Analyse and Critically Discuss the Nature and Purpose of the Employment Relationship for Organizations and the Relationship Between Work Design, Planning, Pay and the Employment Relationship. Explain How Expectancy Theory; Reinforcement Theory an...

In: Business and Management

Submitted By blaine
Words 3797
Pages 16
Analyse and critically discuss the nature and purpose of the employment relationship for organizations and the relationship between work design, planning, pay and the employment relationship. Explain how expectancy theory; reinforcement theory and equity theory help managers to build an effective pay strategy as part of managing employment relationships

Words: 2,695

.

Introduction
The term ‘employment-relationship’ is interchangeable with others when describing aspects of the overall relationship. According to USQ (2004) this relationship is basically the exchange of work by employees for pay from employers. While the primary relationship is that between the employer-employee, as organisations have evolved, grown in size and number, so too has the diversity of employees, each with their own particular ‘psychological contract’ (Hodgkinson 2003).
The purpose of a defined and productive employment relationship is to equitably manage the various relationships, and resolve conflicts (USQ 2004). Breaching this psychological contract potentially will have negative implications for loyalty, motivation, and worker commitment to the organisation (Hislop 2003). This essay will discuss some of the factors in the workplace, which have an effect on the principals at each end of this relationship, and maintaining such diverse relations within a context of equity to each.
The objective of business is to increase profits by increasing the effectiveness of production. The Human Resource Management (HRM) activities of an organisation involve the monitoring of this primary employment relationship and the factors that affect it. This essay will discuss the ‘planning’ tools used to monitor these factors, such as analysis, descriptions, and evaluation and how they are used by the organisation to meet existing obligations and future opportunities.
Within a…...

Similar Documents

A Study of Relationship Between Satisfaction with Compensation and Work Motivation

...Abstract The current study while applying the theoretical framework based on expectancy theory examined the relationship between satisfaction with compensation and work motivation. The dimensions i.e. fixed pay, flexible pay, and benefits were examined with regard to satisfaction with compensation. The work motivation on the other hand was studied using the effort and performance dimensions. Literature research as well as practical survey consisting of self-administered questionnaire was used to study the population in question, which were managerial cadre employees of the sales departments of the cellular service providers in Lahore. The relationships between satisfaction with compensation and work motivation were analyzed by using Chi Square and correlations. The main findings of the study were: 1) satisfaction with compensation can be factor of work motivation. 2) flexible pay is not a motivating factor in the jobs which the employees were holding. 3) benefits do not have a significant impact on work motivation. Key words: Compensation, Satisfaction, work motivation, expectancy theory 1. Introduction In the 21st century organizations, by and large, people pay much more attention to their life style and the money they earn from the work than their predecessors. However, it still remains unclear whether many of them would continue working if it were not for the money they earn. Employee expectations of a compensation plan are that it is fair......

Words: 4595 - Pages: 19

Employment Relationship

...the time moves on, the proportion of union and non-union has been changed. According to the research in Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS), the proportion of non-union only voice increases from 16% to 40% between 1984 and 1998, instead, that union-only voice decrease from 24% to 9% (Millward et al., 2000). Peter Boxall & John Purcell (2003) defined employee voice as “a term increasingly used to cover a whole variety of processes and structures which enable and sometimes empower employees directly and indirectly to contribute to the decision making in the firm.” Comparing with union representation, Non-union Employee Representation (NER) has been more and more crucial within the representation structure. Based on the research data, Charlwood and Terry (2007) indicate that the development of representation in non-union enterprise has been in a stable situation, with 10% of employees are situated in workplaces where representation is provided through non-union channel. This essay is divided into two parts. Firstly, it will focus on the understanding of non-union enterprise including its differences with union enterprise, management structure and employee relationship in non-union enterprise. Latterly, The essay will conclude whether employee’s vocie can be effecitive in non-union enterprises by analysing different management system. Mainbody How can the growth of non-union enterprise be best explained? Background of Non-union firms In 1980s, profoundly......

Words: 2897 - Pages: 12

Employment Relationship

...The aim of this essay is to discuss whether it is appropriate to consider the employment relationship as a contract, in the sense of voluntary between the two equal parties. Fox (1974:183) argues that it is inappropriate to consider the employment contract is equal and the employment relationship is merely a ‘brute facts of power’. With reference to Fox’s statement, this essay will discuss the nature of employment relationship, the influence of key institutions and their impact for employers and employees, and the three main perspectives at work. This essay will support Fox’s statement as inequality between the employers and employees is often an issue at the workplace. The basis of employment relationship is the relationship that exists between the employer and employee. The employment relationship is the context within which indicate interactions between employees, who may be unionised, and employers are conducted, both collectively and individually (Kelly, 1998). The employment contract is apparently central to the employment relationship. By the middle of the nineteenth century, with the development of Capitalism in Britain, based on the contractual relationship between an employer and employee, wage labour system had largely displaced traditional forms of work relations that are based on status. The role of the employment contract in the employment relationship is that it captures the way in which the employment relationship is an economic transaction, concerning......

