A Critical Appraisal of Motivational Practices

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sdctnt
Words 1398
Pages 6
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 TITLE
A Critical Appraisal of the Motivational Practices employed within the NLS environment.

1.2 Organizational Background
The NLS organization can be considered a large statutory authority that provides information services within the context of education.

1.2.1 Problem Definition
Several factors currently affect the NLS employee at the individual level that impact on his or her performance as a service provider. Motivation is as crucial to NLS employees as to any other. There is an inherent problem of low motivation among the staff of the NLS that is reflected in below average employee productivity, high rates of absenteeism and turnover, low morale and an unwillingness to give extra effort. Thus, it is important to understand the fundamental needs and desires of NLS employees which can be manipulated and stimulated to achieve positive motivation. As argued by Almer, Higgs and Hooks (2005), there are factors other than pay that motivate individuals to work in organisations.

1.2.2 Research Question
To what extent do motivational strategies affect organisational efficiency at the NLS and what approaches can be undertaken to improve them in the future.

1.3 Methodology
This paper will attempt to identify key factors of motivation for NLS employees and proffer an explanation of how to adequately motivate them to contribute an optimal effort to the organisation’s objectives.
This will be accomplished by the use of secondary data, academic literature and the application of relevant content and process theories. 2.0 DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
2.1 Motivation and Employee Needs
2.1.1 Theoretical Framework
F.W. Taylor believed in economic needs motivation, or put simply, what workers wanted from their employer more than anything else was higher wages. This is too simplistic a view as there are many intrinsic and extrinsic…...

Similar Documents

Motivational Theory in Practice at Tesco.Doc

...Motivational theory in practice at Tesco A Tesco case study Introduction Tesco began in 1919 with one man, Jack Cohen, a market stallholder selling groceries in London. TESCO was formed out of a merger with T.E. Stockwell from whom he purchased tea for sale on the stall. The first store opened in 1929. Since then, Tesco has expanded across the world. It now has over 2,200 stores including hypermarkets and Tesco Express outlets to meet different customer needs. As a conglomerate Tesco also offers alternative goods and services such as insurance, banking and online shopping. With net profits of around £3.4 billion Tesco has become the largest British retailer and one of the world's leading retail outlets on three continents. Tesco's growth has resulted in a worldwide workforce of over 468,000 employees. To support its growth, Tesco needs staff that are motivated, flexible and well-trained and who recognise customer needs. In turn, Tesco's employees are supported by the company in their various roles and at different levels - from customer assistants in stores to department managers; from warehouse employees to office and logistics staff. Tesco recognises that employee motivation is important for the continued growth of the company. This case study looks at how Tesco motivates its employees by increasing their knowledge, skills and job satisfaction through training and development and providing relevant and timely reward and recognition. What is......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Motivational Theory in Practice at Tesco

...* a sense of challenge and enjoyment. 2. Describe the effects of an unmotivated workforce on a company. How does Tesco benefit from ensuring that its workforce is motivated? An unmotivated workforce will be dissatisfied with its role in the work environment. This can negatively affect both the quality of the work as well as how efficiently employees carry out their jobs. Tesco supports staff with a work/life balance and offers reward through: * flexible working * free or reduced rate health benefits * discount gym membership * competitive salaries * staff discount * company share options. 3. Why is Taylor’s theory not relevant to companies and employees in the 21st century? 4. Evaluate the four motivational theories in the study, demonstrating how each relates to Tesco. Barclays 1. Set out the differences between sole traders, partnerships and limited companies. What are the benefits of each type of ownership? What are the drawbacks? 2. What are the main budget factors that a new business should take into consideration? What factors would Tim O’Neill, the founder of T&T Vision, have considered? 3. What are the key sources of finance for business start-ups? Suggest an idea that could turn into a business proposition. How would it be possible to finance the new business? 4. Based on the idea produced in answer to question 3, what are the main difficulties that might arise in trying to establish a new......

