Air Warfare

In: Historical Events

Submitted By gonzf15
Words 937
Pages 4

1. The technological evolution of air warfare made known a new way for major military operations. Operation Enduring Freedom quickly showed successes with the help of air power. Within weeks, the Taliban had been defeated. The capability was so effective because UAVs could remain on station for a long time, making able instantaneous attack by finding a target, matching it with a weapon, releasing the weapon, and observing the resultant effects. UAVs were a major part for success. In addition, a new concept of offensive air employment against enemy ground forces was successfully tested. This was something fundamentally new by way of air power application that caused direct air attacks against fielded enemy forces that were not in direct contact with friendly troops. The stupendous use of doctrine conquered the command of the air.
2. Air power means successful war-fighting and air power is not only America’s most flexible military capability, it is also the best strategy to apply our strengths against adversary vulnerabilities. Also, air power enables the U.S to directly attack the enemy’s centers of gravity without placing Americans or allies at risk unnecessarily. The centers of gravity were the Taliban themselves. The dominance of consolidated information over platforms and munitions was the principal enabler of the campaign’s success. This new dynamic made all other major aspects of the war possible, including the integration of special operation forces with precision air power strikes, and the minimization of target location error and the avoidance of collateral damage. The victory by the US forces in Afghanistan demonstrated that training, tactics and technology can provide overwhelming results in the field of battle during modern conventional warfare.
3. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, caught everyone…...

Similar Documents

Cyber Warfare

...Computers have modernized terrorism in the same way cyber terrorism revolutionized information warfare. There is no distinct definition of Cyber terrorism; however, its threat is as real as waging war but with weapons of automation. Terrorists have begun to exploit the availability of information with the malicious intent to sabotage; conversely, there are those who are not quite sure if information warfare - cyber terrorism is an actual threat. This research paper will briefly explore the history of cyber terrorism, the friend the internet has been to terrorist and how we can make the internet safer through vigilant tactics of prevention and deterrence. It will also expose the truth about cyber terrorism for the skeptic, reasons not to discount the threat, and why it is paramount their mind is changed. Information Warfare-Cyber Terrorism Did you know there were 18 cybercrime victims every second, 1058 every minute, approximately 64,000 per hour, and 1.5 million per day, that affected over 556 million people within the last year (Norton , 2012)? The internet has made it possible for terrorists to gather our public information and use it against us. As the internet matures so does the terrorist, finding ways to cripple and intimidate. The internet and terrorists have become a real hazard to the health of the cyber world. The government has implemented several organizations to help combat cyber terrorism but have not given it a clear concise definition. ......

Words: 3494 - Pages: 14

Military Technology & the Nature of Warfare

...MILITARY TECHNOLOGY & THE NATURE OF WARFARE 1815 - 1945 With both the World Wars in the twentieth century, conflicts arose that had become somewhat inevitable, yet the nature of which were undoubtedly total wars that had not been anticipated. However, with military technology extending the boundaries of warfare, such conflicts fought on such an unprecedented and devastating scale had been threatening throughout the latter part of the 19th Century. This period was littered with strife, characterized by the American Civil War, The Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War whereby the major powers had demonstrated their threatening capabilities. These bloody conflicts were all typical of 19th century warfare. They were classified in a transitional period between the Napoleonic conflicts of the 18th Century and the total warfare of the 20th Century, in which armies across the globe witnessed an evolution in the nature of warfare. For many, this evolution had been founded upon the transformations in military technology. Furthermore, between 1815-1945, mass industrialization supplemented an ever-changing school of thought surrounding warfare and the deferrals of such conflicts to settle a fraught European Balance of Power created a developing uneasiness between the misunderstandings of modern warfare and capabilities in reality. The consequence was bitter periods of conflict where ad-libbing attempted to allow...

Words: 2609 - Pages: 11

Cyber Warfare

...September 9, 2012 A New Kind of Warfare Cybersecurity efforts in the United States have largely centered on defending computer networks against attacks by hackers, criminals and foreign governments, mainly China. Increasingly, however, the focus is on developing offensive capabilities, on figuring out how and when the United States might unleash its own malware to disrupt an adversary’s networks. That is potentially dangerous territory. Such malware is believed to have little deterrent value against criminals who use computers to steal money from banks or spies who pilfer industrial secrets. But faced with rising intrusions against computers that run America’s military systems and its essential infrastructure — its power grid, for instance, and its telecommunications networks — the military here (and elsewhere) sees disruptive software as an essential new tool of war. According to a study by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the 15 countries with the biggest military budgets are all investing in offensive cyber capabilities. The latest step occurred last month when the United States sent out bids for technologies “to destroy, deny, degrade, disrupt, corrupt or usurp” an adversary’s attempt to use cyberspace for advantage. The Air Force asked for proposals to plan for and manage cyberwarfare, including the ability to launch superfast computer attacks and withstand retaliation. The United States, China, Russia, Britain and Israel began developing basic......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