Words: 1680 - Pages: 7

The Employment Relationship

...The Employment Relationship Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. An employee may be defined as: “A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed.”[1] At the start of the employment relationship there are several different internal and external factors that impact on the employment relationship. Two internal factors are: 1) Collective agreements between an employer and recognised trade union Collective agreements can be an important factor in determining and influencing an individual employee’s terms and conditions of employment. An employer who, for example, has agreed to negotiate with a union the terms and conditions of employment for particular grades of staff will apply the relevant provisions of the collective agreement to staff in that grade, irrespective of whether they are union members or not. In law, the terms of the collective agreement that are relevant to an individual employee will then be incorporated into that person’s contract of employment. Consequently, their pay, working time, holidays etc will derive from the collective agreement.[2] 2) Custom and practice In any organisation there are often ways of working, which are not written down and have evolved over a period of...

Words: 3139 - Pages: 13

The Theory of Psychological Contracts in Organizational Employment - and Wider 'Psychological Contracting' in Relationships, Communications and Societies - and the Psychological Contract 'Iceberg' Diagram

...relevant aspect of workplace relationships and wider human behaviour. Descriptions and definitions of the Psychological Contract first emerged in the 1960s, notably in the work of organizational and behavioural theorists Chris Argyris and Edgar Schein. Many other experts have contributed ideas to the subject since then, and continue to do so, either specifically focusing on the the Psychological Contract, or approaching it from a particular perspective, of which there are many. The Psychological Contract is a deep and varied concept and is open to a wide range of interpretations and theoretical studies. Primarily, the Psychological Contract refers to the relationship between an employer and its employees, and specifically concerns mutual expectations of inputs and outcomes. The Psychological Contract is usually seen from the standpoint or feelings of employees, although a full appreciation requires it to be understood from both sides. Simply, in an employment context, the Psychological Contract is the fairness or balance (typically as perceived by the employee) between: how the employee is treated by the employer, and what the employee puts into the job. The words 'employees' or 'staff' or 'workforce' are equally appropriate in the above description. At a deeper level the concept becomes increasingly complex and significant in work and management - especially in change management and in large organizations. Interestingly the theory and principles......

Words: 7423 - Pages: 30

The Employment Relationship

...The Employment Relationship Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. An employee may be defined as: “A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed.”[1] At the start of the employment relationship there are several different internal and external factors that impact on the employment relationship. Two internal factors are: 1) Collective agreements between an employer and recognised trade union Collective agreements can be an important factor in determining and influencing an individual employee’s terms and conditions of employment. An employer who, for example, has agreed to negotiate with a union the terms and conditions of employment for particular grades of staff will apply the relevant provisions of the collective agreement to staff in that grade, irrespective of whether they are union members or not. In law, the terms of the collective agreement that are relevant to an individual employee will then be incorporated into that person’s contract of employment. Consequently, their pay, working time, holidays etc will derive from the collective agreement.[2] 2) Custom and practice In any organisation there are often ways of working, which are not written down and have evolved over a period of...

Words: 3139 - Pages: 13

‘the Objective of the Employment Relationship Is to Achieve a Balance Between Efficiency, Equity and Voice’. Discuss.

...Question 3 – Human Resource Management 2013 Exam ‘The objective of the employment relationship is to achieve a balance between efficiency, equity and voice’. Discuss. Answer Employment relationship also known as industrial relations or employment relations is a link between an employer and an employee. The International Labour Organistaion defines the employment relationship as “ a universal notion which creates a legal link between a person, called the ‘employee’ (frequently referred to as ‘the worker’ with another person, called the ‘employer’, to whom she or he provides labour or services under certain conditions in return for remunerations.” (ILO 2003:2) Another definition by the popular business website ‘Entrepreneur’ defines an employment relationship as “An agreement entered into between an employer and an employee at the time the employee is hired that outlines the exact nature of their business relationship, specifically what compensation the employee will receive in exchange for specific work performed.” The aim of human resource management is to ensure that through the employment relationship organisations should achieve competitive advantages and employees on the other hand, should receive a fair treatment in the workplace. In this light, many human resource management writers like John Budd have agreed that balancing efficiency, equity and voice should be the focus of organistions in order to have a more productive workplace. Budd (2004) cited in......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Rewarding Relationships: a Study of the Interaction of Employment Relationships and Employee Rewards Systems in Two Unionised Private Sector Organisations

