Addiction Models

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ninjahusky12
Words 988
Pages 4
Effective Components in Determining Substance Use Behavior
Crystal Ramsey
Liberty University

Effective Components in Determining Substance Use Behavior
Addiction is regarded as having a multitude of causations and contributing factors. No single specific component or model can accurately predict a person’s substance use behavior (Clinton & Scalise, 2013). Substance use disorders are a reflection of the impact of person-specific biological, psychological, and social influences. Understanding an individual’s spiritual beliefs and the role spirituality plays in a person’s susceptibility to addiction is also necessary. If a spirituality component is absent in a person's life, addiction could fill that void (Doweiko, 2015). Substance abusers can use chemicals to cope with psychological anguish, social pressure, be biologically susceptible or to create an illusion of purpose.
The biological model consists of the physical, fundamental, and atomic mechanisms. These elements affect the natural functioning of the individual. Substance use disorders are believed to be the result of a physiological abnormality (Doweiko, 2015). Normal biological processes are altered within the body such as the reward system. Typically the reward system is designed to help people. However, numerous substances inundate the natural neurotransmitter system giving false signals to the brain’s reward system (Doweiko, 2015). Unfortunately, a natural process that evolved to assist in human existence has been disrupted by the reward potential of synthetic compounds. Genetic, biological differences render individuals either more or less susceptible to substance abuse. While it is probable that inherited variances exist, a single genetic component is inadequate to cause substance abuse and addiction (Doweiko, 2015). Unlike disorders that result from the occurrence of abnormalities in a…...

Similar Documents


...Weston Lampe Theory of Addiction Monday October 1, 2012 Disease Model The oldest and possibly most talked about theory of addiction in the disease model. The disease model basically states that substance addiction is similar to any other disease in that it is genetic, progressive, and often times fatal. The symptoms of substance abuse such as alcoholism are similar for everyone who suffers, and they are easily recognizable. One problem with the disease model is that it is not backed by any strong scientific research. You cannot give someone an X-ray or a CT scan to see if they suffer from drug addiction. Another problem is that if it was a disease then one would assume that some sort of medicinal or therapeutic device would have been developed that can help cure the disease. No such device has been created or is even close to being introduced. The disease model has had serious implications when it comes to treating substance abuse. Alcoholics Anonymous (commonly referred to as AA) was created by psychiatrists specifically to treat substance abuse as a disease. AA is a long process in which participants use self-help methods in order to battle the disease for their entire life. It was founded in the United States in 1935 and has since exploded worldwide and is as prevalent as ever. I believe that substance abuse as a disease makes sense because it seems to be so natural. Alcoholism is commonly passed down through generations and is very common, similar to......

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Moral and Behavioral Models of Addiction

...Behavioral Theory of Addiction Contrasted With Moral and Disease Theories Theory and Practice in Addiction Counseling The behavioral model of addiction emphasizes conditioning as the primary reason for substance abuse. The individual chooses whether or not to engage in substance-using behavior depending on what they get out of the experience, relative to other options they have. If the substances are more rewarding than other activities within the person’s environment, then the behavior will continue. If this situation reverses, then extinction of the behavior is expected due to lack of reinforcement. Although social and economic context are recognized as factors in substance use, they are not primary causes of the behavior, nor is the presence of a comorbid psychological or medical condition. Interventions are based on the idea that an addicted person wants or expects certain results from substance use, and also wants certain outcomes in other areas of life. These objectives, wants, or needs are referred to as rewards, or reinforcers, in behavioral conditioning. The individual sets the economy of reward by weighing the relative value-cost of engaging in substance using behaviors. Immediacy of consequences, whether positive or negative reinforcement, or actual punishment, is a factor in this internal economy. If punishment for the behavior becomes stronger than the perceived benefits of continuing it, then there is economy of reward to motivate change, or......

Words: 1802 - Pages: 8


...Addiction, a severe craving that is pulses through our bones; it pulses and throbs until we find a way to calm it. When people watch others struggle with an addiction they often say why don’t you just stop? Some do not comprehend what it is like to have an addiction. To help prevent people from doing anything that can lead into an addiction, schools teach students about addictions; they advise them what to stay away from, so that the students do not become an addict. When a person tries something and gets a thrill out of it, the brain puts this activity into the reward circuit of your mind. Therefore the next time that you partake in this activity your brain tells you that you want more of it. Some people may become addicted, while others do not. This is all because of the way our mind works. For some it’s easier to become addicted to an activity because someone in their family may have had that same addiction, making it easier for them to become addicted. Although people want to stop their drug activity, they simply cannot because their body wants it more than anything, and if they don’t appease the body, they can get sick. After years of the addiction, it is more of an illness than an addiction. Since the addiction is keeping the person feeling their greatest, they are fine, correct? With an addiction, there are always consequences, if you have an a minor addiction to collecting stones, or a major addiction of hard drug use. Addictions cause your mind to think differently,......

