Analysis and Synthesis of Chronic Heart Failure

In: Other Topics

Submitted By donnafun
Words 2850
Pages 12
Analysis and Synthesis of Chronic Heart Failure Research Studie

Analysis and Synthesis of Chronic Heart Failure Research Studies
Background
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a disease characterized by high mortality, readmission rates and a marked decrease in health-related quality of life. Psychological distress is common in patients with CHF and different psychological variables may have an impact on the prognosis in chronic heart failure patients. Chronic heart failure patients also need to be involved in their plan of health care in order to be able to manage their own disease at home. However, patients’ perspective on the role of their informal carers regarding information management process revealed how much they depend on their knowledge and support. The studies that I have chosen to compare and contrast in this paper will shed light onto both of these subjects in regard to chronic heart failure patients as well as inform about the various studies that pinpoint relevant data in regards to CHF. These studies are important because they help medical professionals in regard to providing the highest level of care to their CHF patients.

Quantitative Research Study
Introduction
For the quantitative research study in this analysis, I examined the journal article entitled Predictors of readmission and health related quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure: a comparison of different psychosocial aspects. This research study’s purpose was to “investigate the differential prognostic impact of depression, anxiety, vital exhaustion, social support and type D personality on prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF)” (Volz, Schmid, Zwahlen, Kohls, Saner, Barth, 2011 p. 14). The research study sought to find evidence of psychological factors being predictors for readmission of chronic heart failure patients versus physical factors. This…...

Similar Documents

Holistic Care in Heart Failure

...The specialist practice nurse is employed as a British Heart Foundation (BHF) Heart Failure (HF) nurse and is based in secondary care. Along with networking with a wide range of health care practitioners providing a seamless service between primary and secondary care her role also involves evidence-based care to clients with chronic heart failure (CHF). CHF is a complex syndrome that results from a structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to function as a pump. This results in the heart not being able to pump enough blood to meet metabolic demands of the body (Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST), 2005). The most common cause of HF is coronary artery disease, hypertension and valvular disease. It is a chronic condition, which may fluctuate, and result in repeated hospital admissions. The incidence and prevalence of heart failure is on the increase and with the current ageing population it is likely to continue along this trend. It is currently the most common cause of hospital admission in clients over the age of 65 years and accounts for 1 - 3 % of the National Health Service’ expenditure, the majority of which is associated with inpatient care (CREST, 2005). The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2010) defined specialist practice as “...the exercising of higher levels of judgement, discretion and decision making in clinical care” and requires that specialist practice nurse is competent in clinical assessment......

Words: 2734 - Pages: 11

Chronic Renal Failure

...person feel exhausted. The fact that Mr. H. has hypertension will account for him feeling tired also. His heart is working extra hard to get the blood throughout his body, which would cause him to feel tired. With Mr. H. having edema and being so swollen, the extra weight that he is carrying around will make him feel exhausted very easily (National Kidney Foundation, 2010). 4) Mr. H. is voiding more frequently due to the fact that his renal function has deteriorated. The kidneys are constantly concentrating urine so that a person only has to void ever so often. When the kidneys no longer have the ability to concentrate effectively, the urine output will increase. Mr. H. will also have very dilute urine because his kidneys are not able to filter out the wastes from his body like they should. If his kidneys are not able to get rid of the wastes via his urine, it will be colorless and odorless (Kidneyabc, n.d.). 5) Mr. H. has high blood pressure because of the nephrosclerosis; the hardening and thickening of the blood vessels. The blood flow to the kidneys has been restricted and the body then tries to balance this out by constricting the blood vessels everywhere. The decline in Mr. H’s kidney function has caused him to become anemic because they no longer produce enough of the hormone called erythropoietin to make a sufficient amount of red blood cells. Renal failure will also cause a person to become iron deficient which is also important in red blood cell production. If...

Words: 1161 - Pages: 5

Analysis Synthesis

...Communicate change initiative with Health Care Organization Washington Adventist University Alberta Yeboah HCAD 610 Dr. Karen Marshall November 11, 2013 Abstract This article deals with the foundations of analysis and synthesis as scientific methods, and especially with the requirements for the successful application of these methods. Although analysis and synthesis always go hand in hand – they complement one another – there are important situations in which one method can be regarded as more suitable than the other. This concerns the question of which method is most appropriate as the primary point of departure for the study of a given system or object of scientific inquiry. As you all know, it has become a public truth that the health standards are decreasing daily. I am sure each and every one of you has his own reason for this sudden situation. In other words, every one of us sitting here today has got his or her views in regard to this annoying situation. However, my learned friends we all know we cannot save this dying situation by pointing fingers at each other. This means that we must all put our heads together and try to point out the causes of the situations and the possible resolutions. However, since all of us cannot speak at the same time, I request you to kindly give me this time to share with you what is in my mind according to the research that I have done concerning the reset change of things. After taking keen attention at the current......