...Creaby-Attwood, Nick (2010) Rewarding Relationships: A Study of the Interaction of Employment Relationships and Employee Rewards Systems in Two Unionised Private Sector Organisations. Doctoral thesis, Northumbria University. This version was downloaded from Northumbria Research Link: ht tp://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/4415/ Northumbria University has developed Northumbria Research Link (NRL) to enable users to access the University’s research output. Copyright © and moral r ights for i tems on NRL are retained by the individual author(s) and/or other copyright owners. Single copies of full i tems can be reproduced, displayed or performed, and given to third parties in any format or medium for personal research or study, educational, or not-for-profit purposes without prior permission or charge, provided the authors, ti t le and full bibliographic details are given, as well as a hyperlink and/or URL to the original metadata page. The content must not be changed in any way. Full i tems must not be sold commercially in any format or medium without formal permission of the copyright holder. The full policy is available online: http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/policies.html REWARDING RELATIONSHIPS: A STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND EMPLOYEE REWARDS SYSTEMS IN TWO UNIONISED PRIVATE SECTOR ORGANISATIONS NICK CREABY-ATTWOOD PhD 2010 REWARDING RELATIONSHIPS: A STUDY OF THE INTERACTION OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND EMPLOYEE REWARDS......

Words: 103288 - Pages: 414

Employment Relationship

...influential role in the employment relationship for a long time. This raise questions about should intervene employment relationship or leave it entirely to employers and employees. State is all government organizations with the currently selected government, which are carrying out government policies (Nikola 2009, p. 41). In my option, the state is a necessary player within the employment relationship. This essay will illustrate why the state should take part in the employment relationship from four aspects. First is the state can protect employees by applying policies into the workplace. Second, the employers can receive benefit when the state making rules. Third, the state solves disputes between employers and employees as intercede. Finally, employers and employees can avoid potential dispute when state intervene. First of all, the state protects employees’ right by implement various policies into workplace. From the point of employer’s view, employer wants the company to running in maximum productivity and efficiency by offering as lower and simpler as possible to employee’s salary working condition. In contract, employees are willing to receive higher reward and better working condition according to their capacity. However, in most cases, employees do not receive equal treatment due to they have relative less bargaining power than employers within employment relations. Basic on this situation, Australian policymaker establish rules including the National Employment......

Words: 1987 - Pages: 8

Discuss Theories on the Maintenance of Romantic Relationships

...Discuss theories on the maintenance of romantic relationships (24 marks) The social exchange theory was developed by Thibaut and Kelly, who suggested that social behaviour is due to the result of an exchange process, where people try to maximise rewards (Such as self-esteem and happiness) from a relationship and minimise costs (such as time, effort and emotional support). The exchange process changes when an individual receives rewards from others; they feel the need to return the favour. If the rewards outstrip the costs, this is seen as a positive sign in the maintenance of a relationship, but if the costs outweigh the rewards, the theory suggests that this could have a damaging effect on maintaining relationships. Thibaut and Kelly claimed that we create a comparison line (a standard against which all our relationships are judged). This referred to whether one person would offer something better or worse in accordance to what we expect from them. So if our current relationships exceed our comparison level, it’s a worthwhile relationship to stay in. However, if our current relationships fail to exceed our comparison level, this means we are dissatisfied with the relationship and may look for an alternative partner. Simpson et al conducted evidence supporting the social exchange theory. They found that participants in existing relationships rated people of the opposite sex as less attractive than participants not in relationships. This suggested that people judge......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Discuss Two Theories of the Breakdown of Relationships

...Discuss two theories of the breakdown of relationships There are some common reasons for the breakdown of a relationship. For example; dissatisfaction or boredom with the relationship, breaking agreed rules and interference from other relationships. In our culture, relationships are considered ‘successful’ if partners stay together, and those relationships that end ‘prematurely’ are considered failures. This is despite the fact that many so-called successful relationships continue even though neither partner is really committed to the relationship. Likewise, ending an unhappy relationship may help each partner to find a new and happy life elsewhere with a new partner. Duck developed a four phase model to describe the termination of close or intimate relationships. Firstly, the intra-psychic phase is where one of the partners or friends becomes more and more dissatisfied with the relationship. They do not tell their partner. If the dissatisfaction is great enough, there is progression to the next phase. The next phase is called the Dyadic phase. Here the other person becomes involved. In this phase the partners discuss their discontent and talk about the different parts in their relationship and seeing if there is a way to get around the problems. If the dissatisfaction is not acceptably resolved, there is progression to the next phase. This phase is known as the Social phase. This is where the break up is ‘aired’ and made public, e.g. to family and friends. It is also......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Impact of Employment Law Employment Relationships Law Employment