Words: 1145 - Pages: 5

Addiction Etiology Model Comparison

...The Disease Model According to the disease model of addiction, addiction is a brain disease. Marked changes in brain structure and function that, over time, lead to involuntary use or compulsive behavior are the key characteristics of the disease (Leshner, 2001). The behavioral expressions of addiction are uncontrollable, and in that aspect, similar to that of other brain diseases. For example, just as schizophrenics cannot voluntarily control their hallucinations and delusions or Parkinson’s patients cannot control their trembling, an addict cannot control the urge to use (Leshner, 2001). Once an individual has the disease, it is irreversible. It is an incurable, chronic illness. Proponents of this model purport treating the addict just as one would treat an individual with any other brain disease or chronic illness (McLellan, Lewis, O’Brien & Klecher, 2000). As with other diseases, a holistic treatment approach, combining medication therapy, behavioral therapy and any needed social services and rehabilitation is considered the best treatment approach (Leshner, 2001). Research would seem to support the position that chronic substance use produces long-lasting changes in the brain (Volkow, Chang, Gene-Jack, Fowler et al., 2001) that are responsible for the impaired cognitive functioning, including the compulsive urge to use, that is characteristic of addictive behavior (Leshner, 2001). The comparative analysis conducted by McLellan and others (2000) also suggests similar......

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Models/Theories of Addiction

...Models/Theories of Addiction Moral Model of Addiction: It is one of the oldest theories of addiction. Under this theory, addiction is the result of an individual's poor choices made from having a lack of will power or moral strength. It does not recognize biological or genetic factors to addiction, ignores all the scientific evidence including genetics, neurobiology/pharmacology and twin studies and offers no sympathy for addicts. It believes that addiction can be cured by simply choosing not to use alcohol or drugs. Although not commonly used anymore, there are still many who feel addiction is still the result of moral failure. Addictive Disease Model of Addiction: Defines addiction to alcohol or other drugs as being an incurable and irreversible progressive disease. There is no cure for the addiction but it can be controlled by lifelong abstinence and group support. It believes addicts cannot control their need for alcohol or other drugs and will ignore negative outcomes to use. This dependency is a result of pre-existing genetic chemical alterations in the brain which are activated by the substance abuse. Progression of the disease is measured by the amount, frequency, and the circumstances of an individual's substance use. Treatment starts with the individual acknowledging and admitting their problem, followed by addiction recovery treatment, and then maintaining sobriety with lifelong recovery through abstinence and support groups like AA or......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3


...resist (NIDA).” If a person has an already predisposed personality to becoming addicted to something, then that addiction can consume the person’s actions and every thought. An addictive personality is referred to as a particular set of personality traits that can make an individual predisposed to addictions. Two types of addictions are substance-abuse addictions and behavioral-based addictions. In substance abuse addictions, dopamine is released in the brain due to the usage of the drug. This causes a range of sensations to happen, producing a euphoric event, making the addict to feel this sensation again, leading to drug abuse. It creates a compulsive need for the drug and craving the drug badly that when the drug isn’t administered could lead to withdrawals. On the other hand, the behavioral addictions are similar to the substance abuse addictions, expect that the individual is more addicted to the behavior associated with drug use rather than being addicted to the substance. A “high” or euphoric event still happens with behavioral abusers, forcing the brain to crave that “high” again, blocking out any negative consequences that happen when using the drug. The need to repeatedly go through the drug experience, to get the chemical high, results in the individual being trapped in a compulsive process. The dopamine release is the important part of drug addictions and the addictive personality of a person. Drugs affect the mesolimbic, or dopaminergic, reward system in the......

Words: 1328 - Pages: 6


...MODELS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR To read up on models of addictive behaviour, refer to pages 609–618 of Eysenck’s A2 Level Psychology. Ask yourself * Is there a biological basis to addictive behaviour? * Can somebody learn to be an addict? * How might explanations of addiction differ for different addictions? What you need to know MODELS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR | EXPLANATIONS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR | * Biological, behavioural (learning), and cognitive models of addictive behaviour  | * Biological, behavioural (learning), and cognitive explanations for initiation, maintenance, and relapse * Specific explanations of particular addictions including smoking and gambling | MODELS OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR The models of addictive behaviour attempt to explain the causes and thereby offer insights into how an addiction develops. The assumptions as to the causes of addiction also affect the approach taken to treatment. Biological model of addictive behaviour According to this model, the main causes of addictive behaviour are biological factors within the individual, for example, a neurochemical imbalance or a genetic predisposition towards addictive behaviour. Thus, the vulnerability to develop an addiction may be inherited and family studies are used to support this explanation. Thus approach assumes that addiction has physical causes and can therefore only be cured through medicine. Behavioural (learning) model of addictive behaviour This model......