Words: 532 - Pages: 3

Critical Appraisal Guidelines Part 2

...Critical Appraisal Guidelines: Qualitative - Part 2 Amanda T. Creel Grand Canyon University: NRS – 433V June 9, 2013 The research article reviewed was “Ultrasound – Guided Peripheral Venous Access vs. the External Jugular Vein as the Initial Approach to the Patient with Difficult Vascular Access” by T.G. Costantino MD, J. F. Kirtz MD, and W. A. Satz MD. Intravenous (IV) access is commonly performed in the Emergency Department (ED). In patients with difficult access, physicians are frequently called upon to perform these procedures. Physicians should be familiar with both the external jugular (EJ) IV technique and the ultrasound – guided IV (USIV) peripheral access techniques. Some hospitals have specialized team of nurses that have been educated and trained on the proper way to establish an EJ IV and/or USIV. This study examined both techniques and collected data to establish which techniques was better for the patient. Protection of Human Participants Risks and Benefits Addressed by the Authors The benefit of this study was to spare the ED patient with difficult veins from having to receive a central venous line. The infection rate is higher in a central line than a peripheral IV line. The use of USIV will also decrease the number or IV attempts instead of a central line. While this decreased the actual number of IV attempts, it still had some risks. One major risk is arterial punctures. The other risks include nerve irritation and hematomas at the site of both......

Words: 1068 - Pages: 5

Practice and Problem of Performance Appraisal Management

...seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques.” Storey (1995: 5). Among the personnel technique used to deploy a highly committed and capable workforce doing performance appraisal periodically is the vital one. The well known Management writer BRECH (1975:693) states the following about performance appraisal and organization objective Performance appraisal is periodically assessing the performance of individual against predetermined standard; identifying personal strengths and weakness determining training needs. The good performance by individual in his/her role should automatically entail or produce the contribution to over all firm performance From this in can learn that performance appraisal as measurement tool to know the organizational performance and also show the integration between individual worker performance and organizational objective. But while different organization carry out performance Appraisal it is surrounded by different problems. So as to show the practical problems of human resource management as a whole performance appraisal selecting specific organization are in need. This is the main reason the researcher prefer to concentrate on the Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Union. The paper consist the introduction, review of literature, data presentation, conclusion and Recommendations part dividing into four chapters......

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5

The Effects of Practice Scheduling and Critical Thinking

...Brandi Hill The Effects of Practice Scheduling and Critical Thinking The article, The Effects of Practice Scheduling and Critical Thinking prompts on Learning states that practice scheduling promotes transfer and ultimately leads to mastering critical thinking skills. The author begins by explaining the numerous complex judgment tasks that one must make. These judgment tasks require one to transfer what they have learned into their long term memory and apply this information to new situations. This type of transference is c high road transfer and greatly involves metacognition. As stated in Educational Psychology Chapter eight, (2011) high road transfer is the deliberate identification of concepts not tied into on specific problem. This type of abstraction becomes part of one’s metacognitive knowledge. For complex judgment to occur, the learner must learn the relationships between criterion that requires the learner to compare different situations. Training a learner to complete such task is necessary. Practice scheduling (Gog et al., 2011) increases the amount a learner retains and transfers. During Practice scheduling, different variations or training tasks are sequenced randomly. Contextual interference is the consistent increase in inference between training tasks. Contextual interface can be explained by the elaborative -processing hypothesis and the forgetting -reconstruction hypothesis (Gog et al., 2011). Both hypotheses explain what is taking...

