayat Madaniyyah yang menepati syarat-syarat Naskh. Maka ayat Madaniyyah memansuhkan ayat Makkiyyah kerana ianya terkemudian.

1-7 Penulisan Dan Pengumpulan Al-Quran Penulisan dan pengumpulan al-Quran terbahagi kepada 3 peringkat: 1- Peringkat pertama: pada zaman Nabi s.a.w. dimana cara yang dipentingkan ialah hafalan melebihi penulisan kerana ingatan kuat dan hafalan cepat di samping kekurangan orang yang tahu menulis dan alat-alat tulis. Oleh itu al-Quran tidak dikumpul dalam mushaf. Apabila mendengar ayat, ada yang menghafalnya dan ada yang menulisnya pada apa-apa sahaja objek yang ada seperti pelepah kurma, kulit kering, batu dan tulang. Orang yang alim dalam bacaan dan ilmu al-Quran banyak jumlahnya. عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه : أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بعث سبعين رجلا يقال لهم: القراء، فعرض لهم حيان من بني سليم رعل وذكوان عند بئر معونة فقتلوهم.[1]

Maksudnya: Daripada Anas bin Malik bahawa Nabi s.a.w. telah mengutuskan 70 lelaki yang digelar al-Qurra’ (para alim dalam bacaan dan ilmu al-Quran). Apabila mereka melewati perigi Ma‘unah, dua kampung daripada Bani Sulaim telah menyerang dan membunuh mereka.

Selain daripada mereka terdapat ramai lagi al-Qurra’ (para hafiz) seperti empat khulafa’, Abdullah bin Mas‘ud, Salim Maula Abi Huzaifah, Ubai bin Ka‘b, Muaz bin Jabal, Zaid bin Thabit dan Abu al-Darda’.

2- Peringkat kedua: pada zaman Abu Bakar pada tahun 12 Hijrah. Sebabnya ialah banyak al-Qurra’ (para hafiz) telah terbunuh dalam peperangan al-Yamamah. Di antara mereka ialah Salim Maula Abi Huzaifah yang mana Rasulullah s.a.w. telah memerintahkan supaya belajar al-Quran daripadanya. Abu Bakar mengeluarkan perintah supaya al-Quran dikumpul agar tidak luput. أن عمر بن الخطاب أشار على أبي بكر رضي الله عنهما بجمع القرآن بعد وقعة اليمامة، فتوقف تورعا، فلم يزل عمر يراجعه حتى شرح الله صدر أبي بكر لذلك، فأرسل إلى زيد بن ثابت فأتاه، وعنده عمر فقال له أبو بكر: إنك رجل شاب عاقل لا نتهمك، وقد كنت تكتب الوحي لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فتتبع القرآن فاجمعه، قال: فتتبعت القرآن أجمعه من العسب واللخاف وصدور الرجال، فكانت الصحف عند أبي بكر حتى توفاه الله، ثم عند عمر حياته، ثم عند حفصة بنت عمر رضي الله عنهما.[2]

Maksudnya: Umar bin al-Khattab telah mencadangkan supaya Abu Bakar mengumpulkan al-Quran selepas peperangan al-Yamamah.
Pada mulanya, Abu Bakar tidak menerima cadangan ini kerana beliau sangat berhati-hati dalam melakukan sesuatu urusan.
Umar pula tidak putus-putus mengulangi cadangannya sehinggalah Allah Ta‘ala melapangkan dada Abu Bakar untuk menerima cadangan itu. Abu Bakar terus memanggil Zaid bin Thabit lalu berkata sambil didengar oleh Umar,
“Sesungguhnya kamu seorang pemuda yang berakal dan kami tidak mensyakimu.
Kamu juga sering menulis wahyu daripada Rasulullah s.a.w..
Carilah dan kumpullah ayat-ayat al-Quran.” Zaid berkata, “Akupun bergegas mencari al-Quran dan mengumpulnya daripada pelepah kurma, batu-bata dan dada manusia.
Mushaf yang terkumpul itu berada dalam tangan Abu Bakar sehingga beliau wafat.
Kemudian dipegang oleh Umar sepanjang hayatnya. Kemudian dipegang oleh Hafsah.”