Words: 2488 - Pages: 10


...Abstract Addictions covers a range of maladaptive traits to include substance use, alcohol or behavior leading to significant impairments. There are various causes of addiction, but some theoretical frameworks indicates that addictions may have a genetic component that leads to a predisposition to develop addiction, a disease model of addiction or as the result of self-medicating of a primary disorder. This paper will take a theoretical view of the causes of addiction as well as developing a working definition of addiction. Causes of Addiction There are numerous theories regarding addiction and the causes of addiction; however, for the purpose of this paper we will discuss three areas or models of addiction as it relates to substance and alcohol related abuse. Before delving into the causes of addiction we will develop an understanding of what addiction is and what it is not by viewing a few theories and definitions of addiction. We will also develop an understanding of what constitute a diagnosis of addiction and causes one to develop an addiction in the context of genetic predisposition, disease and the prevalence of addiction among individuals with co-occurring disorders stemming from traumatic experiences such as childhood abuse. Addiction Defining addiction is not a simplistic task as there are many theories and definitions of addiction and how addiction develops. In Drugs and addiction: an Introduction to Epigenetics,......

Words: 1482 - Pages: 6


...CONTENT Computer addiction is a condition where some young age or teenagers are addict in playing a computer every day that they cannot skip one day if they cannot play a computer. Although addiction is usually used to describe substances, addiction can also be used to describe pathological Internet use. Experts on Internet addiction have described this syndrome as an individual being intensely working on the Internet, prolonged use of the Internet, uncontrollable use of the Internet, unable to use the Internet with efficient time, not being interested in the outside world, not spending time with people from the outside world, and an increase in their loneliness and dejection. However, not all people who spend hours each day on the computer are considered addicted. There are many uses for computers and the internet and in many cases, an individual may spend 6 or more hours in a day on the computer but still not be considered an addict. Each individual situation is different and therefore, there is no set number of hours that is (or is not) considered a potential for computer addiction. OBJECTIVES To study the conducted survey to determine the Computer Addiction due to the no work in their house or no hobbies to do and only for fun. Validity This validity survey of some question that refers to Computer Addiction for the Young Age and Teenagers, to know how many users are interacted with the computer. RATIONALLY OF THE PROBLEM Computer addiction increases the number of......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2


...LASA 2: Exploring Personality Theories Part I: Apply the personality theories to your personal life experience by answering the following questions. (Each paragraph below should be 200 – 400 words.) 1. The Five Factor Model of Personality: Explain where you fall on each of the FIVE dimensions or traits in this theory. Discuss whether you feel you were “born with” this trait or if you feel this trait developed through experiences in your environment (such as family experiences or other learning experiences). Based on your experience, explain whether personality traits are primarily biological (innate) or environmental (learned) (Nature vs. Nurture). (1 paragraph) In doing some more research on the Five Factor Model of Personality I came across the personality test. In reviewing this it shows that in Openness, which is a trait that suggests open-mindedness and interest in culture. A high score in this area means that people are sometimes curious, likes to be imaginative and creative and are more out to seek new experiences. Low scores suggest that they are less imaginative and not interested in any new experiences. For the Conscientiousness type of person, which is a trait that reflects the organization and persistence in pursuing their life goals, high scores tend to mean that the person is well organized, goal oriented and have faith in themselves. Low scores show that the person is unorganized, unreliable and very careless in what they do. For the Extraversion type...

Words: 1688 - Pages: 7

Biological Model of Addiction

...Biological Model of Addiction (4+6) AO1 The biological model of Addiction views addiction as a disease, therefore assuming that addiction is an illness, it is irreversible and the problem lies in the individual with no other contributing factors. With addiction the most poignant neurotransmitters is dopamine, where neurotransmitters carry chemical messages (information) around the brain. Dopamine is particularly active in the reward center; therefore Dopamine is related to motivation, rewards and moods. The main pathway that is travels is the mesolimbic dopamine system. According to this model people get addicted because when they take a particular substance and enjoy it is a rewarding feeling and dopamine gets released. There are different phases in becoming addicted to something, the first of which is the initiation phase. This is the taking of addicting substances; such as alcohol or nicotine trigger the release of more dopamine, motivating the brain to do it again. For example in theory crack cocaine causes receptors in the mesolimbic pathway to be rapidly activated, the brain then remembers to link the drug with the rewarding experience. This is also known as operant conditioning where the rewarding experience is positive reinforcement. The next phase is maintenance; “down regulation” involves withdrawal and stress. This is the brain adapting to new drugs and more are needed for a reward, so the previous positive reinforcement becomes negative reinforcement.......

