Anatomy Stuff

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Blue Box Notes

Back Strain, Sprains and Spasms (p. 495) • Warm up and stretching – increase tonus of “core muscles” (anterolateral abdominal wall—transverse abdominis—lumbar stabilization) prevent back strains and sprains • Back sprain – injury to ligamentous or attachment of ligament to bone. o NOT DISLOCATION OR FRACTURE o Excessively strong contractions for extension or rotation of vertebral column • Back strain – degree of stretching or microscopic tearing of muscle fibers o Sports; overly strong contraction o Muscles usually involved with producing movement of lumbar IV joints ▪ ERECTOR SPINAE o Weight not properly balanced on vertebral column o Do NOT use back as lever, crouch and keep back straight ▪ Use muscles of butt and lower limbs • Spasm – sudden involuntary contraction of one or more muscle groups o Protective mech o Attended by cramps, pain, and interference with f(x), producing involuntary movement and distortion

Reduced Blood Supply to Brainstem (p. 496) • Winding course of vertrebral arteries through foramina transverasii of the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae and through subocciptal triangle • Problem when arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries) – reduces blood flow • Symptoms – prolonged turning of the head such as trying to back up in car causes lightheadedness, dizziness, and other symptoms caused by blood supply to brainstem.

Compression of Lumbar Spinal Nerve Roots (p. 505) • ↑ in size of lumbar from superior ⋄ inferior, but ↓ IV foramina diameter • L5 spinal nerve roots are thickest and foramina narrowest • ↑% these narrow roots are compressed due to osteophytes (bone spurs) develop or herniation of an IV disc.

Myelography (p. 505) • Radiopaque…...

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