Words: 533 - Pages: 3

Critical Appraisal of Guideline

...Critical Appraisal of Guideline   Critical Appraisal of Guideline Appraisal Tool The tool chosen to appraise the guideline is called the AGREE II (http://www.agreetrust.org/). The purpose of the AGREE II is to examine the quality of guidelines through a step-by-step approach as to what and how information is presented in a guideline. The step-by-step approach is completed via twenty three steps which are categorized into 6 domains. Domain one addresses the overall scope and purpose of the guideline. Domain two is concerned with the stakeholders’ involvement and how the intended users view the guideline. Domain three pertains to the rigor of development of the guideline through eight steps which cover the method of evidence synthesis. Domain four deals with the clarity of the presentation throughout the guideline. Domain five is titled applicability, and it focuses on barriers and facilitators in applying the guideline. Domain six is titled editorial independence and evaluates whether the guideline is free from biases. Guideline The guideline chosen for appraisal is Diagnosis and management of headache in adults. A national clinical guideline (http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=13446#Section396). Critique Domain one: The guideline presents evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of headaches in adults. The health questions covered by the guideline are located in the annex of the ¬¬¬¬¬original guideline, and the target population,......

Words: 1317 - Pages: 6

Critical Appraisal of a Quantitative Study

...HEALTH CARE WORKERS HAND DECONTAMINATION PRACTICES: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY CRITICAL APPRAISAL: INTRODUCTION: The problem of hospital acquired infection is identified, effort have been made to eradicate or reduce the rates of receiving. The aim of the article notes the study of healthcare workers hand washing practices from behavioural aspect. LITERATURE REVIEW: Researcher analyse various articles that describes the rates of hospital acquired infection that obtained from 6-15% of hospital admission. It also states 10-32% of acquired infection have been found in the intensive care unit (ICU).One of the study claim it is important to understand the rates can be reduced by up to one-third if the healthcare workers go along with the guidelines issued by CDC ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).Likewise, the factors that provide to healthcare workers non-compliance with hand washing guidelines have been identified ,such as inaccessible equipment, lack of time, busyness and deleterious effects on skin. Intervention to improve such as provision of an educational programmes, motivational programme and patient educational programmes have been enabled. After all, the researchers have concluded the hand washing compliance rates of health workers are difficult to change, therefore it can be argued that maintained improvement of compliance with guidelines requires a multi-faceted approach. THEORETICAL......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Critical Evaluation Evidence Practice.

...for umbilical cord care differ enormously from country to country and establishment to establishment, and most of the current literature surrounding umbilical cord practices indicates practice is based on historical assumptions rather than research evidence. (Tammy, P et al 2004). Documented historical practice of cord care includes coins, plant extracts, raisins, olive oil, coconut oil and colostrum. (Perrone, S et al 2012 and Karumbi et al 2013). Methods currently used for umbilical cord care include triple dye, alcohol, antibiotic ointments/powders, betadine, soap and water and no treatments at all. (Tammy, P. et al 2004). Following the findings of a COCHRANE review by Zupan and colleagues the WHO made recommendations that include aseptic techniques involving health professionals and hand washing. The use of sharp sterile instruments to cut the cord at birth. Leaving the stump 2-3cms long and placing it outside the nappy area to promote drying. (Perrone, S. et al 2012). However these findings apply primarily to high income countries and hospital settings and so pose the question about treatment in poor income countries and community settings. Current guidelines from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE 2006) apply to practice undertaken by Health Professionals in the United Kingdom (UK), and have implemented the recommendations from the WHO with regards to dry cord care in the......

Words: 4731 - Pages: 19

Critical Appraisal

...discuss a project conducted by a group of nurses to develop and evaluate a psycho-educational program that aids the nursing profession to develop plans for stress management. The purpose of the project appears to be valid and the design of the project appears to answer the purpose of the project. References Houck, G., Kendall, J., Miller, A., Morrell, P., & Wiebe, G. (2011). Self-concept in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26(3), 239-247. Retrieved from CINAHL database on July 2, 2014. Imes, C.C., Dougherty, C.M., Pyper, G., & Sullivan, M.D. (2011). Descriptive study of partners’ experiences of living with severe heart failure. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Critical Care, 40(3), 208-216. Retrieved from CINAHL database on July 2, 2014. Kravis, K., McAllister-Black, R., Grant, M., & Kirk, C. (2010). Self-care strategies for nurses: A psycho-educational intervention for stress reduction and the prevention of burnout. Applied Nursing Research: ANR, 23(3), 130-138. Retrieved from CINAHL database on July 2, 2014....