Words: 1350 - Pages: 6

Small Cell Carcinoma with Secondary Chronic Kidney Failure

...Critical Pathway: Case Study of Chronic Renal Failure Advanced Pathophysiology NURS 5104 October 4, 2013 Critical Pathway: Case Study of Chronic Renal Failure I. Introduction Mr. P. J., a 38-year-old African American male, presented to the Emergency Department by the rescue squad team, with a six day old complaint of increased swelling of the bilateral lower extremities, unusual weight gain, and a feeling of ‘I can not breathe’ per patient. Patient was sent as a direct admit to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and placed on 2 liters NC with hydration and adult special care monitoring. Vital signs were taken by the paramedic enroute revealing the following: Ambulance Vitals: * BP 202/112 * Pulse 101 * Respirations 20 * O2 86% before O2 * Temp. 98.4 * Height 5’10 Patient stating * Weight 222 lbs. Patient stating (weighed the day before) The paramedic started a 20 gauge IV into Mr. J’s right antecubital and started him on 2 liters nasal cannula; due to the “presence of crackles no Procardia was administered” (J. Madden, personal communication, August 14, 2013). The paramedic monitored the vitals and reported to medical control the situation and estimated time of their arrival in five minutes. Mr. P. J. has been married to K for twenty years and they have one child, a twelve-year-old daughter. Mr. P. J. has worked in construction for twenty years; Mr. J stated working on his feet all day he noticed the swelling six days......

Words: 7925 - Pages: 32

Heart Failure

...case study on a current patient with heart failure being nursed in a community setting. Due to confidentiality and patient privacy, the patient discussed will be referred to as John¹. John is an 82 year old gentleman who lives alone in sheltered accommodation. John’s son and daughter live close and take it in turns to visit daily. John is an ex-smoker who gave up 20 years ago, has long standing hypertension and is overweight having a BMI of 30 kg/m. John was diagnosed with heart failure a year ago after being hospitalised three times in the space of four months. Stewart (2004) feels that a diagnoses of heart failure is problematic in older patients as their symptoms can often mimic other diseases. According to the National Institute for Clinical Excellence Guidelines (NICE) 2003, hospitalisation accounts² for 70% of the £716 million pounds spent on heart failure annually. In this assignment the physiology of the heart will be discussed and how heart failure affects its performance. John’s symptoms, medication and how his condition was diagnosed will be discussed³. John’s future care and how it will be managed along with who will be involved in his care4. NICE (2003) defines heart failure as a “complex syndrome” that results from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to function as a pump to support a “physiological circulation”. Tendera5 (2005) states that heart failure is common in older adults and occurs...

Words: 2206 - Pages: 9

Heart Failure and Alcohol

...Heart Failure and Alcohol Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, a term that refers only to HF cases with volume Overload. Heart failure is a progressive disease in which the heart fails to pump a sufficient amount of Blood to the body due to structural heart damage. Heart failure is the endpoint of a cardiovascular Disease, including hypertension. Heart failure can be classified as being either left sided or right sided Right sided acute or chronic, or systolic or diastolic. Overtime, the compensatory mechanism is Developed to maintain the heart output, with increased cardiac workload, induce heart remodeling. Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with different cardiovascular disorders, such as Hypertension, arrhythmias sudden cardiac death, stroke and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Alcohol exerts Toxic effect on the myocardial cells by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death, which Imp-pairs systolic and diastolic function, decrease cardiac contractility, and finally produces dilation of The heart cavities and HF. Alcohol consumption may also complicate existing heart disease, such as Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease. Facts and Figures Heart failure affects between 6% and 10% of adults over the age 65, making it one of the most Common causes of illness and death in the United States. In developed countries alcohol abuse is the Leading cause of non-ischemic...

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure

...Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Nicole Martin North Island College Congestive Heart Failure Left heat failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is an imbalance in pump function in which the heart is failing and unable to do its work pumping enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s other organs. CHF is commonly thought of as a disease but in fact is a syndrome. A syndrome as defined by Mosby’s Dictionary, as “a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or appearing in combination, to present a clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality” (Mosby, 2009). Heart failure usually develops slowly, often over years, as the heart gradually loses its pumping ability and works less efficiently. CHF affects individuals in different ways and to different degrees. It is usually a chronic disease and gradually becomes worse over time. Many people are not even aware of their condition until symptoms appear years after the heart began its decline. There are many causes, risk factors, and signs & symptoms that help determine if someone is at risk of developing CHF or already living with CHF. Nearly 500,000 Canadians are currently living with the condition, with 50,000 new cases diagnosed each year. With such high numbers of people diagnosed with CHF, I believe as a future nurse it will be beneficial to have a greater understanding as to how CHF develops, how it is treated, and how it is management. Etiology The......