...12/20/2015 Impact Of Employment Law Employment Relationships Law Employment Essay Impact Of Employment Law Employment Relationships Law Employment Essay Done: Mohammed Al­Koohaji Section: An introduction: Employment is defined as a give and take relation between employer and employee, which result in the formation of an agreement resulting in the payment of a definite amount at the completion of the term of agreement, agreed by both the parties. Employment relation is thus affected by various factors as follows. Terms of employment. Place of employment. Payments as per agreement. Mode of payment. Amount agreed for payment. Completion of term of employment. Following of set of rules and regulations of employment. Benefits and losses following the employments conditions. Working conditions. Laws related to employment. Terms of employment. Rules and regulations related to employment. Market rate of employment. Inflation. Government directions. Thus, from the above the two major factors that impact the employment relationship are as follows. Internal factors: The two major internal factors that affect the employment relationship are as follows. Place of employment: http://www.uniassignment.com/essay­samples/law/impact­of­employment­law­employment­relationships­law­employment­essay.php 1/8 12/20/2015 Impact Of Employment Law Employment Relationships Law Employment Essay If the place of employment is far away from the residence......

Words: 2784 - Pages: 12

Employment Relationship

...Changing work patterns Introduction Australian work communities are experiencing change. The labour force and industrial relations system is changing. The nature of work and the patterns of Australians' working lives are changing. Many say globalisation is the reason. Some say it is to boost productivity and provide flexibility for workers, employers, and businesses that make up our new economy. These issues are clearly seen when we look at our changing work patterns. See image 1 Structural changes to our work 'Structural change' is an economic explanation for our changing work patterns. It refers to key work and labour force changes in Australia, such as the reduction in full-time work and the increasing economic hardship of lower income workers compared to the increased affluence of higher socioeconomic groups. There has been a decline in full time work from 89 per cent to 69 per cent and rapid growth in services to over 80 per cent. There has been an increase in part-time and casual work; around one in four workers are part-time (due to more flexible workplaces, increased subcontractors, extended trading hours, work and family considerations). The workforce participation of women has increased from 37 to 55 per cent and the number of employed people with a bachelor's degree or higher has increased from 3 to 19 per cent. The proportion of 15 to 24 year olds remaining in our education system has increased from 35 to 54 per cent, partly due to the changing needs of our......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Criminological Relationships Between Theory and Policy

...Criminological Relationships between Theory and Policy American Intercontinental University Julie Hurden Abstract This paper will discuss three policies within the criminological field and the theories that might have influenced them. The three policies and two theories that will be discussed in this paper are the death penalty, three strikes laws and expunging of records, the classical school of criminology and the labeling theory. This paper will discuss rulings by the Supreme Court concerning the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” laws and the death penalty policies. It will review the Eighth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States. Criminological Relationships between Theory and Policy Three Strikes and You’re out Law (TSAYO) The Three Strikes Laws are basically laws that order increased sentences for repeat criminals, this increased sentence is given after three felony crimes have been committed by an offender. Most state and federal laws in the United States require harsher punishment for repeat offenders but they are not as severe as the “Three Strikes and You’re Out” (TSAYO) laws. TSAYO was passed into law to help protect society from persons that are dangerous and have exhibited a pattern of criminal behavior, to break it down this law simply takes repeat offenders out of the game by putting them in prison and hopefully deter others from......

Words: 2012 - Pages: 9

Industrial Relations ( Employment Relationship)

...Report Employment Relationship Student’s name: SamuelBudhathoki(14244889) Raymond Bright (15683108) ZahidRizvi (15222831) Lecturer’s name: Christina Howe Date of submission: 2nd April 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.Introduction...............................................................................................................3 1.1 Employment relationship defined...............................................................................3 1.2 A brief history of industrial relations in Australia.......................................................3 2.0 Changes in workplace relations and employment relationship................................ 4 3.0 Casualisation and employment relationship.............................................................4 4.0 Technological change and employment relationship……………………………………………..5 5.0 Change in government policies and employment relationship………………………..……. 6 6.0 Change in trading hours and employment relationship…………………………………………..6 7.0 Union involvement and employment relationship………………………………………..………….7 7.1Example of union’s involvement……………………………………………………………….……………8 8.0 Equal Employment Opportunity and Employment Relationship……………….……….…..8 9.0 Psychological contract and employment relationships…………………………….……………9 10.0 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………….……………9 References……………………………………………………………………………….…….…….……..11, 12 1.0 Introduction The......

Words: 2917 - Pages: 12