3- Peringkat ketiga: pada zaman Amir al-mukminin Uthman bin Affan pada tahun 25 Hijrah. Sebabnya ialah berlakunya perselisihan manusia dalam bacaan (qiraat) al-Quran berdasarkan perbezaan lembaran-lembaran al-Quran yang berada dalam tangan para sahabat. Apabila ditakuti berlaku fitnah, Uthman telah memerintahakan supaya lembaran-lembaran ini dikumpulkan ke dalam satu mushaf supaya manusia tidak berselisihan lalu bertelagah dalam kitab Allah Ta‘ala dan berpecah belah.

أن حذيفة بن اليمان قد على عثمان من فتح أرمينية وأذربيجان، وقد أفزعه اختلافهم في القراءة، فقال: أمير المؤمنين أدرك هذه الأمة قبل أن يختلفوا في الكتاب اختلاف اليهود والنصارى، فأرسل عثمان إلى حفصة، ففعلت، فأمر زيد بن ثابت، وعبد الله بن الزبير، وسعيد بن العاص، وعبد الرحمن بن الحارث بن هشام فنسخوها في المصاحف. وكان زيد بن ثابت أنصاريا والثلاثة قرشييت – وقال عثمان للرهط الثلاثة القرشيين: إذا اختلفتم أنتم وزيد بن ثابت في شئ من القرآن فاكتبوه بلسان قريش؛ فإنما نزل بلسانهم، ففعلوا حتى إذا نسخوا الصحف في المصاحف، رد عثمان الصحف إلى حفصة، وأرسل إلى كل أفق بمصحف مما نسخوا، وأمر بما سواه من القرآن في كل صحيفة أو مصحف أن يحرق.[3] Maksudnya: Huzaifah bin al-Yaman datang berjumpa Uthman selepas pembukaan Arminiyah dan Azrebaijan.
Beliau telah dikejutkan dengan perselisihan manusia dalam bacaan (qiraat) al-Quran. Beliau berkata, “Wahai Amir al-mukminin, selamatkanlah umat ini sebelum mereka berselisihan dalam al-Quran seperti perselisihan Yahudi dan Nasrani.” Uthman pun segera meminta mushaf daripada Hafsah dengan berkata,
“Hantarkan mushaf kepada kami supaya dapat kami salinkan kepada beberapa mushaf lain.
Kemudian kami akan pulangkan kepada kamu.” Hafsah pun menghantar mushaf itu kepada Uthman. Uthman mengarahkan Zaid bin Thabit, Abdullah bin al-Zubair, Sa‘id bin al-‘As dan Abdul Rahman bin al-Harith bin Hisyam lalu mereka pun menyalin mushaf itu kepada beberapa salinan. Zaid bin Thabit adalah daripada golongan al-Ansar manakala tiga yang lain itu adalah daripada golongan Quraish.
Uthman telah mewasiatkan kepada mereka bertiga dengan berkata,
“Sekiranya kamu bertiga berselisih dengan Zaid dalam ayat-ayat al-Quran, tulislah dalam bahasa Quraish kerana ianya turun dalam bahasa mereka.” Mereka pun mengikut arahannya sehinggalah apabila selesai,
Uthman pun memulangkan mushaf itu kepada Hafsah.
Beliau menghantar mushaf-mushaf yang disalin itu ke segenap pelusuk dan mengarahkan agar semua lembaran atau mushaf lain dibakar.