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Critical Appraisal #1

...Critical Appraisal #1 of Scott, Hofmeister, Rogness, and Rogers Article The University of Texas at Arlington College of Nursing Shirley McKenzie-Pace In partial fulfillment of the requirements for N5301 Research in Nursing Susan K. Grove, PhD, RN, ANP-BC, GNP-BC July 12, 2014 Critical Appraisal #1 Theoretical Framework The study framework is not clearly identified; however, a tentative theory is proposed since a tentative theory “has had minimal exposure to critique by the discipline, and has had little testing, (Burns and Grove, 2009). The conceptual framework is limited to the model impaired sleep. The linking of the concept impaired sleep to independent variables of the fatigue countermeasures program for nurses (FCMPN). The FCMPN in this study was “modeled after the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center’s Fatigue Countermeasures Program and the Sleep, Alertness, and Fatigue Education in Residency Program” (Scott et al., 2010, p. 253). The major study concepts include: “sleep deprivation (inadequate sleep), sleep disruption (fragmented sleep), lifestyle situation, and health related issues” (p. 251). There is no map or model of the impaired sleep model purposed by Lee et al., 2004 (as cited in Scott et al., 2010) in the article; however, there is a diagram of the conceptual framework for the FCMPN. Variable Identification and Definitions The research variables that Scott et al. (2010) observed and measured were the FCMPN, ......

Words: 2429 - Pages: 10

Motivational Theory in Practice at Tesco

...Motivational theory in practice at Tesco Curriculum Topics • Motivation • Taylor’s theory • Mayo effect • Maslow and Herzberg Introduction Tesco began in 1919 with one man, Jack Cohen, a market stallholder selling groceries in London. TESCO was formed out of a merger with T.E. Stockwell from whom he purchased tea for sale on the stall. The first store opened in 1929. Since then, Tesco has expanded across the world. It now has over 2,200 stores including hypermarkets and Tesco Express outlets to meet different customer needs. As a conglomerate Tesco also offers alternative goods and services such as insurance, banking and online shopping. With net profits of around £3.4 billion Tesco has become the largest British retailer and one of the world’s leading retail outlets on three continents. Tesco’s growth has resulted in a worldwide workforce of over 468,000 employees. To support its growth, Tesco needs staff that are motivated, flexible and well-trained and who recognise customer needs. In turn, Tesco’s employees are supported by the company in their various roles and at different levels - from customer assistants in stores to department managers; from warehouse employees to office and logistics staff. Tesco recognises that employee motivation is important for the continued growth of the company. This case study looks at how Tesco motivates its employees by increasing their knowledge, skills and job satisfaction through training and development and providing relevant......

Words: 2522 - Pages: 11

Pms - Practice Form for Appraisal

...April 2010 along with salary revision details. The revision was done on the basis of attached Appraisal Form. Considering the contents of this letter, please take a critical look at the Appraisal form and suggest changes/additions, if necessary. Dear Colleague, The last quarter of 2009-2010 has witnessed very hectic activity in the organization. You are aware that we have implemented many strategic decisions including change of name from ABC Pvt. Ltd. to XYZ Pvt Ltd. The new identity is of a global professional organization in the area of Energy and Environment Conservation. The company has set challenging targets for itself for the years to come. In the coming year, we have plans to achieve revenue of 200 crores and our manpower strength will grow from 300 to 350 employees. This can be achieved by each one of us achieving our targets through committed and focused efforts. We need to raise our own bars of performance. In line with our goals, we have revised our Vision and Mission statements as mentioned below. Vision “To be among the global leaders in the conservation of Energy and the Environment" Mission "· To help our customers improve their performance by reducing their energy costs and to build a company of energetic, dynamic and exceptionally focused professionals.” There are a number of HR initiatives that we took up to ensure that the HR practices followed by us are in line with the global organizations and best in class for our type of......