Words: 535 - Pages: 3


...Introduction Many people have a misrepresentation of drug addiction. If you were to ask someone their definition of a drug addict, that person would already have a preconceived “imagine” of what a drug addict looks like and how they act. People tend to focus more on the physical attributes rather than the foundation of the internal struggle. See, we were taught at a very young age to “say no to drugs” “hugs not drugs” but in hindsight the severity of addiction was never taught. Currently, I am working in a disease model treatment program. This particular case will be a dual-diagnosis treatment plan. 25 Aug 2015, approx. 2200. Candace James, 28 year old single Caucasian female was admitted to Capella Hospital after being brutally attacked and sexually assaulted for allegedly prostituting for crack cocaine. Patient is in stable condition and being held for 24 hours for further observation. Per the police report, charges for possession of crack cocaine will be dropped if patient seeks treatment. Patient was referred to treatment by the hospital social worker. 26 Aug 2015 approx. 0900, I met with Candace regarding treatment options. Patient was noncompliant with further medical treatment and experiencing severe withdrawal from crack cocaine but willing to seek treatment. Patient has no previous treatment history for addictive behavior. Patient admits she was diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from an unknown provider for chronic history of physical and sexual......

Words: 732 - Pages: 3

Disease Model of Addiction

...The disease model of addiction describes an addiction as a lifelong disease that involves both biological and environmental sources of origin. The disease model originates from the traditional medical model of disease which states that an individual suffering from a disease has an illness or sickness that causes interruption, cessation, or disorder of bodily functions, systems or organs and must have identifiable signs and symptoms (Gorski, 2001). The contemporary medical model attributes addiction to changes in the brains mesolimbic system and also takes into consideration that the disease may be a result of other biological, psychological, or social entities (Disease model of addiction, 2011). Within the disease model of addiction, it is believed that a genetic predisposition to addiction exists, in addition to the occurrence of some environmental events that increase the likelihood that this predisposition will be sparked. Within the overall concept of the disease model of addiction, there are various specific disease models that concentrate on the specific areas of the disease concept. For example, the medical consequences model focuses on the many biomedical consequences of alcohol and drug use. This model simply focuses on the biological etiology and consequences of drug and alcohol consumption. The bio-psycho-social-spiritual consequences maintenance disease model is much richer than the biomedical consequences model because the concentration is on biological,......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5


...Reference Database: “Addiction” by Nancy A. Piotrowski, Ph.D Addiction is when the human body becomes dependent on a substance. Prolonged use of any psychoactive drug will determine a persons dependency. The addiction can affect a person psychologically and physiologically; this will show in an addicts tolerance and withdrawal symptoms from a drug. Tolerance will involve the biological system such as the human body, changes in the body after a drug is present, and environmental or behavioral conditioning. The way the human body processes a drug is by absorbing a drug through the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream it will be delivered to different organs and they will metabolize the drug and eliminate it from the body. After frequent use of a drug, the way the body processes a drug may change. When this occurs the body is able to rid itself of the drug more efficiently. This leads to reduced effects from the drug than when it was initially consumed. When this happens an increase to the dose will be required to get the desired effect. Many changes will occur in the body once a drug is present. It will change the sensitivity in specific areas of the body where the drug has an impact. For instance, there may be a direct or indirect impact on different areas of the brain. A direct impact may lead to a change in the brains receptors. When there is an indirect impact it will show in tissue tolerance and functional tolerance. Environmental and behavioral......

Words: 2696 - Pages: 11


...Introduction Addiction is one of the global problems leading to huge loss of life and causing untold suffering in families and society. This paper will focus on various models that are used to explain the etiology of addiction. Models for addictions refer to the tools used to deliver message concerning the biological basis of addiction as well as the broader social and psychological aspect of addiction. Models The following are the known models that explain the concept of all forms of addiction. 1. Personal responsibility model 2. Agent model 3. Dispositional model 4. Sociocultural model 5. Public health perspective Personal Responsibility or Moral model According to this model, society has divergent views concerning the issue of addiction although none of them is positive. One of the many views the society has is that addiction is a criminal behaviour. The other view or perspective is that addiction is a sin. The model attributes character and weakness defects to addiction (Bentley, 2007). The model has neither sympathy nor care for the individuals who have chronic addictions. The model bases its message concerning the addiction as an individual’s choice. As per this model individuals who are strong morally are well positioned to avoid, control and stop any form of addiction. The situation makes the model resemble medical and spiritual model. Moral uprightness is closely associated with religion. Without strong spiritual belief, various......

Words: 1055 - Pages: 5