Religion and Warfare

...Religion and Warfare: Yesterday and Today A religious war is a war justified by religious differences. It can be the acceptable forces of one state that has a well-known religion against those of another state with either a different religion or a different section within the same religion, or, at the level below a state, it can be a faction motivated by religion attempting to spread its faith by violence either within the state or elsewhere. The French Wars of Religion, the Crusades, and the Reconquista are often cited historical examples. While there are certainly wars fought primarily on religious grounds, wars frequently have multiple and complex causes. Saint Augustine is credited as being the first to detail a "Just War" theory within Christianity, whereby war is justifiable on religious grounds. Saint Thomas Aquinas elaborated on these criteria and his writings were used by the Roman Catholic Church to regulate the actions of European countries (Sherman & Salisbury). In modern times religious differences are frequently used as shorthand for cultural and historical differences between combatants, giving the impression that the conflict is primarily about religious differences. For example, The Troubles in Northern Ireland is frequently seen as a conflict between Catholic and Protestant. However, the more basic cause is the attachment of Northern Ireland to either the Republic of Ireland or the United Kingdom. As the native Irish were mostly Catholic, and......

Words: 1813 - Pages: 8

Mountain Warfare

...have to lead Marines into combat with his junior Marines being disgruntle towards each other, his professionalism and maturity and the will to do the right thing would play a strong role in his unit and his mind set would have to be mission first and as well as balance those opinions at the same time. During the Korean war the NCO was also faced with taking his experiences during the war back to the rear to train the Marines that are going to be combat replacements in Korea and since the Marine corps was on a push to get it ranks up to 200,000 they needed a place to train these Marines going to Korea and that place we know today is Mountain Warfare Training Center Pickle Meadows California (MWTC). The NCO’s in charge of training at the MWTC were as follows: Cold Weather survival, rock climbing and animal packing. The Mountain Warfare training center provided excellent training to Marines that where heading to Korea because of the fact that they had a feel of what they could face just like the Marines did at the Chosin Reservoir....

Words: 752 - Pages: 4

Chemical Warfare

...WHAT IS CHEMICAL WARFARE?- Definition of chemical/Chemicals Used – Before talking about the use of chemical warfare, I thought it would be best to describe what chemical warfare actually is. It is the use of chemical agents to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy. An ex-Chemical warfare defense advisor for the Kuwait Ministry of Defense by the name of Hamad Al Hasawi says “It is not a bullet that you can dodge, or something you can go to the hospital and can take out. It is something that you may not know exists when you are walking down a street”. He lists the chemicals sarin, cyclosarin, soman, vx and novichok as the most threatening chemical agents in the world today. Sarin is typically odorless and colorless and takes one minute to kill a person. Sarin- -What is Sarin? Sarin is nerve agent that is colorless, odorless chemical that can kill you as little as a minute, in extreme cases. It was developed by German Researchers in the 1930's and it causes muscle spasms, vision loss, and asphyxia. This chemical is classified as a weapon of mass destruction. -How is Sarin Delivered? This is a dangerous chemical that can be deployed as a liquid, or loaded in to missiles and mortars. It can be packaged with other chemicals and converted in to nerve gas or fired from anti-tank guns and shoulder mounted launchers. Side effects of Syria- Sarin can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. It cripples the respiratory central of the central nervous system and paralyzes......

Words: 4707 - Pages: 19

Irregular Warfare

...An Irregular Warfare Strategy for Somalia Staff Sergeant Ondrae L. Meyers Enlisted Professional Military Education- Career Course 9 June 2014 In Somalia there is a constant battle that the country faces with a terroristic organization called Al Shabaab. Within these battles they do not use conventional warfare. The Al Shabaab do not have the support of the people and rule by commanding obedience through fear. In a conventional war military forces attempt to achieve strategic objectives against a recognized state. Irregular Warfare is when adversaries seek to isolate themselves from their external supporters and undermine their opponent’s legitimacy and credibility. Irregular Warfare is defined by the Department of Defense Directive 3000.07, (December 2008), as “A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population(s). Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capacities, in order to erode an adversary’s power, influence, and will.” There are specific applications of “keys to success”, in order to carry out the Irregular Warfare campaign. The two applications are unity of success and understanding the operational environment. Irregular Warfare is defined by Thomas Edward Lawrence, better known as ‘Lawrence of Arabia’, as “Granted mobility, security (in the form of denying targets to the enemy), time, and doctrine (the idea to convert......