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7

Heart Failure

...Definition Heart failure occurs when abnormal cardiac function causes failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate sufficient for metabolic requirements under normal filling pressure. It is characterised clinically by breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and poor survival. Fluid retention and the congestion related to this can often be relieved with diuretic therapy. However, diuretic therapy should generally not be used alone and, if required, should be combined with the pharmacological therapies outlined in this review. Heart failure can be caused by systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and is associated with neurohormonal changes. [1] Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 0.40. It may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Defining and diagnosing diastolic heart failure can be difficult. Recently proposed criteria include: (1) clinical evidence of heart failure; (2) normal or mildly abnormal left ventricular systolic function; (3) evidence of abnormal left ventricular relaxation, filling, diastolic distensibility, or diastolic stiffness; and (4) evidence of elevated N-terminal-probrain natriuretic peptide. [2] However, assessment of some of these criteria is not standardised Top of Form Search the BMJ[pic][pic] Bottom of Form • BMJ • BMJ Journals • BMJ Careers • BMJ Learning • Evidence Centre • BMJ Group [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Home | Log......

Words: 2220 - Pages: 9

Heart Failure

...by Farmer et al (2004), was the best part of the tips on safety for a diabetic patient as the observance of basic hygiene is very important in order to maintain safety and to achieve an accurate result (pp. 102 &107). My experience related to current research and theory Osgood, Dyck and Grassmann (2011)[2] posit that the rise of the global epidemic type 2 has been particularly rapid and acute among disadvantaged and indigenous populations. Hicks (2010)[3] posit that there is a higher incidence of diabetes type 2 in people with South Asian or African descent. One of the reasons for this is thought to be that these ethnic groups have increased insulin resistance. Whincup et al (2010)[4] found in a research jointly funded by the British Heart Foundation and Wellcome Trust that signs of type II diabetes are already present in South Asian and African Carribean origin at ten years of age. Being of African descent, I was also inclined to think I might be more susceptible to type II diabetes in the light of evidence available from current research. With respect to regular exercise, Hicks (2010) recommends increase in activity and lifestyle modifications for the following reasons: • Regular exercise reduces glucose levels, basal and postprandial insulin levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides. • Fibrinolysis, a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots, can also be increased by regular......

Words: 3514 - Pages: 15

Heart Failure

...Heart Failure Christy Harding Western Governors University C155- Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advance Nursing Practice Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in people older than 65. Roughly 550,000 people are diagnosed with heart failure each year (Emory Healthcare, 2014). Heart failure is a pathologic state where the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the demand of the body’s metabolic needs or when the ventricle’s ability to fill is impaired. It is not a disease, but rather a complex clinical syndrome. The symptoms of heart failure come from pulmonary vascular congestion and inadequate perfusion of the systemic circulation. Individuals experience orthopnea, fatigue, dyspnea, cough with frothy sputum, peripheral edema, and decreased urinary output. Heart failure is caused by many conditions that damage the heart’s muscle. Any form of heart disease can lead to heart failure. A1. Pathophysiology Heart failure arises as a consequence of an abnormality in cardiac structure, conduction, rhythm, or function (Figueroa & Peters, 2006). Heart failure always begins with an index event. This event could be silent, as with the expression of a genetic mutation, or obvious, such as a myocardial infarction (Francis & Tang, 2003). Heart failure can be categorized into systolic ventricular dysfunction also known as systolic heart failure or diastolic ventricular dysfunction also known as diastolic heart......

Words: 6854 - Pages: 28

Congestive Heart Failure

...Congestive Heart Failure Armi Gonzales Western Governors University Congestive Heart Failure A. Investigated Disease Process Congestive Heart Failure is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump a sufficient amount of blood for the body to function. If the heart’s ability to pump blood decreases, blood and fluids may start to pool into the lungs and accumulate in the legs, ankles, and feet causing an edema, shortness of breath, and fatigue. (Heart Failure, 2015, para. 2) The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology defines heart failure as “a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricles to fill with or eject blood” (King, Kingery, & Casey, 2012, p. 1). Heart failure can be seen as a widespread disease, affecting around five million Americans. (Titler et al. n.d.) It is a chronic condition that is disabling and costly and common to our aging population. With the advancement in therapy and early diagnosis, survival increases from previously fatal acute cardiac events to patients feeling better and living longer. Millions of Americans living with heart failure are 65 years of age or older. (Roger et al, 2004) A1. Pathophysiology The Circulatory system focuses on the heart, a muscular organ that pumps blood through a complex network of blood vessels throughout the body. Blood that is pumped from the heart carries oxygen and nutrients that......

