Alcohol on the Liver

In: Science

Submitted By ryatkin93
Words 259
Pages 2
Alcohols effects on Liver
Fatty Liver * Fatty liver is reversible, and is present in a high % of heavy drinkers. * Caused by fat droplets from adipose tissue, can lead to higher BP, hypertension - stroke
Hepatitis
* Reversible with complete absence of alcohol in the system for a long period of time, but 75-85% turns chronic. * Causes inflammation/necrosis of the liver tissue * Centre for disease control (CDC) 2007 stated hepatitis kills more patients than HIV/Aids. * 15,100 deaths in hepatitis patients, 12,700 HIV deaths
Cirrhosis
* Excess fibrosis and hardening of blood vessels impairs liver function. * Blood flow from GI tract & spleen through portal vein to liver can cause variceal haemorrhages - intense bleeding due to the hypertensive blood flow
Gamma - Glutamyl Transferase * Marker of alcohol intake leading to liver dysfunction * Counteracts oxidative stress - breaking down extracellular glutathione (antioxidant/protective) - making its component amino acids available to cells. * BUT: high alcohol intake causes free radical production - depletes the glutathione - so less amino acids available - less repair of liver cells showing necrosis.

Metabolism * Alcohol metabolised by oxidation reactions * Alcohol dehydrogenase oxidises ethanol to acetaldehyde - hepatotoxic so is then oxidised by aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate * NAD+ oxidised to NADH - increases lactate conc - slows down krebs cycle - less ATP made

DISULFIRAM
Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor - leaves acetaldehyde in system that produces convulsive effects and hot flushes - puts drinkers off drinking - used as therapy to treat chronic alcoholism

* Amount of ethanol oxidised depends on NAD+ availability * Research into sobering up agent - to convert NAD+ back from NADH to help oxidation efficiency * Fructose closest…...

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