Words: 893 - Pages: 4

Cyber Warfare

...accounts of Chinese human rights activists. The attacks were directed at some 34 companies or entities, most of them in Silicon Valley, California, according to people with knowledge of Google’s investigation into the matter. The attackers may have succeeded in penetrating elaborate computer security systems and obtaining crucial corporate data and software source codes.” Both of these attacks could be dismissed as everyday criminal cyber-attacks but they could be considered something much more serious. By some the attack against Visa and MasterCard maybe considered cyber terrorism and the attack against Google considered cyber warfare. The circumstances of the attack, politics, and the parties involved often determine what category an attack falls in. This paper will focus on cyber-attacks that the United States Government deems to be cyber terrorism or cyber warfare. We will explore the past, present, and future of these attacks and our nation’s current known defensive and offensive cyber-attack capabilities. Cyber Terrorism Distinctions between crime and terrorism may be blurry when attempting to describe a computer network attack (CNA). It can be difficult to determine if non-state actors who initiate a CNA are secretly sponsored by a nation state because it can be hard to determine where a cyberattack originated because attackers may direct suspicion toward an innocent third party. Interactions between terrorist and criminals who use computer technology may further......

Words: 2021 - Pages: 9

Celtic Warfare

...Celtic warfare Celtic warriors were well equipped with an arsenal of weapons and armor, and were always ready to fight. During battles, they dressed in long oval shields that covered most of their body. These oval shields were usually made of wicker or wood and might have been covered with leather. Some warriors carried spears, which looked like javelins. These spears were made of wood, which the Celts would throw at opposing forces to knock down some of the enemies. The range was greater than an arrow, so they had more of an advantage over the enemy. The common warriors would wear leather helmets that provided little to no protection, but wealthy warriors could afford bronze helmets that very protective. During the Bronze Age, they carried a sword that was only designed for thrusting, not cutting. Eventually, the Celts developed a 'Cut - Thrust' Sword which was a long iron double-edged sword. In the Iron Age, they developed their most popular sword, which was the double-edged Broad sword. It was made of iron and bronze, and it was one of the heaviest swords ever created. It had a wooden scabbard covered with leather and was lined with fur, with bronze chaps, and an iron or bronze blade. The Celts used only a few battle tactics to overcome their enemies, but they were still very successful in battle. Chariots were an important part of Celtic warfare, a method that was very effective against the Romans. Warrior and driver were a strong team. The driver would bring the......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Celtic Warfare

...rule happened every year before Caesars arrival that they either opened up hostilities themselves or had to defend against -, they all joined the battle . . .” (Caesar, De Belli Gallico VI – 15,1) Caesar may be a biased source, but his statement tells us a lot about the role of war in ancient Celtic society: it was an important part of life, primarily for the nobility, but, to a lesser degree, also for the average man. We see a similar picture if we take a look at the Irish or Welsh legends, where the heroes go off to fights, most often one at a time or in small groups, but often in the company of their followers and clients to fight mass battles. A Short, Short History of Celtic Expansion and Retreat Before we look into ancient Celtic warfare itself, it is necessary to define what time and geographical region I will be talking about. Even though Celtic culture developed probably some centuries earlier, the oldest material I’ll be discussing dates to the beginning of the 5th century BC in central Europe. From that point, the culture expanded until, in the 3rd century BC, it reached its greatest extent with Celts living in Ireland and Spain in the West and as far as Galatia in Asia Minor in the East. This was partly due to cultural exchange and peaceful transmission of ideas, partly due to massive military campaigns like that in northern Italy. From then on, however, the Celts began to lose ground. Starting even in the 3rd century BC, the Romans began to conquer the Celtic......

Words: 2666 - Pages: 11

Cyber Warfare

...For over a decade, the concept of cyber warfare (computer warfare) has bee embedded i military doctrine. I 2000 the Defece white paper stated a ambition to repond to cyber warfare attacks. The 2007 Defence Update went further by calling for a focus on 'cyber warfare' to protect 'national networks and deny information'. The most recent Defence White Paper in 2009 also announced a 'major enhancement of Defence's cyber warfare maximise Australia's strategic capacity and reach in this field'. Given the rate of technological change and the number of system vulnerabilities discovered every day, the ADF's cyber capabilities will require dedicated and constant attention. This will be difficult to achieve and sustain if the ADF has not fully defined what it means by cyber warfare and how it will be used to serve Australia's interests. There are several definitions of cyber warfare, one of which was provided earlier this year by Defence Signals Directorate's (DSD) Deputy Director of Cyber and Information Security Mike Burgess in a speech to the Old Crows Association. He defined cyber warfare as 'an act...intended to degrade, destroy or deny computer accesses and systems' and added 'a true act of cyber warfare would have to be potentially lethal, instrumental and political'. Information stored on computers has become a key national asset and an element of our national power. Our ability to create information, store it, secure it, analyse it and harness it to......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Spiritual Warfare