Words: 6554 - Pages: 27

Heart Failure

...Critique of “Correlates of Fatigue in Patients With Heart Failure” Galen College Transitions/NUR 240 January 4, 2010 The topic of this article is to determine correlates of fatigue in patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of fatigue and distinguish its demographic, clinical and psychological correlates in patients suffering from heart failure. These findings could possibly lead to ways to better treat patients living with HF. Healthcare workers could benefit greatly from the data gathered to better understand the needs of the aforementioned patients and focus their interventions to accommodate their needs. No review of literature is included in this research paper. The study was conducted by six scholars with advanced degrees. Two of the researchers hold PhDs and two other hold DSNc degrees, which are professional level research degrees in Nursing. The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Nursing is considered a more academic degree and prepares those who have attained the it for both research and teaching positions. In this study, a cross-sectional correlation design method was used. This type of research study uses a small group of individuals to represent a whole population. It is often used in making healthcare decisions and imperative that only current......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Preventing Heart Failure Readmissions

...Preventing Heart Failure Readmissions Henry D. Santos Purdue University Calumet I. Introduction High morbidity, mortality, and healthcare spending have been connected with heart failure management. As per Gheorghiade et al., every year, there are almost a million cases of hospitalization for heart failure, responsible for 6.5 million hospital days, and estimated expenditures of $37.2 billion here in the United States alone (2013). The incident of heart failure readmissions has increased over the last decades, distinctly related to the aging population and surpassed recovery after a myocardial infarction. Based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 2005 data, heart failure is the most frequent diagnosis among Medicare beneficiaries and the third highest reimbursement for hospitals (AHRQ, 2013). In 2009, CMS started the public reporting of readmission rates after being discharge for heart failure, and, the year after, the Patient Protection and Affordable Act inaugurated financial penalties for healthcare establishments with most rates of readmission within the 30 days after discharge. The elevated concern relating the want to decrease readmissions has been the biggest focused of national researchers and hospitals with the efforts of identifying and predicting which patients with heart failure are likely to be readmitted. Formulated designs and preventive strategies have been established, in order to avoid unnecessary readmissions. Heart failures......

Words: 1361 - Pages: 6

Heart Failure

...Nurse Driven Education for A Patient Diagnosed With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure Refusing Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures Heather Horsley Wilkes University School of Nursing Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a chronic progressive disease, arising from structural or functional disorders of the heart, in which incidence increases with age. This review attempts to describe the types and causes of HF while focusing on variable aspects of patient education that have a positive effect on patient outcome and quality of life. Specifically, the potential benefits of this education for a 55 year old male patient diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiogram with chronic systolic heart failure, who has refused physician deemed necessary diagnostic testing and treatment. Keywords: heart failure, nurse driven education, heart failure, self-care Nurse Driven Education for Patient Diagnosed With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure Refusing Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures Heart failure (HF) is a major health care concern affecting over 5.7 million people in the United States. It is responsible for 1 in 9 deaths and costs the nation over 32 billion in health care expenses each year (Center for Disease Control, 2013). HF is the most common reason for hospitalization of people older than age 65 (Hinkle and Cheever, 2014). According to Hinkle and Cheever, HF is a “clinical syndrome resulting from structural or functional cardiac disorders that impair the ability of the......

Words: 2128 - Pages: 9

Heart Failure

...Heart Failure Western Governors University Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice Heart Failure It is estimated that about five million people in the United States are living with heart failure with an overwhelming number of 550,000 newly diagnosed cases each year, costing the nation roughly $32 billion dollars per year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Heart failure is a complex, pathophysiological condition in which the ventricles of the heart is weakened and unable to pump effectively to meet the body’s needs for nutrients or has lost adequate filling capacity. Clinical presentations of heart failure depends on which ventricles have failed to pump blood adequately; left ventricular failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) is more common than right ventricular failure (McCance & Huether, 2014). The most common symptoms of heart failure are shortness of breath, fatigue, and peripheral edema. HF is not a disease, but rather a manifestation of a diseased heart. Large number of disorders can lead to heart failure, and with the aging population and many surviving primary cardiac events, it is no surprise that the most common reason for hospitalization in patients older than 65 years old is heart failure (McClintock, Mose, & Smith, 2014). Heart failure has become a major public health problem because it is the only cardiac condition that continues to increase in prevalence (McClintock, Mose, & Smith,......

Words: 16787 - Pages: 68