Uthman melakukan semua ini selepas bermesyuarat dengan para sahabat: عن على رضي الله عنه أنه قال: والله ما فعل في المصاحف إلا عن ملاء منا، قال: أرى أن نجمع الناس على مصحف واحد، فلا تكون فرقة ولا اختلاف، قلنا، فنعم ما رأيت.[4] Maksudnya: Daripada Ali katanya,
“Demi Allah, beliau (Uthman) tidak melakukan apa yang dilakukannya terhadap mushaf-mushaf lain kecuali di bawah perhatian sekumpulan daripada kami.
Beliau berkata, “Aku berpendapat perlunya disatukan manusia atas satu mushaf supaya tidak wujud perpecahan ataupun perselisihan.” Kami menjawab, “Baguslah apa yang kamu nampak itu.”

Dalam sebuah riwayat lain: قال مصعب بن سعد: أدركت الناس متوافرين حين حرق عثمان المصاحف فأعجبهم ذلك، أو قال: لم ينكر ذلك منهم أحد.[5]

Maksudnya: Mus‘ab bin Sa‘d berkata, “Aku dapati manusia banyak hadir semasa Uthman membakar mushaf-mushaf dan mereka gembira dengan perbuatan itu.
Tidak seorang pun daripada mereka mengingkarinya.”

Perbuatan ini adalah salah satu kebaikan Amir al-mukminin Uthman r.a. yang dipersetujui oleh semua orang. Usaha ini menyempurnakan usaha pengganti Rasulullah s.a.w., Abu Bakar r.a. dalam mengumpulkan al-Quran. Perbezaan antara usaha Uthman dan usaha Abu Bakar dalam mengumpul al-Quran ialah, tujuan mengumpul al-Quran pada zaman Abu Bakar ialah mengumpul semua ayat-ayat al-Quran dalam satu mushaf supaya tidak luput sebahagian daripada ayat-ayat itu tanpa diperintahkan agar manusia bersatu atas mushaf tersebut. Ini kerana belum ada lagi kesan perbezaan bacaan yang menuntut supaya diperintahkan bersatu atas satu mushaf. Sementara tujuan mengumpul al-Quran pada zaman Uthman ialah mengumpul semua ayat-ayat al-Quran dalam satu mushaf dan diperintahkan agar manusia bersatu atas mushaf itu sahaja kerana kesan perbezaan bacaan amat menakutkan. Usaha mengumpul al-Quran ini menghasilkan kebaikan yang besar kepada umat Islam seperti kesatuan umat, kesatuan pemikiran dan wujudnya keharmonian. Ianya juga telah menolak kerosakan yang besar seperti perpecahan umat, perbezaan pemikiran dan menghindari daripada berlakunya kebencian dan permusuhan. Sejak daripada itu, al-Quran tetap dengan keadaannya, dipersetujui oleh semua umat Islam, diwarisi secaratawatur oleh yang muda daripada yang tua. Al-Quran tidak dapat dicemarkan oleh tangan-tangan pembuat kerosakan. Al-Quran tidak dapat juga dipupuskan oleh hawa nafsu orang yang sesat. Segala puji hanya bagi Allah Ta‘ala, Tuhan langit dan Tuhan bumi serta Tuhan sekalian alam.

[1] Hadith riwayat al-Bukhari: “Kitab Jihad, Bab Bantuan dengan penambahan tentera,” No. 3064.
[2] Hadith riwayat al-Bukhari: Kitab Tafsir, Bab FirmanNya (Sesungguhnya telah datang kepada kamu seorang rasul yang terasa berat padanya kesusahan kamu...).”
[3] Hadith riwayat al-Bukhari: “Kitab Kelebihan al-Quran, Bab Pengumpulan al-Quran,” No. 4987.
[4] Riwayat al-Khatib dalam Kitab Fadha’il al-Quran, (Jld. 2, Hlm. 954) dan Abu Daud dalam Kitab al-Masahif (Hlm. 12).
[5] Riwayat Abu Daud dalam Kitab al-Masahif (Hlm. 12).…...

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