...Spiritual Warfare Strongholds & Strategies Bob Burns “Everything is permissible for me-but I will not be mastered by anything” 1 Corinthians 6:12 1 The Bible tells us that we struggle not against flesh and blood, but against demonic forces. Ephesians 6:12, "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." Often the enemy uses life controlling problems as a means of attack. “Life-controlling problems are anything that master our lives and block our spiritual growth.” Other description include: life-controlling struggles, addictions, dependency, stronghold, besetting sin, slavery, and compulsive behavior. 1 Almost everyone has something blocking his or her spiritual growth in Christ. Some strongholds may be something that people consider positive such as sports or ministry. Others that are considered negative include drugs, gambling, sexual addiction and more. Perhaps a person is consumed by another persons problem, trapped by grief, depression, anger, envy, lust and etc. 2 In this paper we will discover the three tools Satan uses to keep people trapped which are delusion, secrecy, and isolation. Secondly we will learn about three resources God provides to confront the enemies attack. These include the Word of God, the Spirit of God, and the People of God. Delusion or deception means to make another person......

Words: 983 - Pages: 4

Cyber Warfare

...Cyber warfare One of the first cyber-attacks was the Morris worm in the year 1988. It had affected the world cyber infrastructure. This worm utilized the weak areas of UNIX system Noun1. This worm has replicated adversely and slowed down the computers in all of the US and made them unusable. Cyber warfare has become a societal issue now. Though the roots of cyber warfare aimed at military areas primarily, it extended its effects to non-military areas too. The information infrastructure based companies have become victimized due to abundant availability of cheap cyber weapons over internet. This resulted in economic instability. Libicki classified information warfare into seven categories. They are intelligence based warfare, economic information warfare, hacker warfare, psychological warfare, electronic warfare, command and control warfare and cyber warfare. CSI and CERT information reflects that securities incidents are common, private firms are the major targets and much of these security incidents never receive public acknowledgement (Geeks et al., 2010). Several tools in the cyber warfare are developed based on Windows and are available free of cost. They require a minimal understanding about the technology frames. Many of the network organizations today are using well developed proxy servers, intrusion detection systems and firewalls. However these defensive systems are often configured improperly and carried known vulnerabilities. This weakness gave an opportunity......

Words: 1988 - Pages: 8

Submarine Warfare

...WWII Submarine Warfare Germany’s surrender and agreement not to retain any submarines due to the Armstice terms in 1918 and the Treaty of Versailles was short-lived. Britain was not ready for Hitler’s initiation 20 years later. After building up his submarine stock since 1935, his initiative to intercept merchant ships in the Atlantic commenced in 1939. The directive was to sink more supply line ships than the Allies could replace to force a surrender through starvation and lack of supplies. This initiative created what was known as the Battle of the Atlantic. Known as the longest continuous campaign of World War II, the Battle of the Atlantic mostly involved the Allies protecting the shipping routes across the Atlantic which were constantly being intercepted by German U-boats. The Nazi’s submarines, referred to by most as U-boats, were more like submersible ships than submarines at the time. They ran on diesel engines for their surface time and battery for their submersed. They dove beneath the water only when they were attacked or for torpedo strikes during the day. More often attacks were made on the surface at night. This was extremely effective in the early years of the war as they were virtually untraceable due to the lack of sonar technologies at the time. This time was known to Germans as “die gluckliche Zeit” or “the happy time”. Many classes of U-boats were made, but the most prominent of them were Type VII, the workhorse (700 active), Type IX, larger with......

Words: 672 - Pages: 3

History of Warfare

...Edward LeBar November 25th, 2009 HIST 017 Prof: Dan Hambly History of Warfare: Essay Assignment The two key individual advancements of weaponry in warfare that I believe were most relevant to the change in warfare tactics were the Spears used by the Ancient Greek and Macedonian Phalanx (300 B.C.E) and the Long Bow used by the British (1300-1500 AD). Each of these weapons made a huge impact in warfare upon being developed and changed the course of history of their armies who wielded these weapons of excellence. Each weapon was wielded by soldiers slaying millions of people during many glorious historical battles still taught to students around the globe today about their importance to warfare. “One of the earliest, and certainly the deadliest of these first purpose-made weapons, was the spear” (Weir, 2005). The spear was developed in early known warfare, and had an impact when the Ancient Greeks wielded the spear in their battles. The Spear was a simple weapon to make as it consisted of a wooden poll 6 to 8 feet in length with a sharp piercing arrowhead attached to the end capable of puncturing any enemy armor. The Ancient Greek’s developed the spear to be able to attack an enemy from a longer range than the sword and used the spear with tactics and coordination with a Hoplon shield protecting the Hoplite soldier which was later called a Phalanx. The spear proved to be very useful to the Greek Phalanx providing the Greek’s with many victories with this particular......

Words: 1344 - Pages: 6