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Critical Appraisal

...Critical Appraisal 1Faith Rodriguez BSN-RNNURS5326: Research for Advanced Nursing PracticeSeptember 21, 2015Dr. Jana Saunders | Name and describe the theory that is used in your assigned primary research article. (1 paragraph) | The theory of self-regulation is the theoretical base and method in the research study to examine the use of emotion regulation and goal-directed behavior in an attempt to improve sleep behaviors. Self-regulation is the process in which a person has perceived illness cognition, a patient’s own implicit common sense beliefs about their illness. There are five cognitive dimensions of these beliefs: identity; perceived cause of illness; time line; consequences; curability and controllability (Fowler, Kirschner, Kuiken, & Baas., 2007, p. 223). This process occurs over three stages of interpretation, coping, and appraisal (Fowler et al., 2007). In the research study, “Using Mental Imagery to Deliver Self-Regulation Techniques to Improve Sleep Behaviors,” the efficacy of behavioral interventions were geared toward improving the sleep behavior for working adults with the use of mental imagery undertakings that were designed with the theory of self-regulation principles. More specifically, the main attitude is where the patient focuses their thoughts, emotions, and behavior in order to achieve their desired outcome, a sort of homeostasis, if you will. The use of imagery and implementation intention imagery are used in order to......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Critical Appraisal

...t Critical Appraisal # 1 Theoretical Framework a. The study framework was clearly identified as Bandura‟s (1986) Self-Efficacy Theory, which is a substantive theory (Burns & Grove, 2009). b. The discussion of the framework is limited with the linking of the concept of self-efficacy to the independent variable of the nurse-coached IMT. No model of the framework is provided. The major study concepts include: situational demands, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, enactive attainment, performance accomplishment, and enhanced self-efficacy. Variable Identification and Definitions Independent variable: Home-based nurse coached IMT Intervention Conceptual definition: “Bandura‟s Self-Efficacy Theory guided the intervention for the experimental group (IMT)… Vicarious experiences for the IMT group were accomplished by observing the demonstration of the tack of using the Threshold Device, thus „modeling‟ the instruction and demonstration provided by the RA. Performance accomplishment was achieved by „mastering‟ the technique of inspiring into the device with a nose clip in place… thus providing tangible evidence of progress” (Padula et al., 2009, p. 21). Operational definition: “The Threshold Device (Healthscan) was used for resistive IMT breathing training… Training consisted of demonstration by the RAs, with return demonstration at baseline followed by a week of device use…” The study intervention was detailed in Padula et al. (2009, p. 20) CRITICAL APPRAISAL......

Words: 506 - Pages: 3

Sedation Practice in Critical Care

...Susan Parkinson HEA3004 SEDATION PRACTICE IN CRITICAL CARE The Department of Health (DoH), 2011 published statistics derived from a bi-annual census of adult critical care beds in The United Kingdom. The results show that on the census day 2,075 intensive care beds were occupied by level 3 patients, defined by The Comprehensive Critical Care document (DoH, 2000) as ‘patients who need advance/basic respiratory support and other organ support and complex care for multi organ failure’. Due to the complexity of patient’s illnesses at this level in a critical care setting (DoH, 2000) most patients who require sedation, defined as a ‘drug –induced depression of the level of consciousness.’ (The British Society of Gastroenterology, 2003), are often ventilated via an endotracheal tube, to promote effective ventilation and tube tolerance, (Rowe and Fletcher 2008), and to relieve anxiety, pain and to promote comfort and sleep’ (Punn and Dunn, 2007). It is widely acknowledged that the practice of sedation within this area can be complex and difficult and there are many different elements to be considered, (Woodrow, 2006). During the care management of critically ill patient’s sedative and opioid medications are often a typical part of care, (Jacobi et al., 2002) This is mainly to improve comfort and to assist mechanical ventilation, but also to minimise physical and psychological stress, (Woodrow, 2006), however Bray et al., 2004, argues that ‘sedative drugs can be seen as a......

Words: 1617 - Pages: 7